Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011
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Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011

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Presented at PodCamp Cleveland at the Cuyahoga Valley Career Center in Brecksville, Ohio on April 29, 2011 by Carol Smith of Midwest Research, LLC. ...

Presented at PodCamp Cleveland at the Cuyahoga Valley Career Center in Brecksville, Ohio on April 29, 2011 by Carol Smith of Midwest Research, LLC.

The gap between a good design and a great one can be bridged by understanding your users.

In this presentation find out the basics of usability and user experience.

Learn cheap and easy techniques to find out more about your users and improve your audience's experience.

Effective visuals will be introduced that can help you remember and share what you learn.

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  • A measure of the degree to which a product can be used by specified users or groups to achieve specific goals of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use- U BoK
  • ExperienceNoviceAdvanced beginnersCompetent performerExpert performerFrequency of usePriority of tasksCharacteristics – personal, physical, culturalMotivations and attitudeExpectationsPersonal Characteristics: Learning Style, ChangePhysical Characteristics: Disabilities, Color Blindness, VisionCultural Characteristics: Corporate, CulturalMotivations and Attitude: Threats, Naiveté, Hostile, LazyStage of use: NoviceFear of the unknown, fear of failureFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksTheoretical understanding only – no experienceAdvanced BeginnersFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksRandomly access tasksEmpirical based mental modelCompetent PerformersFocus on performing more complex tasksAbility to plan and perform complex series of tasks to achieve a goalWillingness to learn new technologies and tasksInterested in applying conceptual frameworks to solve problemsExpert PerformersFocus on developing mental models of system functionalityAbility to understand complex problems and find solutionsInterested in learning about concepts and theories behind a system’s design and useInterest in interacting with other expert users
  • Model and describe specific user group’s:GoalsNeedsCharacteristicsArchetype - not real individual or average userSynthesized from research – interviews, observations, etc.Include personal details found during researchOne primary, some secondary per site/feature
  • Interviews (many styles)ObservationsSurveysLiterature reviewsMarket research documents
  • frequency, importance, complexityPrioritiesCurrent process

Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011 Users, Usability & User Experience - at PodCamp Cleveland 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • PodCampCleveland 2011
    April 30, 2011
    Users, Usability & User Experience
  • Carol Smith
    Midwest Research, LLC
    MS in Human-Computer Interaction
    Education
  • What You’ll Learn
    Basics of Usability and User Experience.
    Quick and cheap methods you can start now.
  • Designing for Everyone is Impossible
  • Who will use your product?What do they need to do?
    Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner's Guide to User Research by Mike Kuniavsky
  • Need to Understand User’s Experience
  • User’s Experience
    Interaction with a product, service, or company
    Functional
    Emotional
    Sensorial
    Social
  • Functional
    Able to complete task
    Find information
    Submit form
    Contact someone
    Purchase item
  • Sensorial
    Visual
    Layout
    Colors
    Images
    Auditory
    Video
    Music
    Ads
  • Emotional
    Bring their life with them
    Interface
    Conveys ideas and emotions
    Sets the tone
  • Social
    Interactions with other people
    Social networking
    Help features
    Chat
  • Where They Overlap...

    Experience
    X
    Functional
    Emotional
    Sensorial
    Social
  • Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience
  • Functional Aspects
    Effective
    Efficient
    Learnable
  • Key Attributes
    Usefulness
    User feel in control
    Supports, supplements and enhances skills and expertise
  • Minimize Human Cost
    Tiredness
    Discomfort
    Embarrassment
    Frustration
    Effort
  • Benefits of Good User Experience
    Increased Usefulness
    Increased Efficiency ($$$)
    Improved Productivity
  • Benefits (continued)
    Fewer Errors
    Reduced Training Time
    Improved Acceptance
    Happy Users!
  • Where do I start?
  • Who are your users?
  • Same Job Title, May Differ in…
  • Which Student?
    Rick
    Connie
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/caharley72/ (Christopher Alison Photography) via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/
  • Scope for Success
    Takes time, energy, budget and more to:
    Research and discover
    Document
    Analyze
    Understand
  • Focus Your Efforts Until…
    Get to 80%
  • We Are 80% Sure We Know…
    Primary user tasks.
    User’s goals.
    Prioritize as needed with:
    Vision
    Business needs
    Have awareness of what we don’t know (yet).
  • Small,Iterative Steps
  • Interview the Experts
    Customer Service
    Marketing (Web statistics)
    Training
    Sales/Business development
  • Who Are the Users?
    How many are there?
    Common complaints?
    Show stoppers?
    Understand:
    Assumptions and stereotypes
    Differences between users
  • Tasks
    Frequency of tasks
    Importance
    Complexity of task
  • About Them
    Environment
    Experience Level, Knowledge
    Technology
    Define Primary & Secondary Users
  • Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]
  • Share What You Learn
  • Personas
    Help guide decisions about:
    Navigation
    Features
    Design
    Archetype, based on research.
  • Task Analysis
  • Actionable Gap Analysis
    Change Situation
  • Are We Confident?
  • Confirm Assumptions
    Representative users who DO the tasks.
    Visionaries, leaders, perhaps.
  • Observations
  • Interviews
  • 42
    Card Sorting
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  • Observations
  • Go to the user
    44
  • Why Observe?
    Great way to understand your user’s situation
    Find “cheat sheets” and other artifacts.
    Learn real process they use.
    Number and type of interruptions.
    Find out more about them as people.
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
    Actual Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/47206241/
  • Sit Back and Watch
    Arrive when they will be doing related tasks.
    Observe for as long as needed:
    1/2 hour each - quick repetitive tasks
    >1 hour for longer processes
    Stay out of their “space” and don’t interrupt.
    Take photos and videos.
  • Take Detailed Notes
    Write down questions and when they occurred.
    Look for patterns and differences:
    Style of tasks
    Order of operations
    Environment
  • Clarify Observations
    After observation ask about:
    Why they do task?
    What is their goal?
    How typical was this process?
    Parts of the process you found confusing.
  • Interviews
  • Interview to Discover/Confirm…
    Build on what you’ve learned:
    Tasks
    Attitudes and Opinions
    Problems
    Goals
    Experience level and knowledge
    Technology
    51
  • Styles
    Structured
    Question 1
    Question 2
    Question 3
    Open-ended
    Combination
  • Use Scripts
    Memory tool for facilitator
    Don’t have to follow
    Promote consistency
    Questions
    Order of questions
  • Questions
    Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:
    Open-ended
    Unbiased
    Don’t lead or make assumptions
    Use participant’s words
  • Facilitation
    Remain passive (body, face)
    Don’t confirm or reject answers
    Listen for vocalizations
    Watch non-verbal gestures
    Encourage participant to elaborate
    Ask your question and let them talk
  • Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!
    56
  • Card Sorting
  • Card Sorting
    Maximize probability of users finding content
    Explore how people are likely to group items
    Identify content likely to be:
    Difficult to categorize
    Difficult to find
    Misunderstood
    Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/richtpt via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/
  • Benefits of Card Sorting
    Easy and inexpensive
    Use to determine:
    Order of information
    Relationships between info
    Labels for navigation
    Verify correct audience
    Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp
  • One title/subject on each card
    Short for quick reading
    Detailed enough to understand
    Supplement - short description on back
    Use printed stickers (handwriting)
    Practice session first
    Card Basics
    36
    Preventive Care Guidelines
  • Participants
    Representative of users
    Minimum of 6
    More participants = more data to analyze
    Allow one hour for 50 items
    30 – 100 cards
  • Facilitation/Direction
    Shuffle cards
    Ask to:
    Group items in own way
    Talk out loud
    Think about:
    What expect to be together
    When expect to see
  • Grouping Cards
    Ask to
    Describe groups and name them
    Describe overall rationale for grouping cards
    Show best example from groups
    What was difficult? What was easy?
    Happy with final outcome?
  • Online Tools
    Moderated
    Un-moderated
    Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/
    Demo: https://livedemo.optimalworkshop.com/optimalsort/supermarketdemo
  • How Do I Find Participants?
  • Create a Screener
    Guide that helps determine who will participate.
    Ask people to describe, then get details:
    Highest level of education.
    Computer activities.
    Web use.
    People who pass the screener should closely match your user group definition
  • Hire a Recruiter
    Allows you to focus on activity.
    Can tell if person will be a good participant.
    May already have a list they can start with.
    Good recruiters:
    find right participants.
    give regular updates.
    take care of directions, confirmations, incentives, etc.
  • If You Must Do it Yourself...
    Go where users go and intercept
    Online user groups
    Professional organizations
    Craigslist
    Online tools thru your site:http://ethnio.com
    Final recruiting by phone.
    Ask questions that force them to talk.
    Don’t recruit non-talkers.
  • Number of Users to Test
    As many as possible (rarely statistically significant)
    Usability Testing Research (in 1990’s)
    5 from distinct sub-group of the user population will yield 80% of the findings (Nielsen, Virzi, Lewis)
    Assumes expert has reviewed for obvious issues
    Recommend:
    Early tests with 8 – 12 users per user group
    Iterative testing (3 per day, iterate, 3 new users)
    Barnum, Carol M. (Jan. 2003). What’s in a Number? STC Usability SIG Newsletter, Usability Interface. http://www.stcsig.org/usability/newsletter/0301-number.html Retrieved: 20080323
  • 70
  • Welcome & Prepare
    Participation will help team and is appreciated.
    Purpose of research.
    Expectations of the participant.
    Sign paperwork:
    Non-Disclosure Agreement(s)
    Consent Form
  • We’re Looking for Patterns
    Identify repetition
    After pattern is found, continuation of study
    Adds cost
    Delays reporting
    Low probability of many new findings
  • Update Communications
  • Do UX Early & Often
    74
  • Go to Your Users
    Find out:
    Goals
    Tasks
    Share the information with your team
  • Recommended Readings
  • References
    Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001.
    Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp
    Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998.
    Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations. Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference. (Activity)
    Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.
    Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997.
    Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994.
    Powell, Thomas A. The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000.
    Rubin, Jeffrey. Handbook of Usability Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.
  • Thank You!
    Carol Smith
    Midwest Research, LLC
    http://www.mw-research.com
    Twitter: @carologic
    Cell: (773) 218-6568
    Email: carol@mw-research.com