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Ch3 ni pt1

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  • 1. COUNTRIES DIVIDED
  • 2. NORTHERN IRELAND
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • SRI LANKA
    • Racial Differences
    • Sinhalese vs Tamils
    • Conflicts over
    • Citizenship rights
    • Government Jobs
    • University Admission
    • Resettlement of Population
    • NORTHERN IRELAND
    • Religious Differences
    • Protestants vs Catholics
    • Conflicts over
    • Divided Loyalties
    • The Education System
    • Employment
    • Housing
    • Voting
  • 5.
    • SRI LANKA
    • Consequences
    • Armed Conflict
    • Unemployment
    • Loss of Foreign Investment
    • Fall in Tourists
    • Foreign Intervention
    • NORTHERN IRELAND
    • Consequences
    • Peaceful Protests to Violence
    • Unemployment
    • Loss of Foreign Investment
    • Fall in Tourists
    • Foreign Intervention
  • 6.  
  • 7. HISTORY OF N.I .
    • United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland
    • UK : BRITAIN England, Scotland, Wales and N.I.
    • Let’s tour Britain & London
  • 8. HISTORY OF N.I .
    • Before 12 th century
    • In the 12 th century
    • 1690
    • 1800
  • 9. 12 TH CENTURY
    • Before 12 th century
      • N.I. & Republic of Ireland = IRELAND
    • In the 12 th century
      • Ireland conquered and colonised by England
  • 10. 1690 (17 th CENTURY)
    • King James II of England, a Catholic
    • Forced to flee to north of Ireland. Why?
    • Because he failed to force Catholicism on the Protestants in England
    • There, he tried to defeat the locals
    • New King of England, William of Orange PROTESTANT arrived in north of Ireland and defeated King James
    • Battle of Boyne
    • King William remains a hero to Protestants to this day
  • 11. 17 th CENTURY
    • 17 TH century : England ruled Ireland
      • English landlords in Ireland
      • brought in Protestant Scottish and English settlers
      • To increase Protestant population there
      • Newcomers – settled in northern part of Ireland
      • Pushed out many local Irish Catholic farmers
      • Those Irish Catholics who stayed behind given least fertile lands
      • Northern part of Ireland thus became mainly Protestant
  • 12. 17 th CENTURY
    • The Scots like to wear kilts
    • What they wear beneath that is anybody’s guess!
  • 13. 19 th CENTURY
    • For years, Catholic Irish fought against Protestant Scottish and English settlers without success
    • 1800 : Ireland became part of UK
    • Hostilities between Catholics and Protestants did not end
    • Late 1800s : some local Irish demanded HOME RULE (like our concept of self-government)
    • Fighting often broke out
  • 14. 20 th CENTURY
    • 1921 : Ireland divided into two separate parts
    • Based on majority religion of each part
    • Northern part PROTESTANT became known as NORTHERN IRELAND – remained part of UK
    • Southern part CATHOLIC became known as IRISH FREE STATE
    • Both had own Parliaments
    • But continued to recognise English monarchy and laws regarding foreign affairs
    • 1949 : Irish Free State cut ties with Britain
    • Became the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND
  • 15.
    • 1993 : 1,000,000 Protestants
      • Mostly of English and Scottish origin
    • 600,000 Catholics
      • Mostly descendants of local Irish inhabitants
    PEOPLE IN N.I. TODAY
  • 16.
    • Before 1972
      • Own Parliament at Stormont Castle near Balfast
    • Since 1972
      • Ruled directly by the British Parliament in London
      • British PM chooses a Secretary of State MINISTER for N.I.
      • N.I. Government in charge of finance, commerce, health and education
      • Britain in charge of foreign affairs and defence
      • Majority of ministers in N.I. Are Protestants
    THE N.I. GOVERNMENT
  • 17.
    • Divided Loyalties
    • The Education System
    • Employment
    • Housing
    • Voting
    THE PROTESTANT-CATHOLIC TENSION
  • 18.
    • In N.I. Most protestants regard themselves as British
    • Want the country continued as part of UK
    • Many afraid of union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic country
    • A Catholic government would not be tolerant of Protestant beliefs
    1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • 19.
    • Catholics in N.I. See themselves as Irish
    • Want to be united with Ireland
    • Resent past history of English conquest
    • Many Catholics massacred or treated harshly
    • Remembered long struggle for Home Rule
    1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • 20.
    • Protestants – celebrate annv of battle of Boyne as a mark of protestant dominance
    • Usually march through Catholic residential areas
    • This sense of loyalty to different countries make them intolerant of each other
    1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  • 21.
    • Today, public schools that cater for Protestants only
    • Private schools that cater for Catholics PARTLY FUNDED BY GOVERNMENT
    2. EDUCATION SYSTEM
  • 22. 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM
    • PROTESTANT CHILDREN
    • Taught British history
    • Play British sports – rugby, hockey, cricket
    • Very loyal to Britain
    • CATHOLIC
    • CHILDREN
    • Taught Irish history
    • Play Irish sports – hurling
    • Taught Irish language and culture
    • Regard Britain as a foreign country
  • 23. 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM
    • Mixed schools
    • Set up by private individuals
    • Not as popular
    • Result : Protestant and Catholic children rarely get to meet and know each other
    • Generations grow up to distrust each other
    • Makes them hostile to each other
  • 24.
    • Competition for jobs
    • Catholics – feel that they do have have an equal chance of getting the jobs they want, even if they’re as qualified as the Protestants
    3. EMPLOYMENT
  • 25.
    • 1971 : Population survey
    • Catholics males 2 ½ times more likely to be jobless than Protestants males
    • No of Catholic engineers and civil servants – not proportionate to their numbers in N.I.
    • Fewer Catholics in senior positions in public and private sectors
    3. EMPLOYMENT
  • 26.
    • Grievance : Provision of public housing by city councils PARTLY PAID FOR BY GOVT
    • Councils comprise largely Protestants
    • Catholics often delayed in getting public housing
    • 1968 : 71% of local houses in Dungannon given to Protestants but 53% of the people there were Catholics
    4. HOUSING
  • 27.
    • Catholics frustrated – shortage of houses means they have to wait many years before getting own house
    • Thus find provision of housing unfair
    4. HOUSING
  • 28.
    • Before 1968 : Voting rights a problem
    • Each household – 2 votes
    • Companies
        • entitled to more votes
        • depended on size
    • Many companies owned by richer Protestants – thus had more votes
    • Voting districts often drawn to include a larger proportion of Protestants
    • Catholics were of course unhappy about this
    5. VOTING
  • 29.
    • Since 1968 : Everyone entitled to one vote
        • Must be a British subject and above 18 years old
        • Had to be born in N.I.
        • Or lived in UK for 7 years
    • Voting districts redrawn to ensure fairness
    5. VOTING
  • 30.
    • Voting rights no longer a problem today
    • But conflicts persist because other issues such as housing and employment not addressed
    5. VOTING
  • 31. VIDEO CLIP : CAUSES OF THE CONFLICT
  • 32. CONSEQUENCES
    • How did the Catholics make their demands?
    • Effects of the Protestant-Catholic Conflict
    • Conclusion