Creating the Best Experience: Accessibility & Usability


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Presented to the Cleveland WPF User Group on September 20, 2011.

This presentation introduces the concepts of usability and accessibility and provides methods and tools to help create great experiences for users.

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  • A measure of the degree to which a product can be used by specified users or groups to achieve specific goals of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use- U BoK
  • frequency, importance, complexityPrioritiesCurrent process
  • Un-Moderated, Simple SoftwareUserlyticsLoop 11UserZoomChalkMarkModerated, Simple SoftwareGoToMeetingSkypeMoraeSilverbackModerated, Complex SoftwareKeynote*Incomplete list with subjective ratings
  • Creating the Best Experience: Accessibility & Usability

    1. 1. WPF<br />September 20, 2011<br />Creating the Best Experience: Accessibility & UsabilityPresented by Carol Smith<br />
    2. 2. Designing for Everyone is Impossible<br />
    3. 3. Who will use your product?What do they need to do?<br />
    4. 4. Understand User’s Experience<br />
    5. 5. User’s Experience<br />Interaction with a product, service, or company<br />Functional <br />Emotional<br />Sensorial<br />Social<br />
    6. 6. Functional<br />Able to complete task<br />Find information<br />Submit form<br />Contact someone<br />Purchase item<br />
    7. 7. Sensorial<br />Visual<br />Layout<br />Colors<br />Images<br />Auditory<br />Video<br />Music<br />Ads<br />
    8. 8. Emotional<br />Bring their life with them<br />Interface <br />Conveys ideas and emotions<br />Sets the tone<br />
    9. 9. Social<br />Interactions with other people<br />Social networking<br />Help features<br />Chat<br />
    10. 10. Where They Overlap...<br />➘<br />Experience<br />X<br />Functional <br />Emotional<br />Sensorial<br />Social<br />
    11. 11. Usabilityis an important characteristicof what makes a good User Experience<br />
    12. 12. Minimize Human Cost<br />Tiredness<br />Discomfort<br />Embarrassment<br />Frustration<br />Effort<br />
    13. 13. Benefits of Good User Experience<br />Increased Usefulness<br />Increased Efficiency ($$$) <br />Improved Productivity<br />
    14. 14. Benefits (continued)<br />Fewer Errors<br />Reduced Training Time<br />Improved Acceptance<br />Happy Users!<br />
    15. 15. Where do I start?<br />
    16. 16. Who are your users?<br />
    17. 17. Same Job Title, May Differ in…<br />
    18. 18. Which Student?<br />Rick<br />Connie<br /><br /> (Christopher Alison Photography) via <br />
    19. 19. Small,Iterative Steps<br />
    20. 20. Interview the Experts<br />Customer Service<br />Marketing (Web statistics)<br />Training <br />Sales/Business development<br />
    21. 21. Who Are the Users?<br />How many are there?<br />Common complaints?<br />Most important/frequent tasks?<br />Show stoppers?<br />Understand:<br />Assumptions and stereotypes <br />Differences between users<br />
    22. 22. About Them<br />Environment<br />Experience Level, Knowledge <br />Technology<br />Define Primary & Secondary Users<br />
    23. 23. Make User Groups<br />Loosely defined at first<br />Determine what differentiates them<br />
    24. 24. Share What You Learn<br />
    25. 25. Personas<br />Help guide decisions about:<br />Navigation<br />Features<br />Design<br />Archetype, based on research<br />
    26. 26. Anthony Johnson<br />“I need help keeping track of all of the assets for each of my projects.”<br /><ul><li>Anthony (Tony) is 29and lives in Centreville, VA in a large apartment complex. He drives a Prius which allows him to use special lanes on the highway and speeds up his commute (still takes about 40 minutes). His girlfriend works for the federal government in Washington, DC.
    27. 27. He was never interested in teaching, but wants to improve the educational system. When he saw a job opening at an educational company he felt it would be a great opportunity to do just that.
    28. 28. Despite the frustrations, Tony feels his company is great to work for and the benefits can’t be beat. He isn’t sure what is next for his career.</li></li></ul><li>Task Analysis<br />Example of a Task Analysis by Todd Zaki Warfel from his Agile2010 presentation "Opening the Kimono a look behind the design process."<br />
    29. 29. Gap Analysis<br />
    30. 30. Are We Confident?<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Confirm Assumptions<br />Representative users who DO the tasks.<br />Visionaries, leaders, perhaps.<br />
    33. 33. Observations<br />
    34. 34. Interviews<br />
    35. 35. 34<br />Card Sorting<br /> via<br />
    36. 36. Observations<br />
    37. 37. Go to the user<br />36<br />
    38. 38. Why Observe?<br />Great way to understand your user’s situation<br />“Cheat sheets” and other artifacts<br />Real processes<br />Number and type of interruptions<br />Who are they?<br />
    39. 39. via<br />Actual Photo: <br />
    40. 40. Interviews<br />
    41. 41. Interview to Discover/Confirm…<br />Build on what you’ve learned:<br />Tasks<br />Attitudes and Opinions<br />Problems<br />Goals<br />Experience level and knowledge <br />Technology <br />40<br />
    42. 42. Use Scripts<br />Memory tool for facilitator<br />Don’t have to follow<br />Promote consistency<br />Questions<br />Order of questions<br />
    43. 43. Questions<br />Quality of questions correlates to quality of answers:<br />Open-ended<br />Unbiased<br />Don’t lead or make assumptions<br />Use participant’s words<br />
    44. 44. Silence is GoldenUser’s Time to Think!<br />43<br />
    45. 45. Card Sorting<br />
    46. 46. Card Sorting<br />Maximize probability of users finding content<br />Explore how people are likely to group items<br />Identify content likely to be:<br />Difficult to categorize<br />Difficult to find<br />Misunderstood<br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design.<br />Image: via<br />
    47. 47. Benefits of Card Sorting<br />Easy and inexpensive<br />Use to determine:<br />Order of information<br />Relationships between info<br />Labels for navigation<br />Verify correct audience<br />Gaffney, Gerry. (2000) What is Card Sorting? Usability Techniques Series, Information & Design. <br />Image:<br />
    48. 48. Online Tools<br />Moderated<br />Un-moderated<br />Optimal Sort, Optimal Workshop -<br />Demo: <br />
    49. 49. Usability Testing<br />
    50. 50. Do I need a lab?<br />Computer / Concept<br />Participant<br />Facilitator<br />Observer<br />Timer<br />Logger<br />Rubin, Jeffrey. Handbook of Usability Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1994.<br />
    51. 51. Software*<br />Simple<br />Un-Moderated<br />Moderated<br />Complex<br />*Incomplete list with subjective ratings<br />
    52. 52. "The biggest waste of all is building something no one wants"<br />- @ericries #LeanStartupMI via @MelBugai<br />
    53. 53. Break Time!<br />
    54. 54. Accessibility<br />
    55. 55. Overview of Terminology<br />Disability<br />any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods (Wikipedia)<br />“People with Disabilities” <br />Not “disabled” or “handicapped”<br />
    56. 56. What is Accessibility?<br />Accessibility is designing products so that people can use them regardless of disability or environment.<br />
    57. 57. Everyone can…<br />Perceive<br />Understand<br />Navigate<br />Interact<br />Create & Contribute effectively<br />
    58. 58. Disabilities vary by…<br />Time of Onset <br />Course of the disability<br />Degree of Severity<br />Single or Multiple Disabilities <br />
    59. 59. Disabilities Vary<br />Visual <br />Blindness<br />forgot glasses<br />Auditory<br />Physical<br />Speech<br />Cognitive<br />Neurological<br />Language<br />Literacy<br />
    60. 60. Environmental Factors<br />Imposed limiting conditions include:<br />Manufacturing system – loud warehouse<br />Wireless device – on public transportation<br />Slow internet connection<br />
    61. 61. Accessible and Usable by Everyone<br />Universally Accessible Packaging<br />Curb Cuts<br />Curb Cut Image <br />
    62. 62. Usability & Accessibility<br />Increase<br />people who can effectively use a product<br />situations in which the product can be used<br />usability of a product <br />user satisfaction<br />Estimated 650 million disabled people worldwide (Wikipedia)<br /> - September 2011<br />
    63. 63. Benefits to Organizations<br />Demonstrate corporate responsibility<br />Cost savings and return on investment<br />Reduced possibility of legal issues<br />Target<br />Jet Blue<br />
    64. 64. Getting Started<br />Institutionalize Accessibility with Usability<br />Plan for inclusion in all levels<br />Support developers and discuss accessibility with your team<br />Standards, guidelines and laws<br />Inspection technology<br />
    65. 65. Research<br />Include people <br />with disabilities <br />People working under limiting conditions<br />
    66. 66. Standards<br />Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)<br />Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG)<br />Section 508 in USA<br />
    67. 67. Evaluating for Accessibility<br />Make code good and valid<br />Clear, understandable, content<br />Organized information<br />
    68. 68. Become Familiar with<br />Functional and situational limitations<br />Standards, guidelines and laws<br />Inspection technology<br />Assistive Technologies<br />
    69. 69. Accessible, Usable and Beautiful<br />Accessible and visually stimulating<br />
    70. 70. Wrap Up<br />
    71. 71. Do UX Early & Often<br />Put it on the Wall as information radiators<br />Test findings<br />Artifacts<br />Competitor info<br />Update information<br />
    72. 72. Recommended Readings<br />
    73. 73. References<br />Cato, John. User-Centered Web Design. Addison Wesley Longman; 2001. <br />Hackos, JoAnn T., PhD and Redish, Janice C. User and Task Analysis for Interface Design. Wiley; 1998. <br />Henry, Shawn Lawton. Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility Throughout Design.<br />Henry, S.L. and Grossnickle, M. Accessibility in the User-Centered Design Process. Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Inc; Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2004.<br />Kuniavsky, Mike. Observing the User Experience: a Practitioner's Guide to User Research. Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.<br />Mandel, Theo. The Elements of User Interface Design. Wiley; 1997.<br />Nielsen, Jakob and Robert L. Mack. Usability Inspection Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994.<br />Powell, Thomas A. The Complete Reference: Web Design. Osborne/McGraw-Hill; 2000.<br />Rubin, Jeffrey & Dana Chisnell. Handbook of Usability Testing.<br />Schaffer, Eric. Institutionalization of Usability: A Step by Step Guide. Human Factors International, 2004.<br />Slatin, John M. and Sharron Rush Maximum Accessibility: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone. Addison-Wesley Pub Co., 2002.<br />W3C, Web Accessibility Initiative - <br />
    74. 74. References (cont)<br />
    75. 75. Contact<br />Carol J. Smith<br /> @carologic<br /><br /> <br />