Threats And Responses

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  • 1. Threats and Responses Internal Threats
  • 2. Sichuan Earthquake
  • 3. Tsunami
  • 4. Diseases
  • 5. Civil Wars
  • 6. Internal threats in India
    • Floods
      • Flooding of the Indus River
      • Cities were rebuilt
        • Mohenjo-Daro was re-built 6 times
        • Harappa was re-built 5 times
      • Flooding of the Ganges River
        • Cites of Hastinapur
  • 7. Internal threats in India
    • Famines
      • Severe food shortage
      • Usually after a drought
  • 8. Internal threats in India
    • Warfare
      • Wars between rival states
      • Existence of social class seeking power
        • Kshatriyas in the social class system
      • Existence of ancient Indians loyal to different kingdoms in India
  • 9. Internal threats in India
    • Diplomacy
      • Friendship, support and trade will benefit their kingdoms
  • 10. Internal threats in India
    • Rebellion
      • When people are unhappy with their rulers
      • When unpopular laws were implemented
        • Mauryan king killed and the dynasty fell
  • 11. Internal threats in India
    • Spy system
      • To watch over the provinces
      • Not always successful
  • 12. Internal threats in China
    • Floods
      • Yellow River, Yangtze River
      • Build dykes
  • 13. Internal threats in China
    • Famines
      • Especially during the Ming dynasty
  • 14. Internal threats in China
    • Civil Wars
      • Zhou dynasty = period of the warring states (Qi, Qin, Han, Chu, Zhao, Wei, Yan)
        • Large armies and iron weapons used
        • Many casaulties
        • Instability, changed boundaries
        • Qin Kingdom, led by Prince Zheng unified China
        • He removed the feudal system where the shi must respect the king
  • 15. Internal threats in China
    • Peasant rebellion
      • Farmers unhappy with the emperor and his laws
      • Losing Mandate of Heaven
        • Wang Mang was overthrown by the Red Eyebrows
  • 16. Internal threats in China
    • Military rebellion
      • An Lushan over threw emperor Tang Xuanzong
      • Yang Gui fei made An Lushan the empire’s army commander
        • Caused much protest but emperor did not deal with matter properly
        • An Lushan seized opportunity to overthrow the emperor
  • 17. Internal threats in SEA
    • Natural Disaster
      • Volcanic eruptions
        • Mt Merapi in Java killed many and covered Borobudur complex with ash
        • Shifted capital from central Java to east Java
  • 18. Internal threats in SEA
    • Succession disputes
      • Saudara susu - internal struggles to govern
      • Princes try to seize the throne
  • 19. Internal threats in SEA
    • Warfare and rebellion
      • Melaka taken over by Portuguese due to the weak Sultan Mahmud
      • Took advices from the Bendahara Tun Perak (PM)
  • 20. Internal threats in SEA
    • Rebellion
      • Sultan Mahmud’s unwise and unpopular policies
        • Forced Chinese traders to hand over ships
        • Made non-muslims pay higher taxes
        • Did not allow Portuguese to trade at Melaka in 1509 – angered them