StirTrek  2011<br />May 6, 2011<br />Getting Started with User Research:DIY Quick Course<br />
Carol SmithMidwest ResearchAkron, Ohio@carologic<br />
Small,Iterative Steps<br />
Behaviors, Desires, Needs & Abilities<br />4<br />
Observations<br />
Interviews<br />
7<br />Card Sorting<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/   via   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa...
Design for Everyone is Impossible<br />
Who will use it?What they need to do?<br />
Same Job Title, May Differ in…<br />
Which Student?<br />Rick<br />Connie<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-...
Where do I start?<br />12<br />
Constraints…<br />
Scope for Success<br />Plan and Schedule<br />Research and Discover<br />Document<br />Analyze<br />Understand<br />
Interview Experts<br />Who are the users?<br />How many are there?<br />Common complaints?<br />Show stoppers?<br />Unders...
Focus On…<br />Tasks <br />frequency, importance, complexity<br />Environment of Use <br />location, abilities and limitat...
Define Primary & Secondary Users<br />Separate by:<br />Needs<br />Goals (Why will they use the product?)<br />Environment...
Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]<br />
Observations<br />19<br />
20<br />Go to the user<br />
Why Observe?<br />Understand user’s environment<br />Abilities and limitations<br />Situational (lighting, noise)<br />Dis...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via  http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />Actual Photo:  http://ww...
Sit Back and Watch<br />Arrive when they will be doing related tasks<br />Observe for as long as needed:<br />1/2 hour eac...
Take Detailed Notes<br />Write down questions and context<br />Look for patterns and differences:<br />Style of tasks<br /...
25<br />Artifacts! Collect, Copy, Photograph <br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/camknows/      via      http://creativecom...
Clarify Observations<br />After observation ask about:<br />Why doing?<br />Goal?<br />How typical was this?<br />Clarify ...
Interviews<br />
Interview to Discover/Confirm…<br />Build on what you’ve learned:<br />Tasks<br />Attitudes and Opinions<br />Problems<br ...
Styles<br />Structured<br />Question 1<br />Question 2<br />Question 3<br />Open-ended<br />Combination<br />
Use Scripts<br />Memory tool for facilitator<br />Don’t have to follow<br />Promote consistency<br />Questions<br />Order ...
Questions<br />Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:<br />Open-ended<br />Unbiased<br />Don’t lead or mak...
Stretch & Exercise<br />32<br />
Question 1<br />Do you regularly book your travel online to save money?<br />
Alternates – Question 1<br />How often do you travel? <br /><listen>  <br />What proportion of that do you book online? <b...
Rationale - Question 1<br />Do you regularly book your travel online to save money?<br />Address one issue at a time and a...
Question 2<br />What are your thoughts about a new feature that allows you to instant message a travel agent with any ques...
Alternates – Question 2<br />Would you like to correspond with a travel agent while you are booking travel?  <br /><listen...
Rationale – Question 2<br />What are your thoughts about a new feature that allows you to instant message a travel agent w...
Facilitation<br />Remain passive (body, face) <br />Don’t confirm or reject answers<br />Listen for vocalizations <br />Wa...
Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!<br />40<br />
Card Sorting<br />
Card Sorting<br />Maximize probability of users finding content<br />Explore how people are likely to group items<br />Ide...
Benefits of Card Sorting<br />Easy and inexpensive<br />Use to determine:<br />Order of information<br />Relationships bet...
Open or Closed (Reverse) Sort?<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />Group 1<br />Group 2<br />Group 3<br />
One title/subject on each card<br />Short for quick reading<br />Detailed enough to understand<br />Supplement - short des...
Participants<br />Representative of users<br />Minimum of 6 <br />More participants = more data to analyze<br />Allow one ...
Facilitation/Direction<br />Shuffle cards<br />Ask to: <br />Group items in own way<br />Talk out loud<br />Think about:<b...
Issues<br />Card doesn’t fit: make separate group<br />Not relevant: tell me<br />More than one place: put in best fit<br ...
Grouping Cards<br />Ask to<br />Describe groups and name them<br />Describe overall rationale for grouping cards<br />Show...
Analysis<br />Codes on cards = faster data analysis<br />Standardize group names <br />Look for patterns<br />Excel Spread...
Online Tools<br />Moderated<br />Un-moderated<br />Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/<br />D...
Patterns<br />52<br />
Looking for Patterns<br />Identify repetition<br />Groupings or clusters of users<br />Overlapping characteristics<br />Re...
Focus your effortsuntil…<br />Get to 80%<br />
80% Sure We Know…<br />Primary user’s<br />tasks<br />goals<br />Prioritize with:<br />vision (why we are doing this?)<br ...
Are we there yet?<br />
57<br />At Least 80%<br />
Share What You Learn [Radiate Knowledge*]<br />*Thoughtworks via @jonrstahl<br />
Goals of Sharing<br />Help the team:<br />understand user’s point of view <br />prioritize content and solutions<br />desi...
Information Radiators Should<br />Represents all research <br />Facilitate:<br />communication <br />decision-making <br /...
Actionable Gap Analysis<br />Change Situation<br />
62<br />Persona<br />
63<br />Task Analysis<br />Example of a Task Analysis by Todd Zaki Warfel from his Agile2010 presentation "Opening the Kim...
Mental Model<br />Goal or intent with Personas Mapped<br />Mental Space<br />Doing, Thinking, Feeling<br />Solutions or co...
Other Methods<br />Brainstorming <br />Competitive Reviews<br />Focus Groups<br />Expert (Heuristic) Evaluations<br />Pape...
Do UX Early & Often<br />Put it on the User Wall <br />Information radiators<br />Artifacts<br />Research findings<br />Co...
Update Radiators Regularly<br />
Recommended Readings<br />68<br />
Contact<br />Carol J. Smith<br />(773) 218-6568<br />        @carologic<br />carol@mw-research.com<br />http://www.mw-rese...
References<br />Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. <br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is C...
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Getting Started with User Research - Stir Trek 2011

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Presented at Stir Trek: Thor Edition, in Columbus, Ohio on May 6, 2011.
Once you know who uses your product, all sorts of new questions start to emerge. How are they using the product? Why are they using it? What else might they want? In this session you will learn about three quick and easy methods to understand the users desires, needs and abilities. The basics of observations, interviews and card sorting will be covered. You will also learn ways to effectively share and communicate what you learn with your team.

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  • ExperienceNoviceAdvanced beginnersCompetent performerExpert performerFrequency of usePriority of tasksCharacteristics – personal, physical, culturalMotivations and attitudeExpectationsPersonal Characteristics: Learning Style, ChangePhysical Characteristics: Disabilities, Color Blindness, VisionCultural Characteristics: Corporate, CulturalMotivations and Attitude: Threats, Naiveté, Hostile, LazyStage of use: NoviceFear of the unknown, fear of failureFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksTheoretical understanding only – no experienceAdvanced BeginnersFocus on accomplishing real workImpatient learning concepts rather than performing tasksRandomly access tasksEmpirical based mental modelCompetent PerformersFocus on performing more complex tasksAbility to plan and perform complex series of tasks to achieve a goalWillingness to learn new technologies and tasksInterested in applying conceptual frameworks to solve problemsExpert PerformersFocus on developing mental models of system functionalityAbility to understand complex problems and find solutionsInterested in learning about concepts and theories behind a system’s design and useInterest in interacting with other expert users
  • Time, energy, budget and [fill in the blank]:
  • frequency, importance, complexityPrioritiesCurrent process
  • Model and describe specific user group’s:GoalsNeedsCharacteristicsArchetype - not real individual or average userSynthesized from research – interviews, observations, etc.Include personal details found during researchOne primary, some secondary per site/feature
  • Getting Started with User Research - Stir Trek 2011

    1. 1. StirTrek 2011<br />May 6, 2011<br />Getting Started with User Research:DIY Quick Course<br />
    2. 2. Carol SmithMidwest ResearchAkron, Ohio@carologic<br />
    3. 3. Small,Iterative Steps<br />
    4. 4. Behaviors, Desires, Needs & Abilities<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Observations<br />
    6. 6. Interviews<br />
    7. 7. 7<br />Card Sorting<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosenfeldmedia/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />
    8. 8. Design for Everyone is Impossible<br />
    9. 9. Who will use it?What they need to do?<br />
    10. 10. Same Job Title, May Differ in…<br />
    11. 11. Which Student?<br />Rick<br />Connie<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrjkbh/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/caharley72/ (Christopher Alison Photography) via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/<br />
    12. 12. Where do I start?<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Constraints…<br />
    14. 14. Scope for Success<br />Plan and Schedule<br />Research and Discover<br />Document<br />Analyze<br />Understand<br />
    15. 15. Interview Experts<br />Who are the users?<br />How many are there?<br />Common complaints?<br />Show stoppers?<br />Understand:<br />Assumptions and stereotypes <br />Differences between users<br />
    16. 16. Focus On…<br />Tasks <br />frequency, importance, complexity<br />Environment of Use <br />location, abilities and limitations<br />Experience Level and Knowledge <br />Technology <br />mobile use, connection speed<br />
    17. 17. Define Primary & Secondary Users<br />Separate by:<br />Needs<br />Goals (Why will they use the product?)<br />Environment (Where will they use it?)<br />Context (When will they use it?)<br />How else do they differ?<br />
    18. 18. Now You Have User Groups [perhaps very loosely defined]<br />
    19. 19. Observations<br />19<br />
    20. 20. 20<br />Go to the user<br />
    21. 21. Why Observe?<br />Understand user’s environment<br />Abilities and limitations<br />Situational (lighting, noise)<br />Disabilities<br />Learn about:<br />Real process<br />Interruptions (frequency and type)<br />Find out more about users<br />
    22. 22. http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />Actual Photo: http://www.flickr.com/photos/heygabe/47206241/ <br />
    23. 23. Sit Back and Watch<br />Arrive when they will be doing related tasks<br />Observe for as long as needed:<br />1/2 hour each - quick repetitive tasks<br />>1 hour for longer processes<br />Stay out of their “space” and don’t interrupt<br />Take photos and videos<br />
    24. 24. Take Detailed Notes<br />Write down questions and context<br />Look for patterns and differences:<br />Style of tasks<br />Order of operations<br />Environment<br />
    25. 25. 25<br />Artifacts! Collect, Copy, Photograph <br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/camknows/ via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/ <br />
    26. 26. Clarify Observations<br />After observation ask about:<br />Why doing?<br />Goal?<br />How typical was this?<br />Clarify confusing observations<br />
    27. 27. Interviews<br />
    28. 28. Interview to Discover/Confirm…<br />Build on what you’ve learned:<br />Tasks<br />Attitudes and Opinions<br />Problems<br />Goals<br />Experience level and knowledge <br />Technology <br />
    29. 29. Styles<br />Structured<br />Question 1<br />Question 2<br />Question 3<br />Open-ended<br />Combination<br />
    30. 30. Use Scripts<br />Memory tool for facilitator<br />Don’t have to follow<br />Promote consistency<br />Questions<br />Order of questions<br />
    31. 31. Questions<br />Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:<br />Open-ended<br />Unbiased<br />Don’t lead or make assumptions<br />Use participant’s words<br />
    32. 32. Stretch & Exercise<br />32<br />
    33. 33. Question 1<br />Do you regularly book your travel online to save money?<br />
    34. 34. Alternates – Question 1<br />How often do you travel? <br /><listen> <br />What proportion of that do you book online? <br /><listen> <br />Why do you book travel online? <br /><listen> <br />
    35. 35. Rationale - Question 1<br />Do you regularly book your travel online to save money?<br />Address one issue at a time and avoid double-barreled questions.<br />
    36. 36. Question 2<br />What are your thoughts about a new feature that allows you to instant message a travel agent with any questions as you book your travel?<br />
    37. 37. Alternates – Question 2<br />Would you like to correspond with a travel agent while you are booking travel? <br /><listen> <br />What are some ways that you would like to correspond with a travel agent while you are booking travel? <br /><listen> <br />
    38. 38. Rationale – Question 2<br />What are your thoughts about a new feature that allows you to instant message a travel agent with any questions as you book your travel?<br />This question asked the participant to predict the future.<br />
    39. 39. Facilitation<br />Remain passive (body, face) <br />Don’t confirm or reject answers<br />Listen for vocalizations <br />Watch non-verbal gestures<br />Encourage participant to elaborate<br />Ask your question and let them talk<br />
    40. 40. Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!<br />40<br />
    41. 41. Card Sorting<br />
    42. 42. Card Sorting<br />Maximize probability of users finding content<br />Explore how people are likely to group items<br />Identify content likely to be:<br />Difficult to categorize <br />Difficult to find<br />Misunderstood<br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/richtpt via http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/<br />
    43. 43. Benefits of Card Sorting<br />Easy and inexpensive<br />Use to determine:<br />Order of information<br />Relationships between info<br />Labels for navigation<br />Verify correct audience<br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp<br />
    44. 44. Open or Closed (Reverse) Sort?<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />Group 1<br />Group 2<br />Group 3<br />
    45. 45. One title/subject on each card<br />Short for quick reading<br />Detailed enough to understand<br />Supplement - short description on back<br />Use printed stickers (handwriting)<br />Practice session first<br />Card Basics<br />36<br />Preventive Care Guidelines <br />
    46. 46. Participants<br />Representative of users<br />Minimum of 6 <br />More participants = more data to analyze<br />Allow one hour for 50 items<br />30 – 100 cards<br />
    47. 47. Facilitation/Direction<br />Shuffle cards<br />Ask to: <br />Group items in own way<br />Talk out loud<br />Think about:<br />What expect to be together<br />When expect to see<br />
    48. 48. Issues<br />Card doesn’t fit: make separate group<br />Not relevant: tell me<br />More than one place: put in best fit<br />Items not understood<br />Correct audience?<br />Items without consensus <br />Re-name item?<br />Include in more than one category?<br />
    49. 49. Grouping Cards<br />Ask to<br />Describe groups and name them<br />Describe overall rationale for grouping cards<br />Show best example from groups<br />What was difficult? What was easy?<br />Happy with final outcome?<br />
    50. 50. Analysis<br />Codes on cards = faster data analysis<br />Standardize group names <br />Look for patterns<br />Excel Spreadsheet (Donna Spencer)<br />Online tools - limited analysis<br />
    51. 51. Online Tools<br />Moderated<br />Un-moderated<br />Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop - http://www.optimalworkshop.com/<br />Demo: https://livedemo.optimalworkshop.com/optimalsort/supermarketdemo <br />
    52. 52. Patterns<br />52<br />
    53. 53. Looking for Patterns<br />Identify repetition<br />Groupings or clusters of users<br />Overlapping characteristics<br />Relevant to design problem<br />After pattern is found, continuation of study: <br />Adds cost <br />Delays reporting<br />Low probability of many new findings<br />
    54. 54. Focus your effortsuntil…<br />Get to 80%<br />
    55. 55. 80% Sure We Know…<br />Primary user’s<br />tasks<br />goals<br />Prioritize with:<br />vision (why we are doing this?)<br />business needs<br />etc.<br />Awareness of what not known (yet).<br />
    56. 56. Are we there yet?<br />
    57. 57. 57<br />At Least 80%<br />
    58. 58. Share What You Learn [Radiate Knowledge*]<br />*Thoughtworks via @jonrstahl<br />
    59. 59. Goals of Sharing<br />Help the team:<br />understand user’s point of view <br />prioritize content and solutions<br />design for user’s needs and behaviors<br />identify new opportunities<br />create new solutions<br />
    60. 60. Information Radiators Should<br />Represents all research <br />Facilitate:<br />communication <br />decision-making <br />Guide decisions about:<br />Navigation<br />Features<br />Design<br />
    61. 61. Actionable Gap Analysis<br />Change Situation<br />
    62. 62. 62<br />Persona<br />
    63. 63. 63<br />Task Analysis<br />Example of a Task Analysis by Todd Zaki Warfel from his Agile2010 presentation "Opening the Kimono a look behind the design process."<br />
    64. 64. Mental Model<br />Goal or intent with Personas Mapped<br />Mental Space<br />Doing, Thinking, Feeling<br />Solutions or content provided by oDesk<br />
    65. 65. Other Methods<br />Brainstorming <br />Competitive Reviews<br />Focus Groups<br />Expert (Heuristic) Evaluations<br />Paper Prototypes and Wireframes<br />Participatory Design<br />Surveys<br />Usability Testing<br />
    66. 66. Do UX Early & Often<br />Put it on the User Wall <br />Information radiators<br />Artifacts<br />Research findings<br />Competitors<br />
    67. 67. Update Radiators Regularly<br />
    68. 68. Recommended Readings<br />68<br />
    69. 69. Contact<br />Carol J. Smith<br />(773) 218-6568<br /> @carologic<br />carol@mw-research.com<br />http://www.mw-research.com <br />
    70. 70. References<br />Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. <br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. http://www.infodesign.com.au/usabilityresources/design/cardsorting.asp<br />Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998. <br />Henry, S.L. and Martinson, M. Evaluating for Accessibility, Usability Testing in Diverse Situations. Tutorial, 2003 UPA Conference. (Activity)<br />Krug, Steve. Don't Make Me Think: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability.<br />Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.<br />Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997.<br />Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994.<br />Powell, Thomas A. The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000.<br />Redish, Janice (Ginny). Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works.<br />Rubin, Jeffrey and Dana Chisnell. Handbook of Usability Testing: How to Plan, Design, and Conduct Effective Tests. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.<br />
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