How to resolve the conflicts?         Arab League
What did Iraq want from Kuwait?•   Rumaila Oilfield compensation•   Bubiyan and Warbah islands•   Oil production pegged to...
Kuwait’s actions• Rumaila Oilfield’s compensation  – Denied theft accusation  – Refused to pay compensation of US$2.4billi...
Kuwait’s actions• Bubiyan and Warbah islands  – Claimed ownership  – Refused to lease islands  – Talks failed• Iraq deemed...
Kuwait’s actions• Oil production pegged at OPEC quota  – Refused to abide to quota  – Oil price fell from US$18 to US$7 pe...
Reactions• America’s stand  – Fear
Reasons for Invasion• Clear war debt/ rebuild economy  – Needs to clear debt of US$80 billion  – Require US$230 billion fo...
On-lookers and their actions• Arab League  – Mediator  – Pressured other countries to write off debts eg.    Saudi  – Pres...
Outcome of negotiations• Failed  – Due to islands disputes  – Fielded troops at border• 2 Aug 1990  – Invasion of Kuwait  ...
Reasons for Invasion• Free Kuwaitis – revolutionaries• To calm/ improve situations in Iraq (Shi’a  Muslims + Iraq soldiers...
What it means if Iraq takes over               Kuwait?• Control 20% of world’s oil production  – Set high prices  – Affect...
Reactions from Arab• Say “NO” to western intervention• Kuwait requested Arab League to condemn  Iraq’s actions/withdrawal ...
Reactions from US• Intervened and deployed soldiers to defend  Saudi – Operation Desert Shield• Joined in by Britain, Fran...
Reactions from International              community• UN security council passed resolution  – Immediate withdrawal from Ku...
Iraq’s reactions• Before Arab League’s act to condemn Iraq  – Withdraw from Kuwait  – Kuwait’s ruling power ousted• After ...
Iraq’s reactions• Pressured to withdraw from Kuwait (with  conditions  – End sanctions  – Full control of Rumaila oilfield...
Operation Desert Storm• 15 January 1991• Force Iraq out of Kuwait• Destroyed Iraq’s command and control  capability throug...
Impact• Kuwait  – More than 1000 civilians killed, thousands    tortured  – Fled their country  – Looting  – Set fire to 6...
Impact• Iraq  – Military crippled     •   Destroyed almost 1/3 war machines     •   Destroyed air defence     •   Loss of ...
Impact• Kurds rise against Saddam   – No military support from coaltion   – Massacred one million Kurdish refugees   – Coa...
Regional/ International Impacts• Environmental catastrophe  – Oil wells fires  – Dumping of oil (11 million barrels) in Pe...
Regional/ International Impact• Displaced foreigners  – 2 million foreigners fled the country  – Sufferings for their family
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Gulf war

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Gulf war

  1. 1. How to resolve the conflicts? Arab League
  2. 2. What did Iraq want from Kuwait?• Rumaila Oilfield compensation• Bubiyan and Warbah islands• Oil production pegged to OPEC quota• Rebuild Iraq after Iran-Iraq war• Clear the war debt
  3. 3. Kuwait’s actions• Rumaila Oilfield’s compensation – Denied theft accusation – Refused to pay compensation of US$2.4billion• Angered Iraq – Relationship soured and tension rose
  4. 4. Kuwait’s actions• Bubiyan and Warbah islands – Claimed ownership – Refused to lease islands – Talks failed• Iraq deemed Kuwait as a threat – Block off Iraq’s access to the gulf – Affect oil export – Affect revenue
  5. 5. Kuwait’s actions• Oil production pegged at OPEC quota – Refused to abide to quota – Oil price fell from US$18 to US$7 per barrel• Iraq deemed Kuwait as waging economic war – Revenue fell – Lost US$1 billion when price fall by a dollar
  6. 6. Reactions• America’s stand – Fear
  7. 7. Reasons for Invasion• Clear war debt/ rebuild economy – Needs to clear debt of US$80 billion – Require US$230 billion for reconstruction works• Not enough resources in war torn Iraq• People were unhappy with post-war situations – Shi’a Muslims – Iraqi soldiers
  8. 8. On-lookers and their actions• Arab League – Mediator – Pressured other countries to write off debts eg. Saudi – Pressured Kuwait and UAE to lower production – Organized dialogue between Iraq and Kuwait • Kuwait to raise oil prices to US$21 per barrel • Kuwait to write off war debt • Kuwait to provide US$500 million loan
  9. 9. Outcome of negotiations• Failed – Due to islands disputes – Fielded troops at border• 2 Aug 1990 – Invasion of Kuwait – Kuwait fell within 12 hrs – Moved towards Saudi
  10. 10. Reasons for Invasion• Free Kuwaitis – revolutionaries• To calm/ improve situations in Iraq (Shi’a Muslims + Iraq soldiers)• US sympathy
  11. 11. What it means if Iraq takes over Kuwait?• Control 20% of world’s oil production – Set high prices – Affect world’s economy• Bold – Look towards Saudi’s riches
  12. 12. Reactions from Arab• Say “NO” to western intervention• Kuwait requested Arab League to condemn Iraq’s actions/withdrawal – Divided outcome – ineffective
  13. 13. Reactions from US• Intervened and deployed soldiers to defend Saudi – Operation Desert Shield• Joined in by Britain, France and members of Arab League – coalition forces
  14. 14. Reactions from International community• UN security council passed resolution – Immediate withdrawal from Kuwait• Set up for negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait• Kuwait and Iraq’s assets frozen• Military and economic sanctions (useful??)
  15. 15. Iraq’s reactions• Before Arab League’s act to condemn Iraq – Withdraw from Kuwait – Kuwait’s ruling power ousted• After Arab League’s act to condemn Iraq with coalition forces – Declared annexation – Took westerners as hostages in Iraq and Kuwait
  16. 16. Iraq’s reactions• Pressured to withdraw from Kuwait (with conditions – End sanctions – Full control of Rumaila oilfield – Access to the gulf• Conditions not accepted by US• Last meeting before deadline for war – failed
  17. 17. Operation Desert Storm• 15 January 1991• Force Iraq out of Kuwait• Destroyed Iraq’s command and control capability through air raids• Destroyed communication centers• Iraq crippled
  18. 18. Impact• Kuwait – More than 1000 civilians killed, thousands tortured – Fled their country – Looting – Set fire to 600 out of 950 oil wells – Damages over US$25 billion
  19. 19. Impact• Iraq – Military crippled • Destroyed almost 1/3 war machines • Destroyed air defence • Loss of morale among troops • Iraqi soldiers surrendered • Thousands of troops killed along the Highway of Death
  20. 20. Impact• Kurds rise against Saddam – No military support from coaltion – Massacred one million Kurdish refugees – Coalition abandoned the Kurds – Peacekeepers sent in• Iraqi’s sufferings – Widespread destruction – Spread of diseases - contamination
  21. 21. Regional/ International Impacts• Environmental catastrophe – Oil wells fires – Dumping of oil (11 million barrels) in Persian Gulf – Marine life threatened – $$ to put out fire – $$ to clean up oil slick
  22. 22. Regional/ International Impact• Displaced foreigners – 2 million foreigners fled the country – Sufferings for their family
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