PodCampCleveland 2011<br />April 30, 2011<br />Users, Usability & User Experience<br />
Carol Smith<br />Midwest Research, LLC<br />MS in Human-Computer Interaction<br />Education<br />
What You’ll Learn<br />Basics of Usability and User Experience.<br />Quick and cheap methods you can start now. <br />
Designing for Everyone is Impossible<br />
Who will use your product?What do they need to do?<br />Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner's Guide to User Rese...
Need to Understand User’s Experience<br />
User’s Experience<br />Interaction with a product, service, or company<br />Functional <br />Emotional<br />Sensorial<br /...
Functional<br />Able to complete task<br />Find information<br />Submit form<br />Contact someone<br />Purchase item<br />
Sensorial<br />Visual<br />Layout<br />Colors<br />Images<br />Auditory<br />Video<br />Music<br />Ads<br />
Emotional<br />Bring their life with them<br />Interface <br />Conveys ideas and emotions<br />Sets the tone<br />
Social<br />Interactions with other people<br />Social networking<br />Help features<br />Chat<br />
Where They Overlap...<br />➘<br />Experience<br />X<br />Functional <br />Emotional<br />Sensorial<br />Social<br />
Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience<br />
Functional Aspects<br />Effective<br />Efficient<br />Learnable<br />
Key Attributes<br />Usefulness<br />User feel in control<br />Supports, supplements and enhances skills and expertise<br />
Minimize Human Cost<br />Tiredness<br />Discomfort<br />Embarrassment<br />Frustration<br />Effort<br />
Benefits of Good User Experience<br />Increased Usefulness<br />Increased Efficiency ($$$) <br />Improved Productivity<br />
Benefits (continued)<br />Fewer Errors<br />Reduced Training Time<br />Improved Acceptance<br />Happy Users!<br />
Where do I start?<br />
Who are your users?<br />
Same Job Title, May Differ in…<br />
Which Student?<br />Rick<br />Connie<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-...
Scope for Success<br />Takes time, energy, budget and more to:<br />Research and discover<br />Document<br />Analyze<br />...
Focus Your Efforts Until…<br />Get to 80%<br />
We Are 80% Sure We Know…<br />Primary user tasks.<br />User’s goals.<br />Prioritize as needed with:<br />Vision<br />Busi...
Small,Iterative Steps<br />
Interview the Experts<br />Customer Service<br />Marketing (Web statistics)<br />Training <br />Sales/Business development...
Who Are the Users?<br />How many are there?<br />Common complaints?<br />Show stoppers?<br />Understand:<br />Assumptions ...
Tasks<br />Frequency of tasks <br />Importance<br />Complexity of task<br />
About Them<br />Environment<br />Experience Level, Knowledge <br />Technology<br />Define Primary & Secondary Users<br />
Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]<br />
Share What You Learn<br />
Personas<br />Help guide decisions about:<br />Navigation<br />Features<br />Design<br />Archetype,  based on research.<br />
Task Analysis<br />
Actionable Gap Analysis<br />Change Situation<br />
Are We Confident?<br />
Confirm Assumptions<br />Representative users who DO the tasks.<br />Visionaries, leaders, perhaps.<br />
Observations<br />
Interviews<br />
42<br />Card Sorting<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/   via   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-s...
Observations<br />
Go to the user<br />44<br />
Why Observe?<br />Great way to understand your user’s situation<br />Find “cheat sheets” and other artifacts.<br />Learn r...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />Actual Photo:  http://ww...
Sit Back and Watch<br />Arrive when they will be doing related tasks.<br />Observe for as long as needed:<br />1/2 hour ea...
Take Detailed Notes<br />Write down questions and when they occurred.<br />Look for patterns and differences:<br />Style o...
Clarify Observations<br />After observation ask about:<br />Why they do task?<br />What is their goal?<br />How typical wa...
Interviews<br />
Interview to Discover/Confirm…<br />Build on what you’ve learned:<br />Tasks<br />Attitudes and Opinions<br />Problems<br ...
Styles<br />Structured<br />Question 1<br />Question 2<br />Question 3<br />Open-ended<br />Combination<br />
Use Scripts<br />Memory tool for facilitator<br />Don’t have to follow<br />Promote consistency<br />Questions<br />Order ...
Questions<br />Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:<br />Open-ended<br />Unbiased<br />Don’t lead or mak...
Facilitation<br />Remain passive (body, face) <br />Don’t confirm or reject answers<br />Listen for vocalizations <br />Wa...
Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!<br />56<br />
Card Sorting<br />
Card Sorting<br />Maximize probability of users finding content<br />Explore how people are likely to group items<br />Ide...
Benefits of Card Sorting<br />Easy and inexpensive<br />Use to determine:<br />Order of information<br />Relationships bet...
One title/subject on each card<br />Short for quick reading<br />Detailed enough to understand<br />Supplement - short des...
Participants<br />Representative of users<br />Minimum of 6 <br />More participants = more data to analyze<br />Allow one ...
Facilitation/Direction<br />Shuffle cards<br />Ask to: <br />Group items in own way<br />Talk out loud<br />Think about:<b...
Grouping Cards<br />Ask to<br />Describe groups and name them<br />Describe overall rationale for grouping cards<br />Show...
Online Tools<br />Moderated<br />Un-moderated<br />Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/<br />D...
How Do I Find Participants?<br />
Create a Screener<br />Guide that helps determine who will participate.<br />Ask people to describe, then get details:<br ...
Hire a Recruiter<br />Allows you to focus on activity.<br />Can tell if person will be a good participant.<br />May alread...
If You Must Do it Yourself...<br />Go where users go and intercept<br />Online user groups<br />Professional organizations...
Number of Users to Test<br />As many as possible (rarely statistically significant)<br />Usability Testing Research (in 19...
70<br />
Welcome & Prepare<br />Participation will help team and is appreciated.<br />Purpose of research.<br />Expectations of the...
We’re Looking for Patterns<br />Identify repetition<br />After pattern is found, continuation of study <br />Adds cost <br...
Update Communications<br />
Do UX Early & Often<br />74<br />
Go to Your Users<br />Find out:<br />Goals<br />Tasks<br />Share the information with your team<br />
Recommended Readings<br />
References<br />Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. <br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is C...
Thank You!<br />Carol Smith<br />Midwest Research, LLC<br />http://www.mw-research.com <br />Twitter: @carologic<br />Cell...
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Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011

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Presented at PodCamp Cleveland at the Cuyahoga Valley Career Center in Brecksville, Ohio on April 29, 2011 by Carol Smith of Midwest Research, LLC.

The gap between a good design and a great one can be bridged by understanding your users.

In this presentation find out the basics of usability and user experience.

Learn cheap and easy techniques to find out more about your users and improve your audience's experience.

Effective visuals will be introduced that can help you remember and share what you learn.

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  • A measure of the degree to which a product can be used by specified users or groups to achieve specific goals of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use- U BoK
  • ExperienceNoviceAdvanced beginnersCompetent performerExpert performerFrequency of usePriority of tasksCharacteristics – personal, physical, culturalMotivations and attitudeExpectationsPersonal Characteristics: Learning Style, ChangePhysical Characteristics: Disabilities, Color Blindness, VisionCultural Characteristics: Corporate, CulturalMotivations and Attitude: Threats, Naiveté, Hostile, LazyStage of use: NoviceFear of the unknown, fear of failureFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksTheoretical understanding only – no experienceAdvanced BeginnersFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksRandomly access tasksEmpirical based mental modelCompetent PerformersFocus on performing more complex tasksAbility to plan and perform complex series of tasks to achieve a goalWillingness to learn new technologies and tasksInterested in applying conceptual frameworks to solve problemsExpert PerformersFocus on developing mental models of system functionalityAbility to understand complex problems and find solutionsInterested in learning about concepts and theories behind a system’s design and useInterest in interacting with other expert users
  • Model and describe specific user group’s:GoalsNeedsCharacteristicsArchetype - not real individual or average userSynthesized from research – interviews, observations, etc.Include personal details found during researchOne primary, some secondary per site/feature
  • Interviews (many styles)ObservationsSurveysLiterature reviewsMarket research documents
  • frequency, importance, complexityPrioritiesCurrent process
  • Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011

    1. 1. PodCampCleveland 2011<br />April 30, 2011<br />Users, Usability & User Experience<br />
    2. 2. Carol Smith<br />Midwest Research, LLC<br />MS in Human-Computer Interaction<br />Education<br />
    3. 3. What You’ll Learn<br />Basics of Usability and User Experience.<br />Quick and cheap methods you can start now. <br />
    4. 4. Designing for Everyone is Impossible<br />
    5. 5. Who will use your product?What do they need to do?<br />Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner's Guide to User Research by Mike Kuniavsky<br />
    6. 6. Need to Understand User’s Experience<br />
    7. 7. User’s Experience<br />Interaction with a product, service, or company<br />Functional <br />Emotional<br />Sensorial<br />Social<br />
    8. 8. Functional<br />Able to complete task<br />Find information<br />Submit form<br />Contact someone<br />Purchase item<br />
    9. 9. Sensorial<br />Visual<br />Layout<br />Colors<br />Images<br />Auditory<br />Video<br />Music<br />Ads<br />
    10. 10. Emotional<br />Bring their life with them<br />Interface <br />Conveys ideas and emotions<br />Sets the tone<br />
    11. 11. Social<br />Interactions with other people<br />Social networking<br />Help features<br />Chat<br />
    12. 12. Where They Overlap...<br />➘<br />Experience<br />X<br />Functional <br />Emotional<br />Sensorial<br />Social<br />
    13. 13. Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience<br />
    14. 14. Functional Aspects<br />Effective<br />Efficient<br />Learnable<br />
    15. 15. Key Attributes<br />Usefulness<br />User feel in control<br />Supports, supplements and enhances skills and expertise<br />
    16. 16. Minimize Human Cost<br />Tiredness<br />Discomfort<br />Embarrassment<br />Frustration<br />Effort<br />
    17. 17. Benefits of Good User Experience<br />Increased Usefulness<br />Increased Efficiency ($$$) <br />Improved Productivity<br />
    18. 18. Benefits (continued)<br />Fewer Errors<br />Reduced Training Time<br />Improved Acceptance<br />Happy Users!<br />
    19. 19. Where do I start?<br />
    20. 20. Who are your users?<br />
    21. 21. Same Job Title, May Differ in…<br />
    22. 22. Which Student?<br />Rick<br />Connie<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/caharley72/ (Christopher Alison Photography) via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/<br />
    23. 23. Scope for Success<br />Takes time, energy, budget and more to:<br />Research and discover<br />Document<br />Analyze<br />Understand<br />
    24. 24. Focus Your Efforts Until…<br />Get to 80%<br />
    25. 25. We Are 80% Sure We Know…<br />Primary user tasks.<br />User’s goals.<br />Prioritize as needed with:<br />Vision<br />Business needs<br />Have awareness of what we don’t know (yet).<br />
    26. 26. Small,Iterative Steps<br />
    27. 27. Interview the Experts<br />Customer Service<br />Marketing (Web statistics)<br />Training <br />Sales/Business development<br />
    28. 28. Who Are the Users?<br />How many are there?<br />Common complaints?<br />Show stoppers?<br />Understand:<br />Assumptions and stereotypes <br />Differences between users<br />
    29. 29. Tasks<br />Frequency of tasks <br />Importance<br />Complexity of task<br />
    30. 30. About Them<br />Environment<br />Experience Level, Knowledge <br />Technology<br />Define Primary & Secondary Users<br />
    31. 31. Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]<br />
    32. 32. Share What You Learn<br />
    33. 33. Personas<br />Help guide decisions about:<br />Navigation<br />Features<br />Design<br />Archetype, based on research.<br />
    34. 34.
    35. 35. Task Analysis<br />
    36. 36. Actionable Gap Analysis<br />Change Situation<br />
    37. 37. Are We Confident?<br />
    38. 38.
    39. 39. Confirm Assumptions<br />Representative users who DO the tasks.<br />Visionaries, leaders, perhaps.<br />
    40. 40. Observations<br />
    41. 41. Interviews<br />
    42. 42. 42<br />Card Sorting<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />
    43. 43. Observations<br />
    44. 44. Go to the user<br />44<br />
    45. 45. Why Observe?<br />Great way to understand your user’s situation<br />Find “cheat sheets” and other artifacts.<br />Learn real process they use.<br />Number and type of interruptions.<br />Find out more about them as people.<br />
    46. 46. http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />Actual Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/47206241/ <br />
    47. 47. Sit Back and Watch<br />Arrive when they will be doing related tasks.<br />Observe for as long as needed:<br />1/2 hour each - quick repetitive tasks<br />>1 hour for longer processes<br />Stay out of their “space” and don’t interrupt.<br />Take photos and videos.<br />
    48. 48. Take Detailed Notes<br />Write down questions and when they occurred.<br />Look for patterns and differences:<br />Style of tasks<br />Order of operations<br />Environment<br />
    49. 49. Clarify Observations<br />After observation ask about:<br />Why they do task?<br />What is their goal?<br />How typical was this process?<br />Parts of the process you found confusing.<br />
    50. 50. Interviews<br />
    51. 51. Interview to Discover/Confirm…<br />Build on what you’ve learned:<br />Tasks<br />Attitudes and Opinions<br />Problems<br />Goals<br />Experience level and knowledge <br />Technology <br />51<br />
    52. 52. Styles<br />Structured<br />Question 1<br />Question 2<br />Question 3<br />Open-ended<br />Combination<br />
    53. 53. Use Scripts<br />Memory tool for facilitator<br />Don’t have to follow<br />Promote consistency<br />Questions<br />Order of questions<br />
    54. 54. Questions<br />Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:<br />Open-ended<br />Unbiased<br />Don’t lead or make assumptions<br />Use participant’s words<br />
    55. 55. Facilitation<br />Remain passive (body, face) <br />Don’t confirm or reject answers<br />Listen for vocalizations <br />Watch non-verbal gestures<br />Encourage participant to elaborate<br />Ask your question and let them talk<br />
    56. 56. Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!<br />56<br />
    57. 57. Card Sorting<br />
    58. 58. Card Sorting<br />Maximize probability of users finding content<br />Explore how people are likely to group items<br />Identify content likely to be:<br />Difficult to categorize<br />Difficult to find<br />Misunderstood<br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/richtpt via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />
    59. 59. Benefits of Card Sorting<br />Easy and inexpensive<br />Use to determine:<br />Order of information<br />Relationships between info<br />Labels for navigation<br />Verify correct audience<br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp<br />
    60. 60. One title/subject on each card<br />Short for quick reading<br />Detailed enough to understand<br />Supplement - short description on back<br />Use printed stickers (handwriting)<br />Practice session first<br />Card Basics<br />36<br />Preventive Care Guidelines <br />
    61. 61. Participants<br />Representative of users<br />Minimum of 6 <br />More participants = more data to analyze<br />Allow one hour for 50 items<br />30 – 100 cards<br />
    62. 62. Facilitation/Direction<br />Shuffle cards<br />Ask to: <br />Group items in own way<br />Talk out loud<br />Think about:<br />What expect to be together<br />When expect to see<br />
    63. 63. Grouping Cards<br />Ask to<br />Describe groups and name them<br />Describe overall rationale for grouping cards<br />Show best example from groups<br />What was difficult? What was easy?<br />Happy with final outcome?<br />
    64. 64. Online Tools<br />Moderated<br />Un-moderated<br />Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/<br />Demo: https://livedemo.optimalworkshop.com/optimalsort/supermarketdemo <br />
    65. 65. How Do I Find Participants?<br />
    66. 66. Create a Screener<br />Guide that helps determine who will participate.<br />Ask people to describe, then get details:<br />Highest level of education.<br />Computer activities. <br />Web use. <br />People who pass the screener should closely match your user group definition<br />
    67. 67. Hire a Recruiter<br />Allows you to focus on activity.<br />Can tell if person will be a good participant.<br />May already have a list they can start with.<br />Good recruiters:<br />find right participants.<br />give regular updates.<br />take care of directions, confirmations, incentives, etc.<br />
    68. 68. If You Must Do it Yourself...<br />Go where users go and intercept<br />Online user groups<br />Professional organizations<br />Craigslist<br />Online tools thru your site:http://ethnio.com<br />Final recruiting by phone.<br />Ask questions that force them to talk.<br />Don’t recruit non-talkers.<br />
    69. 69. Number of Users to Test<br />As many as possible (rarely statistically significant)<br />Usability Testing Research (in 1990’s)<br />5 from distinct sub-group of the user population will yield 80% of the findings (Nielsen, Virzi, Lewis)<br />Assumes expert has reviewed for obvious issues<br />Recommend: <br />Early tests with 8 – 12 users per user group<br />Iterative testing (3 per day, iterate, 3 new users)<br />Barnum, Carol M. (Jan. 2003). What’s in a Number? STC Usability SIG Newsletter, Usability Interface. http://www.stcsig.org/usability/newsletter/0301-number.html Retrieved: 20080323<br />
    70. 70. 70<br />
    71. 71. Welcome & Prepare<br />Participation will help team and is appreciated.<br />Purpose of research.<br />Expectations of the participant.<br />Sign paperwork:<br />Non-Disclosure Agreement(s)<br />Consent Form<br />
    72. 72. We’re Looking for Patterns<br />Identify repetition<br />After pattern is found, continuation of study <br />Adds cost <br />Delays reporting<br />Low probability of many new findings<br />
    73. 73. Update Communications<br />
    74. 74. Do UX Early & Often<br />74<br />
    75. 75. Go to Your Users<br />Find out:<br />Goals<br />Tasks<br />Share the information with your team<br />
    76. 76. Recommended Readings<br />
    77. 77. References<br />Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. <br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp<br />Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998. <br />Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations. Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference. (Activity)<br />Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.<br />Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997.<br />Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994.<br />Powell, Thomas A. The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000.<br />Rubin, Jeffrey. Handbook of Usability Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.<br />
    78. 78. Thank You!<br />Carol Smith<br />Midwest Research, LLC<br />http://www.mw-research.com <br />Twitter: @carologic<br />Cell: (773) 218-6568<br />Email: carol@mw-research.com<br />
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