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Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
Methods And Approaches
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Methods And Approaches


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descripction de syllabus design y lgg teaching approaches

descripction de syllabus design y lgg teaching approaches

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  • 2.  
  • 3.
    • Johann Seidenstücker,
    • Karl Plötz,
    • H.S Ollendorf,
    • Johann Meidinger
    • L2 was learned to read and translate literary texts
    • Speaking and listening skills are neglected
    • Vocabulary based on the texts used
    • Sentence as the basic unit of teaching and language practice
    • Grammar taught in a deductive way
    • L1 is the basic medium of instruction
  • 4.
    • Classes conducted exclusively in the target language.
    • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
    • Grammar was taught inductively.
    • Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
    • New teaching points were introduced orally.
    • Listening and speaking skills were developed.
    • Oral skills were practiced by question-answer
    • exchanges between teachers and learners.
    • Maximilian Berlitz
  • 5.
    • Harold Palmer
    • A.S Hornby
    Theory of language British Structuralism Oral practice of L2 Structures Theory of learning Behaviorism
    • Repetition
    • Memorization
    • Four skills taught through structures
    • Accuracy in grammar and pronunciation is considered crucial
    • Structures are taught orally and then practiced in reading and writing activities
    • Students are expected to apply learned structures in outside situations
  • 6.
    • Listen and repeat what the teacher says (initial stage)
    • Active participation required (advanced stage)
    • Teacher = model
    • Creates situations using questions and commands with the structures needed
    • Textbook as a guide of the learning process
    • Visual aids crucial to show grammatical structures
    • Pronunciation
    • Revision (to prepare for new work if necessary)
    • Presentation of new structure or vocabulary
    • Oral practice (drilling)
    • Reading of material containing the taught structure or writing exercises
  • 7. Theory of language Theory of learning Structural Linguistics Language is a system of elements linearly arranged Behaviorism
    • L2 learning process = habit
    • Teaching L2 =teaching aspects of its cultural system
    • Grammar is taught inductively
    • Speech precedes written form
    Stimulus (Input) Organism (Learner) Response Behavior (Verbal behavior)
    • Reinforcement
    • No reinforcement
    • U.S Army
    • Charles Fries
  • 8.
    • Learner=organism
    • Responds to stimuli
    • Center of the learning process
    • Promoter of classroom interaction
    • (Teacher Students)
    • Judges the students’ performance
    • Assists the teacher to develop language skills in the learner
    • Teacher-oriented materials
    • Printed materials are not used in initial stages
    • Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment are central
    • Listening activities (dialogues) that contain the grammar structures of the lesson
    • Choral repetition of the dialogues
    • Adaptation of the dialogue by changing key words and then is acted out
    • Writing activities introduced after oral drills
    • Reinforcement of ral drills in lab activities.
  • 9. Theory of language Theory of learning “ Language = Communication” “ Language is what a speaker needs to know to be communicatively competent in speech community” (Hymes, D) Cognitivism
    • Language learning = learning to communicate
    • Effective communication is sought
    • Contextualization is basic
    • Learner-centered
    • The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses
    • Language is a system for the expression of meaning
    • U.S Army
    • Charles Fries
    • Aquisition vs. Learning
    • Meaningful learning
    • Linguistic competence Fuctional performance
  • 10.
    • Learner contributes as much as he/she gains (Breen and Candlin)
    • Text-based
    • Facilitator
    • Researcher
    • Mediator
    • Learner
    • Counselor
    • Needs analyst
    • Group process manager
    • Varied
    • Tak-based
    • Realia
    • Presentation of a brief dialogue(discussion of setting and situation, function)
    • Oral practice (asking questions)
    • Use of different resources (visual aids) to exemplify and explain language
    • Learner discovery of grammar rules (oral and written form)
    • Oral and written production
    • Informal assesment
    • Homework (Finocchiaro and Brumfit)
  • 11. Theory of language Structuralism
    • Chunks instead of single lexical items
    Theory of learning Behaviorism
    • L1 and L2 are parallel processes
    • Listening precedes speaking
    Sv (Verbal stimulus) R (Physical Movement) The BIO Program Brain Lateralization
    • TPR directed to right-brain learning
    • Learner acquires language through motor movement (a right hemisphere activity) and then the left hemisphere will produce more abstract language procesess.
    Stress Reduction
    • Focuses on meaning interpreted through movement rather than on language forms
  • 12.
    • Listener and performer
    • Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress
    Chooses, models and presents the materials to be used in class Controls the input given
    • Printed materials are optional
    • Realia
    • Visual aids may be used to complement teacher’s explanation
    • Review on commands taught in previous sessions
    • Introduction of new commands
    • Asking questions
    • Role reversal (students give commands to classmates)
    • Reading and Writing activities are done (teacher writes vocabulary on the board)
    • James Asher
  • 13. Theory of language Theory of learning Structuralism Cognitivism
    • Learning to learn
    • Inner criteria
    • Near-native fluency
    • Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations
    • Lessons follow a sequence of lexical complexity
    • Grammar taught inductively
    • Caleb Gattegno
    • Sentence is considered the basic unit of teaching
    • Use of Cuisenaire words
    • Words in color
  • 14.
    • Learners are expected to be independent, autonomous, responsible in their own learning
    • As silent as possible
    • Neutral-observer
    • Assistant
    • Sets the mood
    • Models the actions
    • Performance critic
    • Colorful visual aids are crucial
    • Color-coded charts divided in rods.
    • Prononciation charts are called “Fidels”
    • The 1st part of the lesson focuses on pronunciation
    • The teacher models, then students repeat.
    • Sentence patterns, structure, and vocabulary are practiced
  • 15. Theory of language Holistic (cognitive and affective) Theory of learning Constructivism Whole-person learning
    • Focuses on near-native language mastery
    • Language with communicative purposes
    • Syllabus negotiated between teacher and learner
    • Promotes students interaction
    • Learning is a “whole-person process”
    • Charles A. Curran
    S = security A = agression R = retention/ reflection D =discrimination
  • 16.
    • Learners are members of a community
    • Learning is achieved collaborately
    • Teacher=counselor
    • Provides a pleasant, relaxed learning environment
    • Assists learners instead of judging them
    • Materials developed by the teacher (if needed)
    • Informal greetings made
    • Teacher states the purpose of the session
    • a volunteer records a message in L1
    • Teacher translates and then everybody repeats and creates a similar message.
    • Reflection period
    • From the material recorded the teacher writes some sentences on a board
    • Clarifying stage
  • 17. Theory of language Theory of learning
    • Specific objectives depend on the learners’ needs
    • Focuses on receptive skills (listening and reading), productive skills (speaking and writing) should be allowed to “emerge”
    • Tracy Terrel
    • Stephen Krashen
    • Language for communicative purposes
    • The acquisition/learning hypothesis
    • The monitor hipothesis
    • The natural order hipothesis
    • The input hypothesis
    • The affective filter hypothesis
  • 18.
    • Pre-production stage: participates (not necessarily in L2)
    • Early-production stage: Students answer questions in L2
    • Speech-emergent phase: students get involved in role-plays, games, give opinions
    • Primary source of comprehensible input in L2
    • Creates a friendly atmosphere
    • Varies classroom activities to promote meaningful learning
    • Use of realia rather than textbook
    • Visual aids are essential
    • Games
    • Adopts techniques and activities from various methods. E.g: TPR
  • 19. Theory of language Theory of learning
    • Aims to develop speaking quickly
    • Mastering of wide variety of vocabulary in L2
    • Presentation and performance
    • Unconscious learning
    • Learner’s mental state is considered important
    • Georgi Lozanov
    Structuralism Cognitivism
    • Hypnotism
    Lexis centered/memorization
  • 20.
    • Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the course
    • Sucess depend on learner’s mental state
    • Pseudo-passive state
    • They are given a new name and personal history within the target culture
    • Situation-designer
    • Maintains a formal attitude during the lesson
    • Encourages participation
    • Text and tapes
    • Music as a meas of relaxation
    • Comfortable furniture
    • Oral review section
    • Presentation of new content after a few minutes of silence and relaxation
    • Music session
  • 21. Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press Stern, H. “Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching” 2nd ed. 1984. London Oxford University Press
  • 22. THANKS! [email_address]