Integrating the language_ skillsPresentation Transcript
Group four: Carolina Miguel Lima Larah Cristina Lage Santana Larissa Acherman Ambrosio
Discrete skill, isolated skill, segregated skill, single skill -> emphasis on one skill at a time in the language classroom.
Skill-oriented -> classroom highlighting a given skill intentionally oriented toward the development of only that skill.
Language-based -> each language skill is treated separately.
Integrated skill or skill integration -> the linking of the main language skills for the purpose of real communication.
Mastery on listening comprehension, phonics, speaking, or punctuation is often seen as the key to successful learning.
Highlighting of just one skill at a time.
Total Skill Segregation
Isolation of the skills leads to communication deadlock.
Motivation, interest and class motivation plummet when language is taught in this fragmented way.
“ A person who can read adequately but cannot speak well has a serious handicap in our academic system; some degree of ability in all skill is a virtual necessity.”
Partial Skill Segregation
Skills other than the targeted one creep in. The languages skills appear at first glance to be isolated in instruction but are actually not separated completely.
“ Intermediate reading” class in which the teacher gives directions orally.
The focus remains always on reading.
“ Teachers and students miss the vitality and depth of the subject when insufficient weight is given to all the relevant skills and when the skills are not consciously coordinated.”
In integrated-skill instruction, learners are exposed to authentic language and are involved in activities that are interesting and meaningful.
Learners rapidly gain a true picture of the richness and complexity of the language as used for communication
The language becomes not just an object of academic interest but a real means of interaction among people
Teachers are given the power and the opportunity to track students’ progress in multiple skill at the same time
Skill integration allows mutually supportive growth in all the main skills and the subsidiary skills
In an integrated-skill format, language instruction promotes the learning of real contentm rather than the dissection of language forms
The learning of authentic content through language is highly motivating to students of all ages and backgrounds
The significant role of background knowledge becomes evident when language skills are integrated communicatively
It’s considered to be one of the most important modes of skill integration.
Students practice in a highly integrated way all the language skills while participating in activities or tasks that focus on important content in areas such as science, mathematics and social studies
“ Any educational approach that considers language learning alone and ignores the learning of subject mater is inadequate to the needs of these learners... What is needed is an integrative approach which relates language learning and content learning, considers language as a medium of learning, and acknowledges the role of context communication.” MOHAN (1986).
To help students develop communicative competence
To introduce concepts and terminology relevant to a given subject area
To reinforce content-area information learned elsewhere
To teach specific learning strategis for writing, reading, or general study via the means of interesting content
Theme-Based: in which the language skills are fully integrated in the study of a theme. Works effectively because the themes are chosen for their relevance, importance, and interest to the students, a key factor for their motivation
Adjunct: in which language and content courses are linked through instructor and curriculum coordination. Two separate courses are conducted , but they are carefully linked.
Sheltered: in which learners are taught the subject matter and the language course work in English is modified to the students’ level of proficiency.
It involves communicative tasks in the target language.
Activities that require comprehending, producing, manipulating, or interacting in authentic language .
Attention is oriented to meaning rather than form.
Pair work and group work are often used.
Tasks become increasingly complex and multifaceted at higher levels of skill development when students are more able to handle such transactions.
In both first and second language development, learners naturally integrate the language skills for communicative purposes.
Even in ostensibly segregated-skill courses in second languages, in many instances skills are actually integrated.
Practice in one skill supports the development of other skills but does not provide a total substitute for practice in those other skills.
Content-based and task-based language instruction appear to be powerful modes for uniting the language skills while at the same time conveying knowledge and experience with communicative tasks.
ESL students have specific academic needs that relate to language learning, and those needs require the integration of multiple language skills in principled ways.
Language skills can and should be integrated in ESL classes for the purpose of providing extensive practice in real-life communication.
Titles of ESL courses should reflect the integration of skills that actually takes place when communication occurs.
In ESL programs at the post-secondary and adult levels, the best combination for integrating language skills is the theme-based and task-based instruction.
Students need to encounter integrated-skill, authentic language about many themes that engage their interest and heighten their motivation. They must encounter these in the form of real-life language tasks.