Montfort 4 e ss midyear 2010 paper

4,563 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,563
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
303
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Montfort 4 e ss midyear 2010 paper

  1. 1. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year ExamName: __________________________( ) Class:__________ MONTFORT SECONDARY SCHOOL PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION 2009Secondary 4Express/ 5 Normal (Academic) 2192/01Combined Humanities (Social Studies) Paper 1Wednesday 28 April 2010 8.30 – 10.00 am 1 hr 30minsINSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATESWrite your name, class and index number in the spaces provided on the Cover Page and question paper.Section A: You must answer all parts of Question 1.Section B: Answer one question.Write your answers in the writing papers provided.Begin your answer to Section B on a new and separate sheet of paper.You are advised to spend no longer than 45 minutes on Section A.INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATESThe number of marks for each part-question is shown in brackets [ ].How did you find the paper? Please circle your response. Marks Question 1a /5 Didnt Know Totally Somewhat Totally What to UnexpectedExpected Expected Expect Unexpected Question 1b /6 1 2 3 4 5 Question 1c /7 Very Very Easy Easy Neutral Difficult Difficult Question 1d /7 1 2 3 4 5 SEQ No. / 25 _______Which was the most challenging question? Total / 50This question paper consists of 6 printed pages 1
  2. 2. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year ExamName: ______________________( ) Class: ___________ Section A (Source-based Case Study) Question 1 is compulsory for all candidates.Study the Background Information and the sources carefully, and then answer all the questions.You may use any of the sources to help you answer the questions, in addition to those sources whichyou are told to use. In answering the questions, you should use your knowledge of the topic to help youinterpret and evaluate the sources. 1 (a) Study Source A. What is the message in this source? Explain your answer. [5] (b) Study Source B and C. How similar are these sources? Explain your answer. [6] (c) Study Sources D. How far can you accept what the source says about the impact of [7] globalization on culture? Explain your answer. (d) Study Source E. How useful is this source? Explain your answer. [7] 2
  3. 3. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam Impact of GlobalisationBACKGROUND INFORMATIONRead this carefully. It may help you to answer some of the questions.Globalisation can be summarized as the global circulation of goods, services and capital, and also ofinformation, ideas and people. Economic theories suggest that free trade leads to a more efficientallocation of resources, with all countries involved in the trade benefiting. In general, this leads tolower prices, more employment, higher output and a higher standard of living for those in developingcountries. While this is true, in reality, globalization tends to benefit the developed countries more.Globalisation brings about negative consequences on weaker nations who are unable to competeeffectively against powerful industrialised nations.One of the most controversial aspects of globalization is the worldwide spread and dominance ofAmerican culture. Just as US goods flooded world markets in the post-Word War II era, US culture isnow penetrating every continent through the dramatic growth of mass communications such as music,television, films and the Internet, as well as through the penetration of American corporations intoforeign countries. From China to France to the Middle East, foreign leaders and activists haveexpressed fear that global culture may become too Americanized, destroying their own cultural,economic, and religious traditions.Source A : A political cartoon on Earth Day and Globalization published online.From blackcommentator.com, downloaded on 24 March 2010. 3
  4. 4. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year ExamSource B: A view from Amoroso Gombe, a Kenyan, in a forum with Naomi Klein, a famous Canadianjournalist who is popularly known as the unofficial spokeswoman for the anti-globalisation movement. You are not someone from the Third World. You don’t know what it is like to live there. WE WANT MORE GLOBALISATION. We want Coca Cola, Nike, BMW etc. to come and build factories and give us jobs so we don’t have to spend the only life we have languishing in misery. What makes you think you know what’s best for us?Source C: A response from Naomi Klein to Amoroso Gombe. I think poor countries do need investment but the problem with that argument is that it is used to say that we have to accept all of the investment on the corporations’ terms and that is what I am rejecting. For example, workers in Nike factories in Indonesia, Vietnam and China have organized wildcat strikes, putting their jobs on the line, in order to get unions into these factories. These people are not saying they do not want Nike factories but they are saying they want to take the seed of investment and turn it into real development. However, when these workers have tried to improve the conditions of their low wage jobs and improve their standard of living, the factories move to another country.Source D : A view expressed online by Ney Reed, aged 29, a Singaporean, economist by training,who have been an active participant in public-interests & social-interests dialogue groups, and anti-globalization movements. Singapore’s organic culture is the natural way that Singaporeans live which is shaped by the ethnic groups and their own cultures, providing each Singaporean with his values and indigenous identity. With globalization, unfortunately, a Singaporean Indian, Chinese, Malay or Eurasian is no longer a Singaporean Indian, Chinese, Malay or Eurasian as he has become Americanized and lost his self identity. Should our forefathers be brought back from their graves, they will misidentify Singapore to be “an island floating off North America”, This is the nightmare that globalization has forced us to live in.Adapted from http://theonlinecitizen.com/2006/12/globalization-and-its-impact-on-singapore-family-values/ downloaded on3 April 2010. 4
  5. 5. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year ExamSource E : An introductory passage on the lesson unit on Trade and Globalization, taken from theLevin Institute, The State University of New York site. The tremendous growth of international trade over the past several decades has been both a primary cause and effect of globalization. Since 1950, the increase in the production and trade of manufactured goods has increased many times. As a result, consumers around the world now enjoy a wider variety of products than ever before. Although increased international trade has led to tremendous economic growth across the globe - raising incomes, creating jobs, reducing prices, and increasing workers’ earning power- trade can also bring about certain kinds of economic, political, and social disruption. Because the global economy is so interconnected, when large economies suffer recessions, the effects are felt around the world. Trade decreases, and domestic jobs and businesses are lost.From http://www.globalization101.org/issue_main/Trade_and_Globalization downloaded on 24 March 2010.Source F: An extract from an interview with Samir Moussa, aged 28, who has traveled all overthe world, spent time volunteering and learning about tribal medicines, and sees himself as aglobal nomad. Interview: Where did you grow up? I was born in Washington D.C. to a Lebanese father and a Colombian mother. I studied at the Washington International School in D.C., USA, from Kindergarten through high-school graduation. During those years, I was extremely fortunate to spend a lot of my holidays uniting with my extended families in their respective lands. So I grew up in D.C. while visiting my family in Lebanon* and Colombia*. Also, by the last few years of high school, my closest friends had moved back to their home countries and…I would visit them, or they would visit me, and these relationships came to open up a lot of Europe for me and opened up the Middle East for some of them. It had become evident that we had already become international beings that really only had the world to call home. From http://www.globalization101.org/issue_main/Trade_and_Globalization downloaded on 24 March 2010. *Lebanon is in the Middle East and Colombia is in South America. 5
  6. 6. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam Section B (Structured Questions) Answer one question2. Diplomacy and Deterrence a) How far do you agree that international diplomacy has helped to maintain peace and stability in Southeast Asia? Explain your answer. [12] b) Singapore’s Military Deterrence Strategies consists of: Building a Citizen Armed Force Establishing the Singapore Defence Industry Fostering foreign military cooperation Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer. [13]3. Managing Peace and Security: Regional and International Conflict. a) The economic impact of transnational terrorism is more damaging to Singapore than the social impact. How far do you agree? Explain your answer. [12] b) The factors which led to the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and the first Gulf war were: Economic problems Territorial disputes Historical enmity Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer. [13]4. Venice : The Rise and Fall of a City-State a) How far is the rise of Venice achieved by the contributions made by the Venetian leaders? Explain your answer. [12] b) Here are three challenges faced by Venice which led to its decline : Foreign threats Maritime competition Political challenges Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer. [13] End-of-paper 6
  7. 7. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam1a) Study Source A.What is the message in this source? Explain your answer. [5]L1 Describes source [1] e.g. This source shows factories in China producing Earth Day T-shirts, stickers and greeting cards.L2 Makes inference, without supporting evidence [2-3] Award 2m for making one inference, 3m for 2 inferences e.g. China is the world’s factory producing for the mass market. Globalisation and movement of low cost production to China has led it to become a majorcontributor of air pollution / greenhouse gases which harms the environment.L3 Makes supported inference and Inference on purpose or tone [4-5] Award 4m for 1 supported inference to a maximum of 5m e.g. From this source, I can infer that China is the world’s factory producing for the mass market. Thisis evident from the text in the source, saying that due to Earth Day, China had produced “3,500,000 T-shirts,10.950,000 bumper stickers, and 9,800,000 greeting cards”. I can tell that the number produced is huge andmeant for the world market. This source also tells me that globalization and movement of low cost production to China has ledChina to be a major contributor of air pollution / greenhouse gases which harms the environment. This is shownby the thick fumes emitting from the many Chinese factories in the cartoon, and the irony in the text box whichsays: “I love Earth Day.”The cartoonist’s message is to make netizens/online readers aware that that their massconsumption is fuelling industrial production, and that instead of supporting Earth Day, they are actuallycontributing to environmental degradation (fumes from the factories producing Earth day merchandise) whenthey mass consume and buy products from low cost but unenvironment friendly countries such as China.b) Study Sources B and C. How similar are Sources B and C? Explain your answer. [6]L1 Similarity or Difference in provenance [1] e.g. The 2 sources are different in terms of provenance. Source B is a view from Amoroso Gombe in aforum with Naomi Klein, while Source C is the response of Naomi Klein to Gombe.L2 Similarity or Difference in content [2-3] Award 2m for 1 similarity or difference and 3 marks for a well-explained difference/similarity e.g. Both sources are similar as it deals with the economic impact of globalization on development inThird World countries. Both are talking about the ability of globalization to provide jobs for people throughinvestments by Transnational companies (TNCs). In Source B, it mentions that “We want moreglobalization. We want Coca Cola, Nike, BMW etc…” and in Source C, it also talks about “Nike factories inIndonesia, Vietnam and China” and its effect on development. e.g. The 2 sources are different in terms of their reception/views towards globalization andinvestment by TNCs. Source B wants” more globalization” and welcomes transnational companies whileSource C is cautionary and more critical of transnational companies. Source B talks about wanting TNCs likeNike to “come and build factories and give us jobs so we don’t have to …”, suggesting that the lives of peoplewould improve with increased income, whereas Source C talks about exploitation by TNCs like Nike and“sweatshop labour”, saying that workers’ condition have not improved because of their “low wage jobs”, thusarguing that globalization and TNCs have not improved the lives of people in Third World countries. 7
  8. 8. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year ExamL3 Similarity AND Difference [4-5] Both parts of L2. One similarity or difference + tone awarded 5m Award 4m for 1 similarity and 1 difference to a maximum of 5m.L4 L3 + difference in tone / purpose [6] e.g. Source B is more emotional compared to Source C. Source B argues: “What makes you think youknow what’s best for us?” suggesting strong emotions in the challenge posed in the question. The frequent use of“You” in the comments, e.g., “You are not someone… and You don’t know what …”, also suggests that thespeaker in source B is loud and personal in making his points. On the other hand, Source C is more neutral and tries to explain its position logically, seen in:”There are people out there who perhaps don’t want globalisation – I am not one of those people.”. Source C wasalso able to support its views objectively with examples, “ Nike factories in Indonesia, Vietnam and China…,”while Source B is mainly based on feelings and opinion of the speaker.c) Study Source D. How far can you accept what the source says about the impact of globalization on culture? Explain your answer. [7]L1 Describes source [1-2] Award 1m for description and 2m for inferences made e.g. Source D is by a Singaporean on the loss of organic culture in Singapore with globalization.L2 Assess reliability based on provenance [2-3] Award 2m for assertion of reliability and 3m for showing the extent of reliability based on provenance. e.g. This source is reliable as it is adapted from an online article by a Singaporean who is an economistand an anti-globalization activist. Since he is a well-educated Singaporean who knows economy andglobalization, what he says would likely be true.L3 Makes assertion based on cross-reference to other sources OR contextual knowledge [4-5] Award 4m for an attempt to do cross-reference and 5m for a well-explained answer e.g. The source is reliable as what it claims about the “westernization” of Singaporean is supported bySource F which also mentioned becoming an “international beings that really only had the world to call home”.OR This source claims that globalisation has brought about Americanization of Singaporeans and loss ofindigenous culture is supported by the background information which mentions that “From China to France tothe Middle East, foreign leaders and activists have expressed fear that global culture may become tooAmericanized, destroying their own cultural, economic, and religious traditions”. Thus Source D is reliable.L4 Both parts of L3 [6-7] Award 6m for an attempt to do cross-reference and 7m for a well-explained answer. 8
  9. 9. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Examd) Study Source E. How useful is this source in telling you about the impact of globalization? [7]L1 Describes source [1] e.g. This source tells me that globalisation has increased international trade and can also bring abouteconomic, political and social disruption.L2 Useful or Not useful, not supported [2-3] Award 2m for one usefulness, unsupported to a maximum of 3m e.g. This source is useful as it tells me about the negative and positive impact of globalisation ontrade. This source is useful as it explains the economic effect of an interconnected global economy oninternational trade.OR e.g. This source is not useful as it does not tell me much about the social, political and environmentaleffect of globalization on countries and within countries.L3 Useful OR not useful, supported [4-5] Award 4m for one supported usefulness/limitation to a maximum of 5m e.g. This source is useful as it tells me about the negative and positive impact of globalisation ontrade. This can be seen in the explanation that “although increased international trade spurred tremendouseconomic growth”, such as increased income, jobs and reduced prices for products, it can also bring about“certain kinds of economic, political and social disruption e.g. This source is useful as it explains the economic effect of an interconnected global economy oninternational trade. This is evident in the explanation that “when large economies suffer recessions, effects arefelt around the world”, with decreases in trade, domestic jobs and businesses.OR e.g. This source is not useful as it does not tell me much about the social, political and environmentaleffect of globalization on countries and within countries. When I cross-refer to sources D and F, I know thatglobailsation has led to Americanization and loss of local cultures and self identity in receiving countries.Source E is also limited in its usefulness as it make no mention of the depletion of resources and environmentaldegradation that could be brought about by increased trade and globalization, highlighted in sources A.L4 Makes inference on Usefulness using source content AND makes inference on limitation ofsource by cross-referencing to either other source or contextual knowledge [6-7] Award 6m for both one example of usefulness and limitation and 7 m for any other examples Both parts of L3 9
  10. 10. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam Structured Essay Questions2a) How far do you agree that international diplomacy has helped to maintain peace and stability inSoutheast Asia? Explain your answer. [12]L1 Writes on about international diplomacy without focus. [1-2]L2 Describes international diplomacy and the role of UN in SEA [3-4]L3 Explains about International Diplomacy with proper examples. [5-6] Candidates must write the example of ICJ-S’pore – Malaysia & Pedra Branca . (Award up to a max of 6m for answers that are unable to write on GF.) International Diplomacy International diplomacy refers to the international relations among many countries and groupings throughout the world. In international diplomacy, the UN plays an important role. The UN does not serve just one country but the needs of all countries in the world. International diplomacy has played a key role in maintaining the peace and stability in SEA. An important way in which problems are solved through international diplomacy are through the International Court of Justice. The ICJ has played a prominent role is diffusing the potential conflict between various countries. One example is the conflict between Singapore and Malaysia regarding the Pedra Branca island dispute. Both Malaysia and Singapore have demonstrated their willingness to support international conflict resolution procedures by submitting their disputes to the UN arbitration courts and the ICJ. The ruling by the ICJ was subsequently accepted by both Malaysia and Singapore, helping to ensure that conflicts are not escalated into unmanageable proportions and are resolved through international diplomacy rather than force and violence. OR Bilateral Diplomacy However besides international diplomacy, the peace and stability is SEA is also due to bilateral diplomacy. Explains the OF Award a maximum of L4/7only for answers that do not exceed L3/5 Given Factor. The emphasis on good bilateral diplomacy has also helped to ensure the peace and stability of the region. Bilateral diplomacy ensure that there are strong friendships and bonds that promote greater cooperation to reap mutual benefits. Strong bilateral relations with countries in the region have been instrumental in forming new economic, cultural and humanitarian partnerships. Singapore is constantly seeking to further trade ties with her neighbours, maintaining close cultural and social exchanges with Malaysia. Singapore is ready to assist in community and humanitarian missions to neighbouring countries that it has bilateral ties with. For example, when Indonesia was hit by a huge earthquake followed by the devastating tsunami in 2003, Singapore sent medical and rescue teams to assist in disaster management and provide humanitarian and medical aid to the affected areas and people. Singapore played an active role and gave food and other assistance in the immediate aftermath, besides helping with the rebuilding of quake-hit areas. Another example is Singapore’s assistance to Myanmar which was badly hit by Cyclone Nargis in 2008. Singapore led in lending assistance to the flood-hit areas, providing rescue teams, medical, food and 10
  11. 11. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam financial aid. The emphasis on helping neighbouring countries in need and forming strong bilateral friendships with countries in the region has produced win-win solutions, enhanced trade ties, deepened understanding and forged good relations, ensuring peace and stablility among countries in the region. OR Regional Diplomacy ■ Regional diplomacy also plays an important role in ensuring the peace and stability in Southeast Asia. An important organisation that ensures the co-operation and stability of the member countries within the region is ASEAN that aims at close co-operation among member countries to solve their problems. For example, the ARF or ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) plays an important role in ensuring peace and stability in SEA, meeting regularly to provide occasions for ASEAN Heads of State to discuss security issues and confidence-building measures with other dialogue partners like the USA, China, Japan, South Korea and India. Recently, the ARF has been broadened to include Russia, Australia and New Zealand. These dialogues help to ensure that member states are willing to discuss and negotiate to come to a peaceful solution rather than the use of force. Thus this actively helps to promote peace and security in SEA. For example, the Spratly island disputes involving Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and China staking territorial claims on the islands, have not escalated to higher degrees mainly because of regional diplomacy. ASEAN Member states and China have pledged to resolve such territorial disputes through negotiation and discussion rather than the use of force. Indonesia has volunteered itself as an impartial mediator as a non-involved Asian country and though no decisions on sovereignty has been reached, the disputants have agreed to send a scientific team to the islands to assess their resource potential and environmental condition. Thus regional diplomacy through ASEAN has promoted understanding and cooperation among member states and has contributed strongly to a climate of peace and harmony. The effectiveness of regional diplomacy has helped disputing nations to pursue peaceful measures to solve their disputes and such efforts have greatly ensured that the peace and stability of the region is enhanced. [7-L4 L3+ Explain GF and two factors 10]L5 Reaches a conclusion based on balanced argument. [11- 12] International Diplomacy has set the precedent and pattern for countries in the region to pursue internationally accepted norms of relations and resolution thereby enhancing peace and stability in the region. Strong bilateral ties can also set up positive working relations among countries in the region contributing also to the creation of peace and stability. However, for matters relating to SEA as a region, regional diplomacy undertaken by ASEAN could be more important and impactful than international diplomacy and bilateral ties alone. This is because ASEAN also focus on on-going forging of social and cultural understanding, economic and humanitarian cooperation, and by doing so, fosters friendships and understandings among countries, preventing conflicts and disharmony. International diplomacy may help to prevent conflict from escalating but as the international grouping is much larger and there is less interaction among nations, is less able to foster understanding and bonds among SEAsian nations and prevent conflict from occurring. ASEAN could also have a deeper understanding of cultural and political sensitivities in the region than the UN and so, be in a better position to facilitate diplomacy and ensure peace and stability in SEA. 11
  12. 12. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam 2b) Singapore’s Military Deterrence Strategies consists of: Building a Citizen Armed Force Establishing the Singapore Defence Industry Fostering foreign military cooperation Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer. [13] Describes Singapore’s domestic defence without linking to the issue of which is more critical-L1 [1-2]L2 Identifies the reasons as to why a particular factor is important [3-5]L3 Explains as why one factor is more critical than the other factor [6-8] Citizen Armed Force Having a citizen armed force is an important approach to military deterrence for Singapore in that the existence of a standing army This consists of enlistees and reservists forms basic first line of defence in any military threat. Singapore’s national service enlistment requires all able-bodied males above 18 to compulsory military training for 2 years and retains their military obligations as reserves up to the age of 55. Such comprehensive military preparation sends a strong message about the will of the people of Singapore to defend their national sovereignty without being overly dependent on external assistance and serves as deterrence against potential aggressor. In addition the process of national service brings together youths of different socio-economic and ethnic background into a common experience of training for the defence of Singapore. In this way, it is also an effective social cohesion building mechanism that creates a strong and resilient society. In fact, having a citizen-armed force is the necessary precondition before we can adopt other approaches to military deterrence. OR Singapore Defence Industry  Emphasis on Producing new equipment for our usage  Cannot depend on other countries particularly at times of war  SDI also helps to modify existing machinery to suit our purposes-Aircraft Jets  Machinery is also frequently upgraded to keep them in good condition. These measures ensure that Singapore is always self reliant when it comes to her defence needs. The SDI and the idea of Total Defence ensure that Singapore is always prepared to take on her enemies and is ever vigilant. By having a strong defence system we can ensure that potential aggressor nations are hesitant to attack us and we are safe. OR 12
  13. 13. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam Foreign military cooperation is also important to Singapore Military cooperation allows Singapore to foster deeper understanding with military units in the region. By involving in regular joint exercises between the armed forces of different countries, we can attempt to tackle military scenarios that we could all face. It helps militaries in the region to cooperate with one another and not to see us as rivals. One example is the military cooperation such as the Five Power Defence Arrangement (FPDA) also provide opportunities for regional militaries to enhance working relationship and understanding between troops and commanders. This is an arrangement made by Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand and Britain to conduct annual military exercises between the countries so as to learn from one another. Besides that we also have bilateral training exercises with Australia. Australia provides vast open spaces for training and we also have a Jet flying training school in Western Australia. Australia also has allowed our RSAF train their for 15 years and our air crew services personnel can benefit immensely from this. Such training arrangements allows the Singapore Armed Forces to realistically assess themselves on how battle-ready they are by using other armed forces as benchmarks. As Singapore is a small country with limited manpower to deploy, it is more cost-effective to build strong diplomatic relations and enter into military cooperation that will ensure we have friends and partners that would want a peaceful and stable Singapore.L4 Both aspects of L3 [9-11] Reaches a conclusion drawing out a well-argued viewpoint. [12-13]L5 Despite adopting all 3 layers of approaches to military deterrence, the basic level is still the most fundamental. Having a citizen-armed force provides a essential national building socializing agent. Only with a credible defence force, can Singaporeans focus on other equally important areas of Total Defence, each in his own capacity. When a society is well prepared and able to see to its own defence, it makes us worthy and dependable partners in regional military cooperation.(3a) The economic impact of transnational terrorism is more damaging to Singapore than the social impact. How far do you agree? Explain your answer. [13]Level Descriptors Marks 1 Writes about transnational terrorism but without focus on the question 1-2 Award 1 mark for each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks eg. Transnational terrorism involves the unlawful use of force or indiscriminate violence by internationally-linked groups against persons and properties in many different parts of the world. 2 Agrees OR Disagrees and identifies reasons 3-4 Award 3 marks for identifying 1 reason for agreeing OR disagreeing Award 4 marks for identifying 2 reasons for agreeing OR disagreeing Eg. Yes, transnational terrorism causes economic damages because there is loss of lives and properties. The airline and tourism industry will be affected. Eg No, transnational terrorism causes social conflicts like suspicion and tension among the various races of Singapore. Good communal relations built up over the years become fragile. 3 Agrees AND Disagrees and identifies reasons 4-5 Award 4 marks for identifying 1 reason for agreeing and disagreeing Award 5 marks for identifying 2 reasons for agreeing and disagreeing 13
  14. 14. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year ExamLevel Descriptors Marks 4 Explain reasons for Agreement OR Disagreement 6-8 Award 6 marks for an explanation of why economic impact of transnational terrorism is damaging, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 8 marks. Eg. Transnational terrorism can cause economic fallout in US and other countries, also impacting Singapore economically. For example, immediately after the September 11 attack, the total loss of life and property cost insurance companies to give out large payouts. The airline industry will also lose a lot of business in the months following the attacks as many people were afraid of flying. For example, immediately after 911, worldwide tourism and airline industries, and Singapore Airlines and the local tourist industries and retail dependent on tourism were also affected by the reduced number of travelers worldwide. Worldwide, stock markets were also affected by fear and anxiety the plunge in US market was also felt in the Singapore stock market and others round the world. In the case of Bali, after the terrorist attack in 2002, the entire tourist industry was severely affected. Tourist arrivals fell by more than 50% immediately after the bomb blasts. Many Balinese lost their livelihood. In turn, travels to the Southeast Asian region and Singapore was also affected as fear of traveling to Muslim-dominated region returned. Many governments have to spend a lot of money and resources in holding exercises to ensure that emergency services and their citizens are prepared and know what to do in the event of a terrorist attack. In January 2006, Singapore held the Exercise Northstar V, led by the Singapore Civil Defence Force involved 2000 personnels from 22 agencies and involved the closure of MRT stations and service disruptions of three hours. Measures were also taken to step up security at Changi International airport and, popular public places and secure facilities, adding to the increased spending on national security. OR Award 4 marks for an explanation of why social impact of transnational terrorism is damaging, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 8 marks. Eg. Acts of terrorism may create suspicion and tension among the various ethnic and religious groups. Governments worldwide have realized that the importance of ensuring that terrorism does not hurt the harmony among the different races and religions. Singapore government has launched the Community Engagement Programme in 2006 as a long term effort to ensure that Singaporeans are better equipped to maintain social cohesion and harmony, should a crisis happen in Singapore. It aims to bring together Singaporeans from different communities, to strengthen inter-communal bonds and to put in place response plan to help deal with potential communal tensions after an incident, be it a terrorist attack or a civil emergency. 5 Both aspects of L4 9-11 Award 9 marks for an explanation of how economic impact AND social impact of transnational terrorism are damaging to Singapore, and an additional mark for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 11 marks. 6 Reaches a balanced conclusion based on explanation of factors in L5 12-13 14
  15. 15. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam3b. The factors which led to the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and the first Gulf war were: Economic problems Territorial disputes Historical enmity Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer. L1 Answers on the topic, but not addressing the question [1-2] L2 Describes given factor AND/OR another factor(s) [3-4] Award 3 marks for one factor and 4 marks for another factor described. Award additional marks for details given. L3 Explains given factor OR other factors [5-7] Explanations must have valid contextual support. Award 5 marks for an explanation, and additional marks for any supporting detail, to a maximum of 7 marks. e.g. Economic reasons led to the conflict as Kuwait ignored the quota set for oil production as produced in excess of the limit set. This angered Iraq as it meant that Iraq lost US $1 billion for every drop of one US dollar in the price of the oil. The overproduction of oil by Kuwait caused a drop of price per barrel. Iraq could not longer tolerate this kind of economic war and thus decided to use military war. Iraq also suffered huge economic losses during her war with Iran. Iraq owed US$80 billion and also needed US$230 billion for development and reconstruction projects. Therefore Iraq eyed the sole possession of Rumaila oilfied and desired port access through Kuwait’s two islands in Bubiyan and Warbah, as its only port, Umm Qasr, was shallow. OR e.g. However, the conflict also arose due to territorial dispute between the two countries. Both shared the Rumaila oilfield along their borders and Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil form Iraq by using slant drilling. When Kuwait refused to pay compensation, this escalated their animosity. Iraq also was very unhappy with Kuwait’s ownership of Bubiyan and Warbah. The two islands could block off Iraq’s access to the eas, affecting Iraq’s oil transportation. Kuwait also refused to lease the islands to Iraq. Thus leading to territorial dispute. Historical enemity resulted from Iraq’s refusal to recognise Kuwait as an independent country. Iraq claimed sovereignty over Kuwait in 1961 as it asserted that Kuwait was historically a part of Iraq under the Ottoman rule. Thus, the enemity contributed to sense of distrusts and conflict among the two countries. L4 Explain given factor AND other factors [8- Both L3 examples. Award 8 marks for explaining one side and identifying/describing 11] the other side. Award 9 marks for explaining both sides and additional marks for any supporting detail, up to a maximum of 11 marks. L5 L4 + reaches a balanced conclusion explicitly addressing “how important” [12-13] e.g. Economic reasons were more important political reasons because Iraq might not be involved in the conflict if she had sole possession of Rumaila. Bubiyan and Warbah as she would have gained economically from oil. Fighting over oil production is also more important than historical enmity as people need food, fuel and water to make the country’s economy prosper. 15
  16. 16. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam 4. Venice : The Rise and Fall of a City-State4a) How far is the rise of Venice achieved by the contributions made by the Venetian leaders? Explain youranswer Explain your answer [12]L1 Writes about the rise of Venice but without focus on the question. [1] Award 1 mark for each detail, to a maximum of 2 marks.L2 Describes the given factor, OR identifies / describes other factor(s). [2 - 3] Award 2 marks for describing the given factor OR identifying / describing other factor(s) Award 3 marks for both. Contributions made by the Venetian leaders : (a) Establish control in the Adriatic Sea. (b) Building up the Venetian empire. (c) Expand the Venetian empire in the Mediterranean SeaL3 Explains the given factor OR other factor(s) and address the issue ‘How far … ?’ [4 – 6] Award 4 marks for an explanation, and additional marks for any supporting detail, up to a maximum of 6 marks. Contributions of the Venetian leaders in the rise of Venice – The Venetian leaders were forward looking and capable leaders. Talented Venetians offered to serve in government - e.g. Doge Enrico Dandolo (1192 – 1205) – Building the Venetian Empire - directed Fourth Crusade, a military campaign to free Jerusalem from Muslim control – but used it as a campaign to control Byzantime Emperor and take over the capital, Constantinople – Venice gained recognition from other states and cotrolled important territories. e.g. Doge Pietro II Orseolo (991 – 1009) – A capable leader who felt that peace in the region would boost trade – reconciled feuding cities, negotiated treaties with major powers and subdued the pirate in Dalmatia. Relations with pirates - paid pirates to stop harassing ships - destroyed pirates in mid-10th century when strong. e.g. Doge Pietro Ziani (1172 – 1178). He divided Venice into districts / captured Constantine making Venice a maritime empire – set up military outpost along trading routes. Impact of good leadership : ensured Venice had good governance and instilled fear on rivals due to Venice’s good leadership. The capable Venetian leaders also ensure domination of regional trade - captured coastal territories in Adriatic and Ionian Seas. - captured Cyprus and Crete in eastern Mediterranean.L4 Explains the given factor and identifies / describes other factor(s) and address the issue [7 -10] ‘How far … ?’ Award 7 - 10 marks for answers which explain the given factor and identify / describe other factor(s). Reforms in the government : (a) Change Structure of Government. (b) Meet the challenges of a growing city-state – creation of the Great Council / Specialisation of duties. (c) Maintain checks and balances. No one power or office became too powerful / practice of equality / meritocracy within nobility. (d) Preventing the concentration of power. The Impact of having capable leaders : loyalty of citizens / no abuse of power by leaders / no one person/office able to dominate power. All these contributed to the rise of Venice. 16
  17. 17. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam Trade developments and expansion : (a) Attitude towards trade – they were skilled diplomats and were able to obtain favourable trading terms such as lower tax rates than their competitors – they maintained competitive edge over rivals. The Venetian possessed enterprising spirit – staying ahead of competitors / explored new trade routes e.g. Marco Polo. (b) Innovations in maritime technology – development in nautical navigation (nautical charts & mariner’s compass) and weaponry paved the way for oceanic exploration and trade - to dominate trading routes / ports. (c) Efficiency in managing voyages – making use of galleys and maritime technology enabled efficiency in arrival and departure of voyages – meant that Venice was able to expand its trade into many regions. (d) Overcoming trade competition – main competitor was Genoa which was also dependent on maritime trade. Genoa competed fiercely with Venice especially in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea – resulted in conflicts and series of wars – defeated Genoa in the late 14th Century – Venice was able to control the Mediterranean Sea and brought more international trade. (e) Trade monopoly – Venice was most successful in dominating trading activities compared to Genoa and the Hanseatic League – Venice was strategically located at the northern tip of the Adriatic Sea, Central and Southern Europe relied on Venice for goods from the East such as spices, sugar and diamonds. – Venice could provide a wide variety of goods – Used a combination of overland and seas routes to get to Arabian ports to but and sell goods at a high profit. Industrial development : (a) Trade-related industry – shipbuilding industry benefited the expansion of Venetian trade – setting up of Arsenal. (b) Manufacturing industries – as Venice became wealthier, it turn to manufacturing industries e.g. glassmaking industry / printing industries. Attracted new industries, jobs, skilled craftmen etc. Innovation practices : Double-entry bookkeeping – standardisation of the credit and debit columns and entries are recorded by date. (c) Giro-banking – Venetian were able make or receive payment by making request at the bank without cash or having insufficient fund. Territorial possessions : (d) Important trade routes – secured and controlled important trade routes - Mediterranean region - Control over Adriatic Sea. Social Transformation : (e) Cosmopolitan city-state. (f) Artistic achievements. (g) Scientific and literary developments. Economic prosperity : Craftsmen were talented and well-paid. Guilds ensured job security and quality goods.L5 L3 & L4, plus explains the relative importance of different factors. Reached a balanced [11-12] conclusion. Award up to 12 marks for a balanced conclusion. 17
  18. 18. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam4b) Here are three challenges faced by Venice which led to its decline : Foreign threats Maritime competition Political challenges Is any one of these more important than the others? Explain your answer [13]L1 Writes about challenges faced without focus on the question. Assertions lacking valid [1-2] contextual support. Award 1 mark for detail.L2 Describe the different challenges faced by Venice. [2 -3] Award 2 marks for describing one factor OR describes other factor(s). e.g. Foreign threats / Maritime competition / Political challenges / Social challenges.L3 Explain how one of the challenges led to Venice’s downfall, describing the others. [4 – 6] Explanations and elaborations must have valid contextual support. Award 4 marks for an explanation, and additional marks for any supporting detail, up to a maximum of 6 marks. e.g.Foreign threats : (a) Involvement in the mainland - Venice needed to control nearby mainland territories as she needed to secure her supply of essential resources such as water. - To protect her territories and commercial interests, Venice would switch alliances with different opposing states. This strategy put Venice at high risk as there was no certainty which alliance would ultimately benefit Venice. - Rivalry among the mainland states made the overland trade route unsafe. This was cause of concern for the Venetians as they depended on these commercial crossroads for trade and wealth. (b) Rise of the Ottoman Empire - By 15th century, the Ottoman Empire was Venice’s greatest competitor for maritime control. - To fight off attacks by the Ottomans from the coasts of the Adriatic Seas, the Venetians had to use the galleys, which otherwise were used for trading purposes. - Wars with the Ottomans drained Venice’s resources and manpower and disrupted trade. (c) The League of Cambrai - This was a military alliance consisting of major European powers such as Spain. - The League sought to reduce the power of Venice and divide its territories amongst its member states through military campaigns. - To finance its military campaigns, Venice had to raise taxes to finance the employment of its mercernaries armies and replenish its supply of weapons. Venice’s resources were further drained and weakened.L4 Explains two or more factors. [7 – Award 7 - 11 marks for adequate explanations of 2-3 challenges. 11] L3+ And e.g. Maritime competition : (a) (a) Discovery of new sea routes - Portuguese explorer, Vasco de Gama managed to reach the East by going around the Cape of Good Hope, thereby opening up an alternative sea-route that allowed the Portuguese to compete directly with the Venetians in the spice trade. – Venice’s route via the Mediterranean Sea followed by an overland route was both time-consuming and dangerous. - The discovery destroyed Venice’s monopoly on the lucrative spice trade and reduced greatly the large profits which Venetians traders had been earning. 18
  19. 19. Montfort Secondary Marking Scheme SS 4E/5NA 2010 Mid-year Exam (b) New trade rivals - By the 17th century, new trade rivals such as the Dutch East India Company and British East India Company emerged and threatened Venice’s position as an entrepot port. - Due to better-designed ships manned by better-skilled sailors, the Dutch and British were able to negotiate more successfully than the Venetians for favourable trading rights in new ports. - Venice’s protectionist policy resulted in higher taxes on foreign traders who chose to trade with other partners. And e.g. Political challenges : (a) Incapable leadership - The declining numbers of the nobility affected their appointment to the highest offices. - Most policies helped to ensure the domination of the government by a small group of nobles who inevitable practised corruption. - While the intention of the practice of rotation of duties was good, it meant that competent officers could be replaced by incompetent or inexperienced ones. Venice suffered heavy losses in battles as a result of this practice. (b) Corruption in the government - Some nobles lost their income due to a combination of salary suspension and trade disruption which in turn were brought about by the war. - Some poor nobles chose to sell their votes to the highest bidder. This meant that leaders were elected not on merit. - Positions were sold to raise funds during crises. This led to incompetent leaders taking positions in the government. (c) Over-dependence on mercenaries - Venice did not conscript its citizens, choosing to employ foreign professional soldiers to fight their battles with enemy states. - Some of the soldiers were not loyal as they could always be offered better salaries from other states. - Prosperous European states not only could afford large mercenary armies, they had a larger and stronger home-grown army.L5 Weighs the relative importance of the challenges based on a criteria such as impact or relative [12 – importance of the factors. 13] Award 12 - 13 marks for a balanced conclusion with explanations. e.g. When Venice was at its peak, the Leaders were capable and forward-looking and placed the State’s interest above self. However, when Venice went into decline as it faced increasing foreign challenges and changing circumstances, the leaders neglected their responsibilities. They were more concerned for self than state. But the most important factor for Venice’s decline was the Venetian’s inability to manage its political challenges. Venetians were more concerned over wealth than security - The nobles were less involved in important matters such as administration of the city-state as they become more affluent. - The widening gap between the rich and poor did not help to bring cohesion to a troubled state - Lavish lifestyles involving parades, celebrations and gambling distracted people from their daily duties and work. Many city states in history have risen from obscurity to splendour and power, only to allow weaknesses and corruption in the government and leaders destroy their system. Complacency also creep in within a system and ultimately, destroy a nation. End-op-paper 19

×