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    Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Presentation Transcript

    • Crisis and Conflict An Enquiry Approach to Modern World History Secondary 3 Chapter 4:Authoritarian Regimes — Case Study: Nazi Germany
    • 2Was the rise of Nazism in Germany inevitable? How was Hitler able to What was the impact of become the leader of Hitler’s rise to power on Germany? Germany? Factors which led to Hitler’s Effects of Hitler’s rule. rise to power.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 3 In a Nutshell  Prior to Hitler’s appointment as the Chancellor of Germany, the ruling Weimar Government was unpopular among the Germans.  The Weimar Government was blamed for its inability to solve many of the post-war problems Germany inherited from its defeat in World War I.  The Weimar Government was also blamed for its role in the surrender in World War I and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles.  Hitler was able to gain support by promising to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and regain Germany’s pride.  Hitler and his Nazi Party were able to gain total control of Germany by 1933, turning it into a totalitarian Nazi state.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 4How was Hitler able to become the leader of Germany? The weakness of the Hitler’s abilities Weimar GovernmentCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 5 The Unable to constitution and system of keep order proportional in the representation country The weakness of Lost the Opposed by support of the right the Weimar the middle Government class Lost a Opposed by capable the left leaderCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 6 The constitution and system of proportional representation •Germany had been controlled by authoritarian rulers for a very long time. •After the German surrender in World War I, a new constitution was drawn up which established a democratic government. •The democratic Weimar Government had a President who was chosen by the people. •The President chose the Chancellor and the cabinet ministers.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 7 The constitution and system of proportional representation However, under this new system, governments did not last long. Regular changing of the governments proved to be disruptive to the stability of the country. Moreover, most of the ruling parties were coalition parties that lacked unity. Many people had little faith in the ability of the government. BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 8 Opposed by the right The ‘right’ comprised mainly of the German Army which objected to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. This group claimed the army had been ‘stabbed in the back’ and could have continued fighting. Deeply resentful, they were determined to obstruct the work of the Weimar Government.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 9 Opposed by the right However, their claims were untrue.  Germany’s allies, Turkey and Bulgaria, were ready to stop fighting and negotiate for peace, leaving Germany’s south open to attack.  Since 1915, the British naval blockade of Germany’s ports had prevented food and raw materials from reaching Germany.  Starved of food and basic goods, the Weimar Government had no choice but to sign the Treaty of Versailles. BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 10 Opposed by the left The ‘left’ refers to the Communists. One of the Communist groups was known as the Spartacists, a group which wanted to set up a government similar to the one in the Soviet Union. Frequent uprisings by the Spartacists occurred between 1918 and 1919. The Spartacists were opposed by anti-Communist ex- servicemen, the Freikorps (or the Free Corps). There were frequent battles between both groups. BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 11Unable to keep order in the country The government spent much of its time trying to suppress riots and attempts to overthrow the government. It relied heavily on the Freikorps to suppress revolts. The Freikorps themselves tried to overthrow the government in the 1920 Kapp Putsch which almost succeeded. In November 1923, Hitler himself attempted to overthrow the government in the Munich Beer Hall Putsch.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • Back 12Unable to keep order in the country Members of the Weimar Government became targets for attack. Between 1919 and 1922, there were 376 political murders. Many people were deeply shocked by the level of violence in the country and lost confidence in the government’s ability to maintain law and order. The judges and police, many of whom preferred the days of autocratic rule under the Kaiser, were sympathetic towards the murderers and the murderers mostly received light sentences.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 13Lost the support of the middle class The Weimar Government was heavily in debt due to the payment of war reparations. Germany’s problems were worsened by the hyper-inflation caused by the overprinting of money which the government used to pay off its debts. Many Germans lost their savings overnight and they blamed the government. The middle class was the worst hit and they stopped supporting the government, believing that the government and its democratic system had failed. BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 14 Lost a capable leader Despite its weaknesses, the Weimar Government did not collapse. This was due to the efforts of Chancellor Gustav Stresemann. He was able to negotiate for a longer term for the repayment of reparations through the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. He also improved relations with the Allies and Germany was admitted to the League of Nations. These positive developments led some people to describe the years between 1924 and 1929 as a golden age for Germany. His death in 1929 was a big blow to Germany.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 15 Lost a capable leader Germany’s economic recovery relied on US loans. This made Germany vulnerable as it depended on America’s ability to keep lending. When the Great Depression hit and America was badly affected, the loans from America to Germany dried up. Germany suffered as a result of this and was on the verge of collapse.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 16 Critical Thinking What do you learn about the early years of democratic Germany from the two viewpoints? BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 17 The Unable to constitution and system of keep order proportional in the representation country The weakness of Lost the Opposed by support of the right the Weimar the middle Government class Lost a Opposed by capable the left leaderCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 18 Hitler’s abilities  Hitler overcame the failures in his life and rose to become one of the most powerful leaders of Germany within a very short time.  He used his abilities and took advantage of the opportunities present to rise to power. Excellent Skilful at speaker and making deals charismatic with politicians leader Reorganised the Exploited fear of Nazi Party Communism to win supportCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 19 Back Excellent speaker and charismatic leader Hitler had the natural ability to capture people’s attention with his public speaking skills. He was able to inspire confidence and belief among Germans that he could be the one to lead Germany out of its problems. Under Hitler’s leadership, the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (NSDAP) or Nazi Party grew and came up with its first programme known as the Twenty-five Points in 1920. For his role in the Munich Beer Hall Putsch, he was arrested. However, his stirring speech made the judges sympathetic towards him and he received a light sentence of a five-year jail sentence. He was released on parole after only nine months. Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 20 Reorganised the Nazi Party The jail term proved to be a turning point. It convinced Hitler that legal means and not force alone would help him gain power. Upon release, he concentrated his efforts on reorganising the Nazi Party. Among the changes made was the setting up of branches in different parts of Germany as well as the creation of a youth movement.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • Back 21 Reorganised the Nazi Party Initially, the Nazi Party had very little support from the people.  The working class supported either the Social Democratic Party or the Communists.  The years 1924–1929 saw general economic prosperity and political stability. Thus, the people did not see the need to vote out the Weimar Government.  At the time, most Germans were not interested in Nazi calls to keep Jews out of German political life nor in the Nazi plan to invade other countries. The people also did not like the way the Nazis beat up their opponents to intimidate them. After the Great Depression in 1929, many Germans suffered. The Weimar Government’s popularity dipped even further. With improved organisation, Hitler was able to gain much popularity and support.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 22 Back Exploited fear of Communism to win support The Nazi Party and the Communists became popular during the difficult times after the Great Depression. Many Germans believed that the Weimar Government had failed them and were open to trying out alternative forms of government. Hitler made use of propaganda to spread fear about the aims of Communism. He convinced people that the Nazi Party was the only party capable of providing order and stopping the Communists. Many rich industrialists supported the Nazis as they wanted an anti-Communist government. With strong financial support, Hitler was able to build a sizeable private army — the Sturmabteilung (SA) or Stormtroopers.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • Back 23 Skilful at making deals with politicians The Nazis won less than three per cent of the votes in the 1928 Elections. By 1930, they had won 37.3 per cent, making them the party with the most seats in the Reichstag. In 1932, President von Hindenburg was pressurised to agree to Hitler’s demand for chancellorship. He was persuaded by Franz von Papen who thought that the conservatives could channel their support for Hitler into support for the policies of the cabinet. Furthermore, it was hoped that Hitler could help the government to control the Communists. This was welcomed by the rich industrialists who then supported the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor. On 30 January 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor. Within months, he ended Weimar Germany and started theCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Third Reich. Copyright 2007
    • 24 Hitler’s abilities  Hitler overcame the failures in his life and rose to become one of the most powerful leaders of Germany within a very short time.  He used his abilities and took advantage of the opportunities present to rise to power. Excellent Skilful at speaker and making deals charismatic with politicians leader Reorganised the Exploited fear of Nazi Party Communism to win supportCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 25 Critical Thinking Study the table below. Do you think Hitler came to power because of his own actions or due to circumstances in Germany after World War I? Why? Hitler’s Actions Circumstances Good leadership Wall Street Crash and the World Depression Promised to make Germany Fear of Communism a great country again Excellent party organisation Weak and short-lived governments Extensive use of propaganda Politicians decided to make deals with HitlerCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 26 What was the impact of Hitler’s rise to power on Germany? Political Economic Impact Impact Social ImpactCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 27Democracy in Germany was destroyedFebruary 1933 Reichstag Fire Hoping for full control, Hitler dissolved the Reichstag and called for fresh elections in March 1933. A week before the elections however, the Reichstag building caught fire. Blaming the incident on the Communists and claiming that the state was in danger, Hitler managed to convince the President to grant him emergency powers. Using these powers, Hitler arrested the Communists and other political opponents. On 5 March 1933, the Nazis won 43.9 per cent of the votes in the Reichstag.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 28Democracy in Germany was destroyed23 March 1933 Enabling Act This act gave Hitler full dictatorial powers for four years. To pass the Enabling Act, Hitler needed a two-thirds majority of the Reichstag. To achieve this, Hitler outlawed the Communist Party and arrested most of them to prevent them from voting against him. On March 1933, he got two-thirds of the votes with the support of the Nationalists and the Catholic Centre Party. Within a month, Hitler made use of his powers to strengthen his control.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 29 Democracy in Germany was destroyed 23 March 1933 Enabling Act May 1933 All trade unions were banned andApril 1933 July 1933 reorganised into aNew laws were All other political Nazi-controlledpassed to remove parties in the organisation, theall members of country were German Labourother political banned. Germany Front or DAFparties from all thus became a one- (Deutschegovernment party dictatorship. Arbeitsfront). Thedepartments. Social Democratic Party was dissolved. Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 30Democracy in Germany was destroyedThreats to Hitler within the Nazi Party wereremoved The SA was Hitler’s private army and played a crucial role in his rise. By 1934, the SA (also known as Brownshirts) had grown into a four-million strong army under Ernst Rohm. Hitler was worried about the potential threat from the SA. Rohm’s calls for the SA to be made into a second German Army and large firms nationalised worried the generals, industrialists and Hitler, who was afraid that the SA might challenge his position. On 29 and 30 June 1934, Hitler had Rohm and many SA leaders arrested and executed, together with other political leaders who opposed him. This event was known as the Night of the Long Knives. BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 31 German people had little freedom One of Hitler’s aims was to gain complete control of the state. After getting political control of the state, he proceeded to gain tight control over the people in order to achieve his goals.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 32 Emergency laws were used Hitler used his emergency powers to suspend political and civil rights after the Reichstag fire. The government had the power to arrest anyone suspected of being against the government. Suspects could be imprisoned for an indefinite period of time, without being brought to a court of law. The courts were also under the total control of the Nazis. Only Nazis or Nazi supporters could become judges. Hence, it became impossible to get a fair trial in Nazi Germany.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 33 The SS and the Gestapo The SS (Schutzstaffel or Elite Guard) and the Gestapo (the secret police) often arrested and killed opponents of the Nazi Party. The Gestapo were not accountable to the courts or to any law. The SS and Gestapo struck fear in all Germans. Nazi Germany is sometimes called a police state, because of the virtually unlimited power of its police force.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 34 Informers The Nazis divided each town into smaller units called viertels or quarters. Each quarter had its own Nazi Quarter Warden who would visit the houses in his quarter every week to check and gather information on everyone. The Quarter Wardens acted as informers to the Nazi Party of any possible opposition. People were encouraged to report on their families and neighbours who did not show total support for Hitler and the Nazi Party.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 35 Concentration camps Concentration camps were built to house the huge number of people arrested for being anti-government. Between 1933 and 1939, more than 200 000 Germans were arrested and sent to the concentration camps. The people were very badly treated there — they were forced to work very hard and had very little food to eat. As a result of the hardship and suffering they had to endure, there were many deaths in the concentration camps.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 36Only pro-Nazi cultural activities were allowed Under Nazi rule, all cultural activities, such as musical performances, films and art exhibitions, were aimed at shaping the minds of the Germans to think like Nazis. The Nazis organised a lot of cultural activities to encourage the Germans to support Hitler. The development of other forms of culture was not permitted.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 37 Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, one of Hitler’s most trusted ministers, was put in charge of the Nazi propaganda programme. He played an important role in spreading Nazi propaganda in Germany to gain the people’s support for the ‘Führer and the Fatherland’. The Nazis brought all radio stations under their total control. All Germans were encouraged to buy radios which were sold very cheaply in Germany, and radio loudspeakers were also installed in all public and work areas. Whenever Hitler gave speeches, orders would be given for everyone to switch on their radios and listen to his speech.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 38 Propaganda The Nazis also controlled the cinemas, a very popular form of entertainment in the 1930s. Only movies approved by the Nazis could be shown. Short films which highlighted the achievements of the Nazis and which contained Nazi beliefs had to be screened before the start of all movies. German movies in the 1930s usually praised the Nazis or showed the Jews as the enemies of the Germans. The Ministry of Propaganda made sure the only information the German people got was what the government wanted them to hear, read and see.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 39 Censorship The Nazis controlled all forms of media and there was very strict censorship. Publications, including newspapers, could publish only what was approved by the Ministry of Propaganda. Any publication that did not follow this was closed down and the people responsible arrested and thrown in the concentration camps. Books written by Jews and other ‘undesirable’ people were removed from libraries and shops, and burnt in public.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 40 Parades and rallies Even after gaining political control of the state, the Nazis continued to use spectacular and colourful rallies just as they had done before coming to power. The biggest rally was an annual one held in Nuremburg. Hundreds of thousands of people witnessed or took part in the rally. The people were very impressed by the Nazi uniforms, colourful flags, searchlights and torchlight processions. These gave an impression of power and unity, which greatly appealed to the Germans.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 41Youths were brainwashed by the Nazis Nazi youth organisations were set up for both sexes. Boys went through programmes of military athletics while girls were prepared for eventual motherhood. German youths who were not members of these youth organisations found it difficult to enter universities or obtain jobs. Through these programmes, German youths were brainwashed by the Nazis.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 42Youths were brainwashed by the Nazis Though many young people enthusiastically joined these organisations, others did not. One of the largest anti-Nazi youth groups was the ‘Edelweiss Pirates’. The ‘Edelweiss Pirates’ were youths who did not like the strictly-controlled life required by Nazi youth organisations. The Nazis punished the members of the ‘Edelweiss Pirates’ by putting thousands of them in prison and hanging the leaders of the group, but this did not deter them. The presence of these groups showed that the Nazis did not have complete control over the German people.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 43 Education system was controlled by the Nazis Hitler made sure that schools encouraged loyalty and obedience to Nazi beliefs. All teachers had to attend special training camps to help them teach Nazi beliefs more effectively. Physical Education was emphasised to ensure all German children were healthy. Students were taught how unfair the Treaty of Versailles was. Textbooks portrayed the Jews and the Communists negatively. Students were also taught the superiority of the German (Aryan) race.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • Nazi-controlled education system: 44 The Nazis had total control over the subjects and textbooks. The main objective of education was to teach Nazi ideas and to instill in all young Germans a sense of loyalty to Nazism. Teachers had to attend special training camps to learn how to teach Nazi ideas. Those who refused to attend lost their jobs.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 45 Use of terror to control Germany: The Nazis used violence to make sure that they did not face challenges to their power. Many opponents of the Nazis were beaten up, sent to prison or killed.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 46 Women were given limited responsibilities The Nazis believed that women should only be concerned about ‘children, church, kitchen’ (kinder, kirche, kuche). Hitler thought the role of German women was to produce racially pure and healthy German babies and to look after their families. Many professional women were forced to give up their jobs and stay at home. Women who bore many children received special awards and cash to encourage them to have more children.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 47 Critical ThinkingThese statements 1. Remember that you are a German!were on a Nazi 2. If you are healthy, do not stay single!leaflet given to all 3. Keep your body pure!young women. 4. Keep your mind and spirit pure! 5. Marry only for love!Do you agree withthe statements? 6. As a German, choose only a husband of the same blood! 7. In choosing a husband, ask about his forebears! 8. Health is essential to beauty! 9. Don’t look for a playmate but for a companion! 10. You should want to have as many children as possible!Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 48 Jews were treated cruelly Hitler was also known for his anti-Jewish stance and laws. Hitler and the Nazis believed that Germans were part of the Aryan race. They believed that the Aryans were the superior race (Ubermensch) and the non-Aryans were the inferior race (Untermensch), and that the inferior races should be the slaves of the superior race. Hitler had made it clear from the time he entered politics that he hated the Jews and that they should not be allowed to take part in German life.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 49 Jews were treated cruelly Hitler was strongly opposed to marriages between Germans and Jews for he felt that this weakened the German race. He wanted the Germans to remain racially pure. Although the Jews were only about one per cent of the German population, Hitler convinced many Germans that the Jews were responsible for all the bad things that were happening in Germany. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, they immediately began to take measures against the Jews.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 50 Jews were treated cruelly 1938 19351933 • Jewish doctors and • Jews were banned• All Jews were lawyers were not from joining the sacked from allowed to have Army. government jobs. German clients. • Jewish authors• The government • Jews were banned could not publish called for the from entering public their works. boycott of Jewish places of • Jews were not shops. entertainment. allowed to own• Jews could not • Jews were not allowed radios, typewriters own farms. to buy newspapers and and bicycles.• Jews were banned magazines. • The Nuremberg from jobs that • Jews were not allowed Laws were passed. involved the to attend state schools • Jews were stripped media. and universities. of their citizenship. • Jews were banned • Jews were banned from owning from marrying businesses. Germans.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 51 Jews were treated cruelly On 7 November 1938, following the killing of a German official, Ernst vom Rath, by a Jew, the Nazis used this as an excuse to organise a night of violence against the Jews. More than 7 500 Jewish shops and over 400 synagogues were destroyed. More than 90 Jews were killed while another 30 000 were arrested. This event was known in history as Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass).Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 52 Jews were treated cruelly Hitler was also responsible for carrying out ‘The Final Solution’ which killed more than 6 million Jews through mass execution death camps in parts of Germany and Poland. This event is known as the Holocaust.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 53 Christian churches were controlled by Nazis The Reich Church was established by Hitler. The Reich Church controlled all Protestant churches and preached Nazi values. Members of the Catholic church who opposed the Nazi party were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Hitler was able to reduce the influence of Christian churches over the people significantly. This was achieved through closing all church schools and church youth groups. BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 54 Economic impact Hitler’s three main economic policies were :  To reduce unemployment.  To build up the German weapons building industry so as to create jobs and make Germany a great military power again.  To achieve autarky or economic self-sufficiency. To ensure that the industries were not disrupted, Hitler banned all trade unions and declared strikes illegal in 1933.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 55 Working conditions partly improved The German Labour Front (DAF) replaced the trade unions. The DAF controlled the workers to ensure that wages were fixed according to the employers. Efforts were made to improve the lives of the workers, e.g. the ‘Strength through Joy’ (Kraft durch Freude) programmes included cheap holidays, cruises and sporting activities to encourage the workers. The DAF also included a programme that enabled all workers to own cars at low prices. This was stopped however, when war broke out. Many workers paid their instalments but did not receive their cars.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 56 New jobs were created Hitler spent large sums of money on government projects that involved many workers. The National Labour Service employed many jobless people in government building projects. Schools, hospitals and highways (autobahns) were built using this labour. The civil service was expanded to provide more jobs. Unemployment was further reduced with the reintroduction of conscription and the removal of Jews from their jobs. Overall unemployment fell from six million in 1933 to below one million in 1939.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 57 Big businesses benefited The rearmament programme benefited big businesses. This was due to the increase in demand in the coal, steel, chemical and transport sectors. Small businesses did not benefit as they were not treated as favourably by the Nazis, compare to the large companies. However, due to the lack of natural resources, Germany did not achieve self-sufficiency. Germany was still spending money to buy goods from abroad. Overall, although unemployment fell, the German economy did not improve.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 58 Based on this illustration, what was the strength of the German economy based on? BackCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 59 What was the impact of Hitler’s rise to power on Germany? Political Economic Impact Impact Social ImpactCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 60 Critical Thinking1. What are the differences between an authoritarian regime and a democracy?2. How is democracy protected in Singapore? Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 61 Summary Was the rise of Nazism in Germany inevitable? The weakness of the Weimar Hitler’s abilities Government Impact of Hitler’s regime Excellent The speaker and constitution charismatic Unable to keepand system of leader order in the proportional country Politicalrepresentation Reorganised the Nazi Party Lost theOpposed by the support of the Social Exploited fear right middle class of Communism to win support Lost a capable EconomicOpposed by the left leader Skilful at making deals Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany with politicians Copyright 2007
    • Back to main 62 summary Summary • The government spent much of its time trying to• Unstable and suppress riots and changed hands attempts to overthrow the frequently. government, e.g. Kapp• Disruptive to the The weakness of Putsch. running of the Weimar • Also unable to maintain government. Government law and order when many• Lacked unity. political murders happened between 1919 The and 1922.• The ‘right’ believed constitution Unable to the army had been and the system • The hyper-inflation ‘stabbed in the keep order in of proportional caused by the back’ and could the country representation government made many have continued people lose their savings fighting. Opposed by overnight, particularly the• Deeply resentful, Lost the middle class. the right they were support of the determined to middle class overthrow the Opposed by • Stresemann managed to government. the left help Germany for a brief Lost a capable period. leader • His death in 1929, • Frequent uprisings by the Spartacists together with the Great destabilised the government. Depression, was a big Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany blow to Germany. Copyright 2007
    • 63 Back to main summary Summary Hitler’s abilities • Natural speaking and leadership abilities. • Able to gather support and instill belief among Germans that he was the one Excellent who could restore glory to Germany. speaker and charismatic leader • Under him, the Nazi Party grew in Reorganised the numbers. Nazi Party Exploited fear • Rich industrialists supported him for of Communism fear of Communist takeover. to win support Skilful at • President was pressurised into making deals appointing him as Chancellor. with politiciansCrisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007
    • 64 Back to main summary Summary • Democracy in Germany ended. • Threats to Hitler within the Party were removed. Impact of Hitler’s regime • Emergency laws were used. • The SS and the Gestapo. Political • Informers. • Concentration camps. • Pro-Nazi cultural activities, parades and Social rallies. • Propaganda and censorship. • Youths were brainwashed by the Nazis. Economic • Nazi-controlled education system. • Women were given limited responsibilities.• Working conditions partly improved. • Jews were treated cruelly.• New jobs were created. • Christian churches were controlled by• Big business benefited. the Nazis.Crisis and Conflict: Nazi Germany Copyright 2007