Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
External Threats
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

External Threats

5,712

Published on

Published in: Travel, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
5,712
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
201
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. External Threats<br />India, China, Southeast Asia<br />
  • 2. External Threats - India<br />Foreign Invasion<br />Rivalry between Indian Kingdoms<br />
  • 3. Foreign Invasions - India<br />Khyber Pass – gateway to India<br />
  • 4. Foreign Invasions<br />Arrival of the Aryans via the Khyber Pass<br />Arrival of Cyrus, the emperor of Persia conquered lands to the west of Indus River<br />Arrival of Alexander the Great<br />Arrival of the Hunas (Huns) in the northern part of India during the Gupta period<br />
  • 5. Rivalry between Indian Kingdoms<br />Kingdoms fought for then control of wealthy Southern India <br />Pallava Kingdom won against the Chalukya Kingdom<br />Chola Kingdom (under Rajaraja the Great) later defeated the Pallava , Chera and Pandya kingdoms, conquered the northern part of Ceylon<br />
  • 6. Response against External threats<br />Through defense<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Building diplomatic relationship<br />Integration of foreigners<br />
  • 7. Responses<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Tall walls in Pataliputra with 64 gates and 572 watch towers<br />Use of armies for self –defence during Harsha’s rule (use of 100 000 calvary and 60 000 war elephant<br />Weakness<br />Ineffective armies led them to being defeated by Alexander the Great<br />
  • 8. Responses<br />Building diplomatic relationship through alliances<br />Invade common enemies<br />Mauryan kings sent ambassadors to other kingdoms<br />
  • 9. Responses<br />Integration<br />Accepting foreigners into their society<br />Giving a class ranking (kshatriyas)<br />Kushans (Central Asian Nomads) adopted Indian way of life and practised Hinduism n Buddhism<br />The Kushans minted coins that featured Hindu gods, helped spread Hinduism<br />
  • 10. China<br />Exposed to the vast plains of Central Asia<br />Exposed to fierce nomadic tribes (Xiongnus)<br />Xiongnus invaded northwest China during the Han period<br />Jurchen from Manchuria attacked the Song dynasty, and set up the Jin dynasty<br />
  • 11. Responses<br />Tribute system<br />Han Wudi allowed kings to continue ruling the kingdoms he conquered.<br />Promised to help them if they were attacked by rival tribes and kingdoms<br />In return, the kings will give regular gifts or tribute to Wudi<br />Send their sons to receive Chinese education (hostage)<br />Tribes also paid tributes to Wudi in exchange for trade along the Silk Road<br />
  • 12. Responses<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Great Wall of China<br />Keep nomadic tribes out of China<br />Maintained large armies<br />Peasant infantrymen<br />Developing advanced weapons<br />Invention of flame thrower<br />Use of gunpowder for rockets n grenades<br />Cannon<br />
  • 13. Responses<br />Integration<br />Acceptance of Chinese culture<br />Adopted Chinese names, customs, dressing, Chinese language and script<br />Married Chinese women<br />With the exception of Mongols<br />
  • 14. South East Asia<br />Rivalry between kingdoms<br />4 major trading kingdoms (Funan, Srivijaya, Khmer, Melaka)<br />Srivijaya attacked by rival states (Siam Kingdom, Javanese Kingdom)<br />
  • 15. South East Asia<br />Foreign Invasions<br />North Vietnam was conquered by Han Wudi<br />Melaka was attacked by Portuguese<br />
  • 16. Responses<br />Diplomacy<br />Forming friendships with neighbours<br />Exchanged letters and gifts<br />Sent ambassadors<br />Tribute system against attacks <br />
  • 17. Responses<br />Building physical barriers and armies<br />Portuguese built a strong fort called A Famosa after capturing Melaka<br />Secured 12 attacks by rivals<br />Weapons<br />Matchlock, cannons<br />New naval technologies<br />However useless against Europeans<br />
  • 18. Responses<br />Patriotic rebellions<br />Trung sisters tried to push the Chinese out of north Vietnam<br />

×