Conflict in Sri Lanka
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  • 1. SRI LANKA
  • 2.
    • Peaceful Means TAMILS
      • Early 1950s : Federal Party asked that Tamil areas be recognised as a federation within the country
      • 1976 : New political party TAMIL UNITED LIBERATION FRONT asked for a separate independent state
      • Members believed only this sole option would ensure Tamil rights
      • Sinhalese government rejected this idea
    ARMED CONFLICT
  • 3.
    • Violent Means TAMILS
      • Some angry Tamil youths formed a militant group, the LIBERATION TIGERS OF TAMIL EELAM [LTTE] , and resorted to violence
      • Popularly known as Tamil Tigers, they were considered terrorists
    ARMED CONFLICT
  • 4.
    • Violent Means TAMILS
      • Tamil Tigers attacked
        • Tamil members of the police force
        • Tamil members and supporters of the ruling party
        • Tamil politicians who did not support the proposed separate state
        • The Sinhalese
    ARMED CONFLICT
  • 5.
    • Violent Means SINHALESE
      • Sinhalese also showed hostility through violence
      • Anti-Tamil riots first in 1956, then 1958, 1971, 1977 and 1983
      • Many killed and injured
      • Tamils forced to flee for their lives
      • Unfortunately, such riots were encouraged by the Sinhalese security forces such as the army
    ARMED CONFLICT
  • 6.
    • Violent Means
      • 1983 riots – thousands fled to Tamil Nadu in South India
      • Indian government was forced to intervene in the conflict in Sri Lanka
      • Violence cost thousands of lives
      • Leads to hatred and distrust
      • Makes peaceful solutions almost an impossibility
      • A vicious cycle
      • Children grow up with prejudices of their racial or religious groups
      • Remained hostile towards each other throughout their lives
    ARMED CONFLICT
  • 7.  
  • 8. Women and children massacred by LTTE in Kotiyagala in Monaragala District in Sri Lanka, Dec 1995 Src : http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/nm58/weli.htm
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • Those killed are usually breadwinners of families
    • Riots of 1983 caused massive unemployment
      • Factory worked
      • Self-employed
      • Plantation workers
    • Many of the jobless were Sinhalese
      • Vandalism, looting and burning places of work such as garment factories
    • In a conflict, all parties suffer
    UNEMPLOYMENT
  • 12.
    • Businesses from other countries are needed for economic growth
    • Internal unrest drives away investors
    • Sri Lanka – investments fell
    • US$66m in 1982
    • US$39m in 1983
    • US$22m in 1986
    LOSS OF FOREIGN INVESTMENTS
  • 13.
    • Tourism – a major income earner for Sri Lanka
    • Serious affected by violent internal conflict
    • Tourist arrivals fell drastically after 1983 riots
    • Loss of jobs; fall in income
    • Affects economy adversely
    • Less funds for public projects like transport and housing
    FALL IN NUMBER OF TOURISTS
  • 14.
    • Internal conflicts may attract foreign intervention
    • How? Role of mediator vs direct involvement
    • In this case, INDIA
      • 1983 : Mediator
      • 1987 : Military force
      • Jun 1987 : Flotilla and airdrops
      • Jul 1987 : Sri Lanka, under pressure from India, signed a peace accord with India
    FOREIGN INTERVENTION
  • 15.
      • Oct 1987 : Indian troops took Jaffna by force
      • Oct 1987 – Dec 1988 : Clashes between Indian peacekeeping force and Tamil Tigers
      • Mar 1990 : Indian peacekeeping force withdrawn
    FOREIGN INTERVENTION
  • 16.
    • Tension between Sinhalese and Tamils remained throughout 1990s
    • Hostilities still exist between Sinhalese government and Tamil Tigers
    AFTERMATH
  • 17. a christ church history production Copyright reserved