Methods And Approaches

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descripction de syllabus design y lgg teaching approaches

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Methods And Approaches

  1. 1. UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO DE CARACAS DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS CÁTEDRA DE LINGÜÍSTICA METODOLOGÍA ILE Borges, Carla G . Caracas, March 2009
  2. 3. <ul><li>Johann Seidenstücker, </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Plötz, </li></ul><ul><li>H.S Ollendorf, </li></ul><ul><li>Johann Meidinger </li></ul><ul><li>L2 was learned to read and translate literary texts </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking and listening skills are neglected </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary based on the texts used </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence as the basic unit of teaching and language practice </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar taught in a deductive way </li></ul><ul><li>L1 is the basic medium of instruction </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Classes conducted exclusively in the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar was taught inductively. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized. </li></ul><ul><li>New teaching points were introduced orally. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening and speaking skills were developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral skills were practiced by question-answer </li></ul><ul><li>exchanges between teachers and learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximilian Berlitz </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Harold Palmer </li></ul><ul><li>A.S Hornby </li></ul>Theory of language British Structuralism Oral practice of L2 Structures Theory of learning Behaviorism <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Four skills taught through structures </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy in grammar and pronunciation is considered crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Structures are taught orally and then practiced in reading and writing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Students are expected to apply learned structures in outside situations </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Listen and repeat what the teacher says (initial stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Active participation required (advanced stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher = model </li></ul><ul><li>Creates situations using questions and commands with the structures needed </li></ul><ul><li>Textbook as a guide of the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids crucial to show grammatical structures </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Revision (to prepare for new work if necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of new structure or vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Oral practice (drilling) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading of material containing the taught structure or writing exercises </li></ul>
  6. 7. Theory of language Theory of learning Structural Linguistics Language is a system of elements linearly arranged Behaviorism <ul><li>L2 learning process = habit </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching L2 =teaching aspects of its cultural system </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar is taught inductively </li></ul><ul><li>Speech precedes written form </li></ul>Stimulus (Input) Organism (Learner) Response Behavior (Verbal behavior) <ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>No reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>U.S Army </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Fries </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Learner=organism </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Center of the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter of classroom interaction </li></ul><ul><li>(Teacher Students) </li></ul><ul><li>Judges the students’ performance </li></ul><ul><li>Assists the teacher to develop language skills in the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-oriented materials </li></ul><ul><li>Printed materials are not used in initial stages </li></ul><ul><li>Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment are central </li></ul><ul><li>Listening activities (dialogues) that contain the grammar structures of the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Choral repetition of the dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation of the dialogue by changing key words and then is acted out </li></ul><ul><li>Writing activities introduced after oral drills </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of ral drills in lab activities. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Theory of language Theory of learning “ Language = Communication” “ Language is what a speaker needs to know to be communicatively competent in speech community” (Hymes, D) Cognitivism <ul><li>Language learning = learning to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication is sought </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualization is basic </li></ul><ul><li>Learner-centered </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses </li></ul><ul><li>Language is a system for the expression of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>U.S Army </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Fries </li></ul><ul><li>Aquisition vs. Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful learning </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic competence Fuctional performance </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Learner contributes as much as he/she gains (Breen and Candlin) </li></ul><ul><li>Text-based </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Mediator </li></ul><ul><li>Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Needs analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Group process manager </li></ul><ul><li>Varied </li></ul><ul><li>Tak-based </li></ul><ul><li>Realia </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of a brief dialogue(discussion of setting and situation, function) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral practice (asking questions) </li></ul><ul><li>Use of different resources (visual aids) to exemplify and explain language </li></ul><ul><li>Learner discovery of grammar rules (oral and written form) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral and written production </li></ul><ul><li>Informal assesment </li></ul><ul><li>Homework (Finocchiaro and Brumfit) </li></ul>
  10. 11. Theory of language Structuralism <ul><li>Chunks instead of single lexical items </li></ul>Theory of learning Behaviorism <ul><li>L1 and L2 are parallel processes </li></ul><ul><li>Listening precedes speaking </li></ul>Sv (Verbal stimulus) R (Physical Movement) The BIO Program Brain Lateralization <ul><li>TPR directed to right-brain learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learner acquires language through motor movement (a right hemisphere activity) and then the left hemisphere will produce more abstract language procesess. </li></ul>Stress Reduction <ul><li>Focuses on meaning interpreted through movement rather than on language forms </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Listener and performer </li></ul><ul><li>Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress </li></ul>Chooses, models and presents the materials to be used in class Controls the input given <ul><li>Printed materials are optional </li></ul><ul><li>Realia </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids may be used to complement teacher’s explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Review on commands taught in previous sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of new commands </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Role reversal (students give commands to classmates) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing activities are done (teacher writes vocabulary on the board) </li></ul><ul><li>James Asher </li></ul>
  12. 13. Theory of language Theory of learning Structuralism Cognitivism <ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Inner criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Near-native fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons follow a sequence of lexical complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar taught inductively </li></ul><ul><li>Caleb Gattegno </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence is considered the basic unit of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Cuisenaire words </li></ul><ul><li>Words in color </li></ul>Awareness
  13. 14. <ul><li>Learners are expected to be independent, autonomous, responsible in their own learning </li></ul><ul><li>As silent as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral-observer </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant </li></ul><ul><li>Sets the mood </li></ul><ul><li>Models the actions </li></ul><ul><li>Performance critic </li></ul><ul><li>Colorful visual aids are crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Color-coded charts divided in rods. </li></ul><ul><li>Prononciation charts are called “Fidels” </li></ul><ul><li>The 1st part of the lesson focuses on pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher models, then students repeat. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence patterns, structure, and vocabulary are practiced </li></ul>
  14. 15. Theory of language Holistic (cognitive and affective) Theory of learning Constructivism Whole-person learning <ul><li>Focuses on near-native language mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Language with communicative purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus negotiated between teacher and learner </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes students interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a “whole-person process” </li></ul><ul><li>Charles A. Curran </li></ul>S = security A = agression R = retention/ reflection D =discrimination
  15. 16. <ul><li>Learners are members of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is achieved collaborately </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher=counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a pleasant, relaxed learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Assists learners instead of judging them </li></ul><ul><li>Materials developed by the teacher (if needed) </li></ul><ul><li>Informal greetings made </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher states the purpose of the session </li></ul><ul><li>a volunteer records a message in L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher translates and then everybody repeats and creates a similar message. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection period </li></ul><ul><li>From the material recorded the teacher writes some sentences on a board </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying stage </li></ul>
  16. 17. Theory of language Theory of learning <ul><li>Specific objectives depend on the learners’ needs </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on receptive skills (listening and reading), productive skills (speaking and writing) should be allowed to “emerge” </li></ul><ul><li>Tracy Terrel </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Krashen </li></ul><ul><li>Language for communicative purposes </li></ul><ul><li>The acquisition/learning hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The monitor hipothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The natural order hipothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The input hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The affective filter hypothesis </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Pre-production stage: participates (not necessarily in L2) </li></ul><ul><li>Early-production stage: Students answer questions in L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Speech-emergent phase: students get involved in role-plays, games, give opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source of comprehensible input in L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a friendly atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Varies classroom activities to promote meaningful learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use of realia rather than textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids are essential </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Adopts techniques and activities from various methods. E.g: TPR </li></ul>
  18. 19. Theory of language Theory of learning <ul><li>Aims to develop speaking quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering of wide variety of vocabulary in L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learner’s mental state is considered important </li></ul><ul><li>Georgi Lozanov </li></ul>Structuralism Cognitivism <ul><li>Hypnotism </li></ul>Lexis centered/memorization
  19. 20. <ul><li>Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the course </li></ul><ul><li>Sucess depend on learner’s mental state </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo-passive state </li></ul><ul><li>They are given a new name and personal history within the target culture </li></ul><ul><li>Situation-designer </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains a formal attitude during the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages participation </li></ul><ul><li>Text and tapes </li></ul><ul><li>Music as a meas of relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Comfortable furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Oral review section </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of new content after a few minutes of silence and relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Music session </li></ul>
  20. 21. Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press Stern, H. “Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching” 2nd ed. 1984. London Oxford University Press
  21. 22. THANKS! [email_address]

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