Conflict in Sri Lanka


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Part 3

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Conflict in Sri Lanka

  1. 1. SRI LANKA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Peaceful Means TAMILS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early 1950s : Federal Party asked that Tamil areas be recognised as a federation within the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1976 : New political party TAMIL UNITED LIBERATION FRONT asked for a separate independent state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members believed only this sole option would ensure Tamil rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese government rejected this idea </li></ul></ul>ARMED CONFLICT
  3. 3. <ul><li>Violent Means TAMILS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some angry Tamil youths formed a militant group, the LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM [LTTE] , and resorted to violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularly known as Tamil Tigers, they were considered terrorists </li></ul></ul>ARMED CONFLICT
  4. 4. <ul><li>Violent Means TAMILS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil Tigers attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil members of the police force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil members and supporters of the ruling party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil politicians who did not support the proposed separate state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Sinhalese </li></ul></ul></ul>ARMED CONFLICT
  5. 5. <ul><li>Violent Means SINHALESE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese also showed hostility through violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-Tamil riots first in 1956, then 1958, 1971, 1977 and 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many killed and injured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamils forced to flee for their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, such riots were encouraged by the Sinhalese security forces such as the army </li></ul></ul>ARMED CONFLICT
  6. 6. <ul><li>Violent Means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1983 riots – thousands fled to Tamil Nadu in South India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian government was forced to intervene in the conflict in Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violence cost thousands of lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to hatred and distrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes peaceful solutions almost an impossibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A vicious cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children grow up with prejudices of their racial or religious groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remained hostile towards each other throughout their lives </li></ul></ul>ARMED CONFLICT
  7. 8. Women and children massacred by LTTE in Kotiyagala in Monaragala District in Sri Lanka, Dec 1995 Src :
  8. 11. <ul><li>Those killed are usually breadwinners of families </li></ul><ul><li>Riots of 1983 caused massive unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factory worked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-employed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many of the jobless were Sinhalese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vandalism, looting and burning places of work such as garment factories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a conflict, all parties suffer </li></ul>UNEMPLOYMENT
  9. 12. <ul><li>Businesses from other countries are needed for economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Internal unrest drives away investors </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka – investments fell </li></ul><ul><li>US$66m in 1982 </li></ul><ul><li>US$39m in 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>US$22m in 1986 </li></ul>LOSS OF FOREIGN INVESTMENTS
  10. 13. <ul><li>Tourism – a major income earner for Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Serious affected by violent internal conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Tourist arrivals fell drastically after 1983 riots </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of jobs; fall in income </li></ul><ul><li>Affects economy adversely </li></ul><ul><li>Less funds for public projects like transport and housing </li></ul>FALL IN NUMBER OF TOURISTS
  11. 14. <ul><li>Internal conflicts may attract foreign intervention </li></ul><ul><li>How? Role of mediator vs direct involvement </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, INDIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1983 : Mediator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1987 : Military force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jun 1987 : Flotilla and airdrops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jul 1987 : Sri Lanka, under pressure from India, signed a peace accord with India </li></ul></ul>FOREIGN INTERVENTION
  12. 15. <ul><ul><li>Oct 1987 : Indian troops took Jaffna by force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oct 1987 – Dec 1988 : Clashes between Indian peacekeeping force and Tamil Tigers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mar 1990 : Indian peacekeeping force withdrawn </li></ul></ul>FOREIGN INTERVENTION
  13. 16. <ul><li>Tension between Sinhalese and Tamils remained throughout 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>Hostilities still exist between Sinhalese government and Tamil Tigers </li></ul>AFTERMATH
  14. 17. a christ church history production Copyright reserved