External Threats


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External Threats

  1. 1. External Threats<br />India, China, Southeast Asia<br />
  2. 2. External Threats - India<br />Foreign Invasion<br />Rivalry between Indian Kingdoms<br />
  3. 3. Foreign Invasions - India<br />Khyber Pass – gateway to India<br />
  4. 4. Foreign Invasions<br />Arrival of the Aryans via the Khyber Pass<br />Arrival of Cyrus, the emperor of Persia conquered lands to the west of Indus River<br />Arrival of Alexander the Great<br />Arrival of the Hunas (Huns) in the northern part of India during the Gupta period<br />
  5. 5. Rivalry between Indian Kingdoms<br />Kingdoms fought for then control of wealthy Southern India <br />Pallava Kingdom won against the Chalukya Kingdom<br />Chola Kingdom (under Rajaraja the Great) later defeated the Pallava , Chera and Pandya kingdoms, conquered the northern part of Ceylon<br />
  6. 6. Response against External threats<br />Through defense<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Building diplomatic relationship<br />Integration of foreigners<br />
  7. 7. Responses<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Tall walls in Pataliputra with 64 gates and 572 watch towers<br />Use of armies for self –defence during Harsha’s rule (use of 100 000 calvary and 60 000 war elephant<br />Weakness<br />Ineffective armies led them to being defeated by Alexander the Great<br />
  8. 8. Responses<br />Building diplomatic relationship through alliances<br />Invade common enemies<br />Mauryan kings sent ambassadors to other kingdoms<br />
  9. 9. Responses<br />Integration<br />Accepting foreigners into their society<br />Giving a class ranking (kshatriyas)<br />Kushans (Central Asian Nomads) adopted Indian way of life and practised Hinduism n Buddhism<br />The Kushans minted coins that featured Hindu gods, helped spread Hinduism<br />
  10. 10. China<br />Exposed to the vast plains of Central Asia<br />Exposed to fierce nomadic tribes (Xiongnus)<br />Xiongnus invaded northwest China during the Han period<br />Jurchen from Manchuria attacked the Song dynasty, and set up the Jin dynasty<br />
  11. 11. Responses<br />Tribute system<br />Han Wudi allowed kings to continue ruling the kingdoms he conquered.<br />Promised to help them if they were attacked by rival tribes and kingdoms<br />In return, the kings will give regular gifts or tribute to Wudi<br />Send their sons to receive Chinese education (hostage)<br />Tribes also paid tributes to Wudi in exchange for trade along the Silk Road<br />
  12. 12. Responses<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Great Wall of China<br />Keep nomadic tribes out of China<br />Maintained large armies<br />Peasant infantrymen<br />Developing advanced weapons<br />Invention of flame thrower<br />Use of gunpowder for rockets n grenades<br />Cannon<br />
  13. 13. Responses<br />Integration<br />Acceptance of Chinese culture<br />Adopted Chinese names, customs, dressing, Chinese language and script<br />Married Chinese women<br />With the exception of Mongols<br />
  14. 14. South East Asia<br />Rivalry between kingdoms<br />4 major trading kingdoms (Funan, Srivijaya, Khmer, Melaka)<br />Srivijaya attacked by rival states (Siam Kingdom, Javanese Kingdom)<br />
  15. 15. South East Asia<br />Foreign Invasions<br />North Vietnam was conquered by Han Wudi<br />Melaka was attacked by Portuguese<br />
  16. 16. Responses<br />Diplomacy<br />Forming friendships with neighbours<br />Exchanged letters and gifts<br />Sent ambassadors<br />Tribute system against attacks <br />
  17. 17. Responses<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Portuguese built a strong fort called A Famosa after capturing Melaka<br />Secured 12 attacks by rivals<br />Weapons<br />Matchlock, cannons<br />New naval technologies<br />However useless against Europeans<br />
  18. 18. Responses<br />Patriotic rebellions<br />Trung sisters tried to push the Chinese out of north Vietnam<br />