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09-The Rebellions, 1837-1838

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Week 9 of Canada in the World

Week 9 of Canada in the World

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09-The Rebellions, 1837-1838 09-The Rebellions, 1837-1838 Presentation Transcript

  • 09-The Rebellions, 1837-38 HIST 124: Canada in the World 9 Novembre 2010
  • Defining « Rebellions » • What is a rebellion? • A revolution that fails
  • Constitutional Act, 1791 • No one really gets what they wanted
  • ConstitutionalAct 17911791 Constitutional Act, Governor General Lieutenant Executive Lieutenant Governor Council Governor Upper Canada 1792 Lower Canada Legislative Legislative Council Council (appointed (appointed by Governor by Governor General) General) Legislative Legislative Assembly Assembly Elected Elected Judicial Systems virtual handout Upper Canada Lower Canada
  • Lower Canada, 1790s-1830s • Colonial policy - Democracy is dangerous - Democracy is nothing more than mob rule - Democracy leads to revolution and chaos
  • Lower Canada, 1790s-1830s • Colonial policy: •British •Profoundly different, superior to Canadiens •Racial terms
  • Lower Canada, 1790s-1830s • Metropolitan belief •Canadiens •Illiterate, backward, cannot govern themselves
  • Two visions on government • Legislative Assembly vs. • Governor General, Colonial Office
  • Two visions on government • Governor General, colonial authorities: • Power should be in hands of the few « capable » and « qualified » to govern
  • Two visions on government • In reality • Power to few individuals linked to each other though marriage and business ventures
  • Real Power • Château Clique • Bureaucratic Party, a.k.a British Party or Tory Party • Family Compact • "Rabid Toryism", dixit Charles Dickens
  • Clique/Compact • Exclusive closed oligarchy of landowners, administrators, churchmen and businessmen who virtually monopolized public office and controlled the economy
  • Opposition • Middle and bourgeois classes, Upper/Lower Canadas • Lower Canadian Habitants
  • Opposing ideologies • Republicanism • Liberalism Vs. • Toryism • Conservatism
  • Republicanism/Liberalism • Republicanism: Political ideology supporting a state in which supreme power is held by the people or their elected representatives (≠ monarchy) • Liberalism: Political ideology favouring individual liberty, free trade, political and social reform
  • Toryism/Conservatism • Toryism: Political ideology supporting the established religious (Anglican) and political (colonial/Empirial) order, loyalty to the Crown • Conservatism: Political ideology supporting free enterprise and private ownership
  • Context, 1830s • Dissatisfaction with government, economy • Industrialization, urbanization, epidemics • Population growth
  • Radicalization all around • Descent into radicalism • Worse in Lower Canada • Political violence; political prisoners
  • Rebellions, 1837 • Extremists on all sides • Rebels crushed
  • Repression • Upper Canada: emprisonment, government suspended • Lower Canada: emprisonment, villages/fields burnt, dispossession, government abolished
  • By 1838 • No more Rebellion in Upper Canada • Lord Durham sent to investigate rebellions • Becomes Governor of both Canadas
  • Rebellion, 1838 • Lower Canada • Smaller battles, larger repression
  • J J J J J
  • Immediate consequences • Rebellions crushed • Reform-minded influence loses legitimacy – Reforms from Tories
  • Immediate Consequences • Durham sent to investigate: Durham Report (1839) • Special Council in Lower Canada • Union of the Canadas, 1840
  • Union Act 1840 Governor General Legislative Executive Council Council Power Legislative Assembly Elected 42 MPs for Canada East 42 MPs for Canada West
  • 42 MPs for Canada West Judicial System Canada West: Canada East: British Common British Common Law and Criminal French Civil Law Laws Dual System