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Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
Digital Curation In Context
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Digital Curation In Context

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Presentation given on October 10, 2012 at the School of Information Management, Faculty of Management at Dalhousie University. …

Presentation given on October 10, 2012 at the School of Information Management, Faculty of Management at Dalhousie University.

Abstract: Ensuring persistent access to digital content is a challenge confronting contemporary institutions of all types and sizes, regardless of professional, disciplinary or organizational context. Introduced in 2002, the term digital curation describes an array of principles, strategies and technical approaches for enabling the use and re-use of reliable and trusted digital content into the indefinite future. Trusted digital repositories have emerged as one strategy in response to today's digital curatorial challenges. Successful digital repository development and deployment necessitates coordination and collaboration among an array of actors, resources, and diverse, potentially divergent requirements. The literature contains an assortment of digital repository planning and best practice recommendations and resources, though reports on actual, as opposed to perceived or potential, roadblocks and obstacles are less reported. Drawing from a first-hand account of an extensive, multi-year digital curation and repository project at a major research university, this presentation provides an overview of what was done, including what worked and what didn’t, and resulting recommendations for advancing digital repository planning, implementation, and research.

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  • 1. DIGITALCURATIONIN CONTEXT CAROLYN.HANK@MCGILL.CA Assistant Professor ▪ School of Information Studies DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY ▪ 10 OCTOBER 2012 ▪ HALIFAX, NS
  • 2. historypersonal a little about me
  • 3. 2004-2005OCLCOCLC RESEARCH - SENSE-MAKING THE INFORMATION CONFLUENCE - MOVING FROM PRINT TO HYBRID JOURNAL SUBSCRIPTIONS2005-present - DIGITAL CURATION/INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORYUNC - CAROLINA DIGITAL REPOSITORY - DIGCCURR I (DIGITAL CURATION CURRICULUM) - DIGCCURR II (PROFESSIONAL TRAINING)AT CHAPEL HILL - HUMAN INFORMATION INTERACTION - DIGITAL PRESERVATION, ACCESS & CURATION2010-present - PI: (1) FACEBOOK & (2) BLOGSMCGILL - CONSULTANT, BLOGFOREVER.EU - ARCHIVAL STUDIES STREAM - TEACHINGSCHOOL OF INFORMATION STUDIES - RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD II
  • 4. WHAT ISDIGITALCURATION disambiguation
  • 5. Image Credit: Tim Gough, New York Times, October 2, 2009 (All Rights Reserved).Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/04/fashion/04curate.html
  • 6. CURATE IS NOT ALONE“ … the word archive has lost much of its traditionalmeaning and associations … archivists have literallylost control over the definition of archive.” (Hedstrom,1991, p. 336)“…despite the recent appropriation of „archive‟ as averb to mean „store‟ or „to preserve,‟ the traditionalmeaning of archives as a noun is narrower.” (CLIR,2001, p. 85)“Traditionally, preservation and archiving have hadtwo distinct definitions with preservation being anecessary component of, but not equivalent to, thetotality of archiving.” (Tibbo, 2003, p. 11)
  • 7. DIGITAL CURATION DIGITALPRESERVATION Also, be aware of digital stewardship,digital archiving, and data curation too …
  • 8. OUTCOMES AND GOALSYOU CANNOT “PRESERVE” IT IF YOU CANNOT … 1 GET IT 2 DESCRIBE IT 3 INTERPRET IT 4 SECURE IT 6 AUTHENTICATE IT 7 ACCESS IT 9 PERFORM IT
  • 9. DEFINITIONSDIGITAL PRESERVATION (ALA) - Short/Medium SHORT: “Digital preservation combines policies, strategies and actions that ensure access to digital content over time.” MEDIUM: “… reformatted and born digital content regardless of the challenges of media failure and technological change. The goal of digital preservation is the accurate rendering of authenticated content over time.” LONG: Really long … breaks down digital preservation strategies and actions into three main areas: 1) content creation, 2) content integrity and content maintenance. SOURCE: http://www.ala.org/ala/alcts/newslinks/digipres/index.cfm
  • 10. DEFINITIONS DIGITAL CURATION (DCC)Digital curation, broadly interpreted, is aboutmaintaining and adding value to a trusted body ofdigital information for current and future use.The active management and preservation of digitalresources over the life-cycle of scholarly and scientificinterest, and over time for current and futuregenerations of users. “What Is Digital Curation?”http://www.dcc.ac.uk/about/what/
  • 11. WHY THESE MATTER A SAMPLE OF SELECT ISSUES– Creating durable digital objects– Appraisal and selection– Hardware and software obsolescence– File formats– Rights management and other legal and ethical issues– Metadata (minimum/optimal/practical)– Quality control and “trustworthiness”– Commitment to the long-term– Resource allocation, costing, and staffing– Funding for development and sustainability
  • 12. WHY THESE MATTERSOURCE: http://www.happyplace.com/10720/utterly-insane-job-opportunities-on-craigslist/page/1
  • 13. WHY THESE MATTER… because it might besomething you are expectedto do in your professional life(and that you might want todo, in your personal lives).
  • 14. WHY THESE MATTERsample of job titles doing “digital curation” • Applications Programmer • Archivist A • • • Archival Engineer Archivist/Reference Librarian Assistant Archivist • Cataloger C • Content Management Analyst SOURCE: Tibbo, Hank & Lee (2008)
  • 15. SAMPLE TITLES • Digital Archivist (2) • Digital Collections Research Asst. • Digital Imaging Librarian • Digital Library Program AssistantD • Digital Preservation Researcher • Digital Preservation Specialist (2) • Digital Preservation System Admin. • Digital Projects Librarian • Digital Services Librarian • Digital Technologies Manager • Digitization Assistant
  • 16. SAMPLE TITLES • Research Programmer (2) R • Research Data Specialist • Electronic Records Manager • Head of Preservation • Information Technology SpecialistETC. • • Multimedia and Metadata Librarian Project Archivist for Special Collections • Senior Advisor, Electronic Records • Technical Manager (2)
  • 17. repository digital digital curation in context
  • 18. MEMEME Disclaimer
  • 19. JUST PUBLISHEDO’Meara, E., & Tuomala, M. (2012). Finding balance between archival principles and real-life practices in an institutional repository. Archivaria, Spring 2012(73).
  • 20. THEIR PERSPECTIVE2009 Author’s experience with project began2010 Carolina Digital Repository - “soft launch”2011 Curator’s Workbench debuts2012 Archivaria article
  • 21. MY PERSPECTIVE AND SOME REPOSITORY HISTORY2003 Systems & Service Coordination Council Report Minds of Carolina (Tibbo and Jones)2004 Digital Assets Assessment Team Report2005 Scholarly Communications in a Digital World Digital Curation/Institutional Repository Committee (DC/IRC) formed2007 Carolina Digital Library and Archives formed2009 My experience with project ended Author’s experience with project began2010 Carolina Digital Repository - “soft launch”2011 Curator’s Workbench debuts2012 Archivaria article
  • 22. charge to the DC/ICR
  • 23. Develop a feasible planto serve Carolinascuration needs andplace us in the forefrontof such efforts locally,nationally, andinternationally. charge
  • 24. Design a pilot IR anddigital preservationprogram in partnershipwith ITS, the UniversityLibrary, and SILS that willsupport ongoingresearch. charge
  • 25. Develop policies,procedures, and long-term digital preservationstrategies to benefit theentire campus, includingstrategies to educatethe campus community. charge
  • 26. WHY? No centralized or federated system for identifying, acquiring, describing and storing the digital assets produced and/or maintainedby the Carolina community …
  • 27. … the University‟s uniquescholarship is at risk of being “lost,” at one end of a continuum, to simply undiscoverable at the other.
  • 28. Since the University invests in the manufacture of these intellectual and institutional digital assets …
  • 29. … then it would only follow that the University investin strategies and mechanisms to ensure these unique, rich digital assets are safe, durable, and useable, into the future.
  • 30. anatomyof an IRplanningproject
  • 31. anatomyof an IRplanningproject 1965
  • 32. anatomyof an IR FUNDS REQUIREDplanning ENGAGEMENTproject STAFFING POLICY CRAMP SYSTEMS CONTENT MANAGEMENT 2005- SERVICES & FEATURES 2009
  • 33. LYNCH ON IRs• … a university-based IR is a set of services that a university offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members.• … most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution. Source: Lynch (2002)
  • 34. LYNCH ON IRs (cont.)• While operational responsibility for these services may reasonably be situated in different organizational units at different universities, an effective IR of necessity represents a collaboration among librarians, information technologists, archives and records managers, faculty, and university administrators and policymakers. Source: Lynch (2002)
  • 35. LYNCH ON IRs (cont.)• At any given point in time, an IR will be supported by a set of information technologies, but a key part of the services that comprise an IR is the management of technological changes, and the migration of digital content from one set of technologies to the next as part of the organizational commitment to providing repository services.• An IR is not simply a fixed set of software and hardware. Source: Lynch (2002)
  • 36. DC/IRC OPERATIONS DC/IRC OPERATIONS• Initially a two-year term (2005-2007)• September 16, 2005: 1st DC/IRC meeting • 23 meetings in total over 2 year initial appointment• Extended to 3-year term (thru 2008) • Advisory role with introduction of CDLA
  • 37. DC/IRC MEMBERSHIP• University Library, inc.: • Information Technology – Library Systems Services (ITS) – University Archives • The Odum Institute – DocSouth • Ibiblio.org• Health Sciences • UNC Press Library • Kenan-Flagler School of• School of Information Business and Library Science • Department of Romance (SILS) Languages• Renaissance • Department of Computing Institute Anthropology (RENCI) • Department of Art 13 to 27 members
  • 38. WORKING GROUPSWORKING GROUPSINITIALLY INFORMED BY: 1) RLG/NARA (2005): Taskforce on Digital Repository Certification, Audit Checklist for Certifying Digital Repositories: Draft for Public Comment.THEN RESTRUCTURED IN CONSIDERATION OF: 2) DRAMBORA (2007): Digital Repository Audit Method Based on Risk Assessment. 3) OCLC, CRL, and NARA (2007): Trusted Repositories Audit and Certification: Criteria and Checklist. 5+1 restructured to 4
  • 39. WORKING GROUPS1) Governance and Policy (GP)2) Guidance, Engagement and Training (GET)3) Communities and Digital Assets Management (CDAM)4) Technical Planning Infrastructure Group (TPIG)
  • 40. KEY KEY ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES 1 state of the art literature review on IR deployment 2 months planning TRLN IR Forum 3 expert speaker talks hosted 4 working groups formed 6 semi-structured needs assessment interviews completed 7 IR policies drafted and vetted 9 months installing/configuring/testing IR beta 10 presentations at local/national conferences 11 repository applications reviewed 18 deposit and use case scenarios drafted and vetted 23 meetings held (2005-2007) 66 page IR ingest survey devised and tested
  • 41. CONTINUED FOCUS ON … management policies services collaboration content engagement technologies
  • 42. SPECIFICALLY …1) Dedicated staffing, particularly programming2) Open, flexible and extensible technologies3) Informed, timely engagement4) Structured, strategic content recruitment5) Partnership, collaboration and relationship building6) Top-down and grassroots promotion
  • 43. staffing? but first, what about doing …
  • 44. SO, WHO (OR WHAT) IS A DIGITAL CURATOR
  • 45. “Traditionally, curators are responsible foracquiring material for a collection, preservingthese materials for future generations, helpingusers locate items from the collection andproviding contextual information so they canbetter understand them, and designingexhibits for the benefit and enjoyment of thepublic.” “What is a Digital Curator?” Doug Reside, Digital Curator of Performing Arts, Library for the Performing Arts April 4, 2011. http://www.nypl.org/blog/2011/04/04/what-digital-curator
  • 46. “As digital curator, I will do most of these things as well, butI have specifically made it my mission to:1) make as much of our collection available online ascopyright law, professional ethics, and our budget permits2) provide both contextual information and software toolsto make our digital collections as useful as possible3) improve methods for preserving and providing access tothe "born digital" materials (word processor files, digitalmusical scores, 3d set designs, etc.) that are now part of thecreative history of most contemporary works of art” “What is a Digital Curator?” Doug Reside, Digital Curator of Performing Arts, Library for the Performing Arts April 4, 2011. http://www.nypl.org/blog/2011/04/04/what-digital-curator
  • 47. NOT A COMMON TITLE 206 LISTINGS (2006-12) JOBPOSTINGS RESEARCH DATA & DIGITAL CURATION OFFICER DSpace@CambridgeANALYSIS CURATION SERVICES OFFICER Digital curation Centre, U of Edinburgh SOURCE: SHERPA
  • 48. PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES To do digital curation is to …• Develop and implement policies• Analyze digital content to determine what services can be provided from it• Provide advice to producers and consumers• Support ingest of deposits to a repository• Enable use and reuse• Enable discovery and retrieval• Develop and implement preservation planning• Promote interoperability SOURCE: Harvey (2010)
  • 49. DC FUNCTIONS & SKILLS• 24 high-level functional categories across six activity areas: – Technical infrastructure – Information resource treatment – Metadata treatment – Human interaction – Strategies, prioritization, and judgments – Administration Source: Lee (2009). Matrix of Digital Curation Knowledge and Competencies
  • 50. A DEPT. OF ONE?staffing institutional repositories WHAT ABOUT 7.2 IF LESS THAN 1 FTE? STAFF Markey et al. (2007) Matthies (2011)
  • 51. DC/IRC STAFFING PLAN TREATMENT OF TECHNICAL TREATMENT OF INFORMATIONINFRASTRUCTURE METADATA RESOURCES TECHNOLOGIST I TECHNOLOGIST II (System Administrator & (Metadata Technologist & PROJECT Principle Programmer) User Support Specialist) MANAGER STRATEGIES, HUMAN ADMINISTRATIVE PRIORITIES & INTERACTIONS ACTIVITIES JUDGMENTS
  • 52. HOWDO WEENGAGE OURSTAKEHOLDERSCONTENT PRODUCERS, CO-PRODUCERS & MANAGERS,CONSUMERS & DESIGNATED COMMUNITIES,FUNDERS AND ADMINISTRATORS …AND OURSELVES?
  • 53. DIGITAL MAD LIBS REPOSITORIESA digital repository can be many things to many people,depending on 1) _____________; 2) ____________; and (PERSON) (DIGITAL ASSET)3) __________. A digital repository is ________ ____________. (PLACE) (ADVERB) (ADJECTIVE)It does ___________; ___________; and ___________. (VERB) (VERB) (VERB)A digital repository contains __________ and __________. (NOUN) (NOUN)
  • 54. Image Credit: Vin Hank, age 7.
  • 55. Image Credit: Patrick Donovan (15 Apr 2010) http://www.flickr.com/photos/21843970@N00/4529711937/
  • 56. sell digitalcuration in30 seconds or less Image Credit: James Malone (29 May 2009) http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesmalone/3579227077/
  • 57. just a plug … CURATE: The Digital Curator Game SOURCE: http://www.digcur-education.org/eng/Resources/CURATE-Game
  • 58. SOURCES SOURCESCouncil on Library and Information Resources. (2001). The evidence in hand: Report ofthe Task Force on the Artifact in Library Collections. (CLIR Publication No. 103).Washington, DC: Author. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub103/contents.htmlCenter for Research Libraries and OCLC Online Computer Library Center. (2007).Trustworthy Repositories Audit & Certification: Criteria and Checklist, V. 1.0.http://www.crl.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/pages/trac_0.pdfCaplan, P. (2008). The preservation of digital materials." Library Technology Reports, 44(2).https://publications.techsource.ala.org/products/archive.pl?article=2614Digital Curation Centre and DigitalPreservationEurope. (2007). Digital Repository AuditMethod Based on Risk Assessment, V. 1.0. http://www.repositoryaudit.eu/Hank, C. (2008). A Progress and recommendations report from the DigitalCuration/Institutional Repository Committee, 2005-07: Informing a successful institutionalrepository deployment at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (195 pp.). ChapelHill, NC: University Libraries.Harvey, R. (2010). Digital curation: A how-to-do-it manual (#170). New York: Neal-Schuman.Hedstrom, M. (1991). Understanding electronic incunabula: A framework forresearch on electronic records. American Archivist, 54(3), 334-354.Lee, C.A. (2009, June 17). Matrix of digital curation knowledge and competencies(overview), version 13. http://www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr/digccurr-matrix.html
  • 59. SOURCES SOURCESLynch, C. (2002) Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in theDigital Age. ARL Bimonthly Report 226. http://www.arl.org/resources/pubs/br/br226//br226ir.shtmlMarkey, K., Rieh, S.Y., St. Jean, B., Kim, J., & and Yakel, E. (2007). “Chapter Two: TheInstitutions and the People Involved with IRs.” In Census of institutional repositories in theUnited States: MIRACLE project research findings. Washington DC: CLIR.Matthies, B. (2011). "Staffing the Repository: How to Build Your Team and Use it Effectively"Research on Institutional Repositories: Articles and Presentations. Paper 26.http://digitalcommons.bepress.com/repository-research/26OCLC. (2003 ).Environmental Scan: A Report to the OCLC Membership.http://www.oclc.org/reports/escan/appendices/collectiongrid.htmSHERPA (UK): SHERPA maintains listings of jobs in areas related to digital curation, includingdigital repositories, scholarly communication and open access. For previously advertisedposts, see: http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/jobs/old-jobs.htm; for “current posts, seehttp://www.sherpa.ac.uk/jobs/index.html.Tibbo, H.R. (2003). On the nature and importance of archiving in the digital age. In M.Zelkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Computers: Information Repositories, 57 (pp. 1-67). San Diego,CA: Elsevier.Tibbo, H.R., Hank, C., & Lee, C.A. (2008). Challenges, curricula, and competencies:Researcher and practitioner perspectives for informing the development of a digitalcuration curriculum. In Archiving 2008: Final Program and Proceedings (pp. 234-238).Springfield, VA: Society for Imaging Science and Technology.
  • 60. THANK YOUCAROLYN HANKEmail: carolyn.hank@mcgill.caPhone: (001)514.398.4684Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/carolynhank/Slideshow:ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …DIGITAL CURATION PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTE, aninitiative of (www.ils.unc.edu/digccurr/)Also, check out Curator’s Workbench @https://github.com/UNC-Libraries/Curators-Workbench QUESTIONS?

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