Governance In Singapore

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Secondary Three Social Studies syllabus Singapore

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Governance In Singapore

  1. 1. Governance in Singapore Role of the people Functions of the government Four guiding principles Case Study – Traffic Management policy Case Study – Population policy
  2. 2. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Role of the People in Singapore </li></ul>Feedback Unit Letters, dialogues Feedback Unit Relevant ministry Change of policy
  3. 3. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Functions of the Government </li></ul>
  4. 4. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Makes the laws of the country </li></ul><ul><li>President, MPs </li></ul><ul><li>Executes the laws thro’ ministries and civil service </li></ul><ul><li>President, PM, cabinet ministers </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures laws are justly carried out </li></ul><ul><li>Judges, law courts </li></ul>
  5. 5. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Leadership is key </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honest, capable leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sound decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good character </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anticipate change and stay relevant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-sufficiency in water supply (NEWater, desalinated water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IR (Integrated Resorts) to boost tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade knowledge and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward for work and work for reward </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meritocracy through Edusave Scholarship, Merit Bursary Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress Package 2006 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A stake for everyone, opportunities for all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultative government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions are made for the needs of the nation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Traffic Policy in Singapore </li></ul><ul><li>ALS (Area Licensing Scheme) </li></ul><ul><li>ERP (Electronic Road Pricing) </li></ul><ul><li>Park-and-Ride Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle Quota Scheme </li></ul>
  7. 7. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Area licensing Scheme (ALS) – in the 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>as a result of high traffic volume in citycentre </li></ul><ul><li>Motorists pay to use the roads in the CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Gantries, Restricted Zones set up </li></ul><ul><li>Improve bus service </li></ul><ul><li>Increase cost of parking </li></ul><ul><li>Park-and-ride facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Before – 32500 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>After – 7700 vehicles </li></ul>
  8. 8. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) – 1998 to replace the ALS </li></ul><ul><li>more effective and efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date technology </li></ul>
  9. 9. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Park-and-Ride Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Motorists to park vehicles outside city area </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage the use public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Still in implementation today </li></ul><ul><li>Not successful! </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of parking space </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to park outside city area </li></ul><ul><li>Waste of resources for shuttle bus service </li></ul>
  10. 10. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Vehicle Quota System </li></ul><ul><li>Control of car population by LTA (Land Transport Authority) </li></ul><ul><li>COE (Certificate of Entitlement) system </li></ul>
  11. 11. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>1950 – 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Post-war baby boom (1.02mil – 1.64mil) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>3 five-year plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for smaller families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ stop at two’ policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 children per woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage use of contraceptives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legalize abortion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No paid maternity leave for more than 3 children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No income tax relief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased in delivery charges for each additional child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No priority in allocation of government flats </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Problems of slow population growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining birth rate (1.82 children per woman) in the 1980s due to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Success of policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase standard of living </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women delaying marriage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weaker defence force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not enough men to defend Singapore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ageing population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More resources will be used to support the aged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unattractive to MNCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller consumer market </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>How did the government promote population growth after the 1980s? </li></ul><ul><li>The Graduate Mother’s Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Three or More if You Can Afford It </li></ul><ul><li>Pro-family Measures </li></ul>
  15. 15. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>How did the government promote population growth after the 1980s? </li></ul><ul><li>The Graduate Mother’s Scheme, 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduates encouraged to get married </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduates encouraged to have more children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>** Scheme withdrawn in 1985 ** </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>How did the government promote population growth after the 1980s? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three or More If You Can Afford It, 1987 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Medisave for delivery charges of 1 st three children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Publicity campaigns on the joys of parenthood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited success – fertility rate of 1.24 (2004), 35100 births </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>How did the government promote population growth after the 1980s? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New marriage and parenthood packages, 2004 (based on feedback) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equalized medical benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grandparent caregiver relief </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 day work week for Civil Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extended maternity leave </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>How did the government promote population growth after the 1980s? </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting Foreign Talent to take up PRship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed immigration policy, 1989 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive housing, education packages for children of FTs </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population </li></ul><ul><li>What happened? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post war baby boom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining birth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer life span </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of an ageing population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce in competitiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand for more healthcare and social svcs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller security force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strain on working people </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population - meeting the challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge : 19% of Singaporeans = aged (>65 yrs old) </li></ul><ul><li>Make them useful/ assets to the society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them opportunities to add value to the public and private organizations, boost family life </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population - meeting the challenges </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Many Helping Hands’ Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing responsibility to take care of senior citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government rely less on increasing taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government can save resources to meet the nation’s other needs </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population - meeting the challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Individual responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age gracefully through early planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthy lifestyle by eating well and exercising regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial planning by attending talks </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population - meeting the challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Family Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides emotional, social and financial support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitude towards elderly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celebrating Grandparents’ Day </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population - meeting the challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Community Help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary welfare organizations (Home Nursing Foundation for Elders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of housewives to help the needs of the senior citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free health checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreational activities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Governance in Singapore <ul><li>Preparing for an ageing population - meeting the challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Government Support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribunal for the maintenance of parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax relief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public housing scheme </li></ul></ul>

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