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  1. 1. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.TOPIC 23. SIMPLE SENTENCE: CLAUSE TYPES, STRUCTURE AND CONSTITUENTS.CONCORD.ABSTRACT ____________________________________________________________ 21. SIMPLE SENTENCE: INTRODUCTION, BOUNDARIES, SUBJECT OF STUDY ________ 2  On the Curriculum ________________________________________________________ 2  On Sentence, Sentence types. ______________________________________________ 4  Sentence Structure _______________________________________________________ 7  Sentence Elements:_______________________________________________________ 8 Types of Sentence Structure. _______________________________________________ 12  Variations according to purpose ___________________________________________ 122. AGREEMENT _______________________________________________________ 15 3.1 Subject-Verb Agreement. _________________________________________________ 15 3.2 Notional Concord and Proximity ____________________________________________ 16 3.3 Collective Nouns _________________________________________________________ 16 3.4. Coordinated subject _____________________________________________________ 16 3.5 Indefinite expression of amount. ___________________________________________ 17 3.6 Concord of Person. _______________________________________________________ 18 3.7 Other types of concord. ___________________________________________________ 18CONCLUSION ________________________________________________________ 19BIBLIOGRAPHY _______________________________________________________ 19 Página 1 de 19
  2. 2. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA 23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DE CONCORDANCIA. ABSTRACT With the present paper we move from single morphological elements to the category of syntax, covering an essential element in language use: sentence. To provide a comprehensive study, we will see the importance of this element as imbued in our curriculum to move on to set the concept within the field of linguistics and in comparison with other features, stating the boundaries of the term sentence itself in relation to clause type. Then, we will mainly concentrate on the simple sentence, though a brief review to complex and compound sentences will be included for purposes of clarification. We will then revise main types, structure and constituents to end up with the agreement phenomena before we move a step further into more complex sentence types. 1. SIMPLE SENTENCE: INTRODUCTION, BOUNDARIES, SUBJECT OF STUDY 1.1 On the Curriculum Before getting into the specific elements of simple sentence, we find it useful to placethe need of teaching this item within our current educational guidelines and scientificresearch. According to the Common European Framework for Languages (CEFRL),language learning comprises actions performed by persons who develop a range ofcompetences, both general and in particular communicative language competences. Communicative language competences empower a person to act using: 1) Linguistic Competence (Knowledge) 2) Sociolinguistic Competence (Skills) 3) Pragmatic Competence (Know-how) Linguistic competence includes grammatical, lexical and semantic knowledge and skills that we will deal with in this topic, though clearly treated not in isolation but linked with communicative actions and as tools for communication. Página 2 de 19
  3. 3. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. GRAMATICALTherefore, linguistic competence implies LEXICAL knowledge and skills. SEMANTICThe Spanish Curriculum is based on a set of principles which include:1) Language as communicationLanguage is conceived as a dynamic phenomenon, a system of communicative acts andsituations. Consequently, learning a foreign language implies the manipulation oflinguistic structures and the knowledge of vocabulary and phonetic features applied tocommunicative situations in order to improve the students’ cognitive competence.2) The language syllabus, which covers the knowledge of rules that govern thecombination of linguistic units to produce words, phrases, sentences and texts: - Grammar: construction of sentences and texts. - Lexical fields, vocabulary. - Phonetics and spelling elements: sounds, stress, rhythm, intonation, connected speech, etc.Grammar therefore constitutes one of the major components of the linguistic systemand of Foreign language teaching and learning curriculum. Our students need to knowthe main elements at syntactic level, starting by the simple sentence.Grammar is made up o two main features: morphology and syntax. Morphology: How words are organised Eg: Cooks = the morpheme cook + the morpheme –s.Grammar Syntax: How words are combined into larger unit such as phrase and sentence. Eg: She cooks everyday.The following table shows model of the structure of English as we will analyze next: Página 3 de 19
  4. 4. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. GRAMMAR Morphosyntax (Form + Function) Morphology; Form and Parts Syntax: Use and order of words in of words a sentence morphemes phrases ↓ ↓ words clauses ↓ sentences1.2 On Sentence, Sentence types.We will first deal with the greater structure, that of sentence. According to Downing,the term “sentence” is widely used to refer to quite different types of unit.  Grammatically, it is the highest unit and consists of one independent clause (simple clauses) or two or more related clauses (complex clauses).  Orthographically and rhetorically, it is that unit which starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark.Thus, we find the following sentence types: Simple Sentences contain only one clause, which has a subject and a verb, andsometimes an object. My friend invited me to a party. Compound Sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simplesentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or": My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go. Complex Sentence contains one independent clause and at least onedependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentencecontains clauses which are not equal Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go. Página 4 de 19
  5. 5. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA 23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DE CONCORDANCIA. SENTENCE TYPES SIMPLE SENTENCE COMPOUND SENTENCE COMPLEX SENTENCE uses Adsd two coordinate clauses subordination to link clauses Contains a simple clause. I love cakes I love cakes and I can cook I think this should be smaller. them well We travelled abroadA sentence is the highest unit and consists of one independent clause (simple clauses) ortwo or more related clauses (complex clauses). In many respects, sentences can beanalysed in the same terms as clauses, that is, separating the elements into the categoriesof subject, object, verb, complement and adverbial. The dog barks Even the addition of adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases to a simple sentence does not change it into a complex sentence. The brown dog with the red collar always barks loudly. Even if you join several nouns with a conjunction, or several verbs with a conjunction, it remains a simple sentence. The dog barked and growled loudly. However, sentences are also described in terms of:  How clauses are arranged.  Functions of the sentence.  Traditional patterns which are used for particular effects in speech and writing. Once we know what we understand by sentence, it is time to look at the parts of a sentence and distinguish between clause and sentence. According to Swam, a clause is a part of a sentence which contains a subject and verb, and usually joined to the rest of the sentence by a conjunction. A sentence is made of clauses. A clause may be short or long, but must contain at least one main, finite verb. Professor Crystal describes a clause as: A structural unit smaller than a sentence but larger than phrases or word. Página 5 de 19
  6. 6. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.Simple sentences and main clauses almost always have a subject and a verb, andsometimes have an object. In some cases a clause may appear identical with asentence or phrase. A short clause may in fact be identical with a verb phrase. If youare analysing a sentence, you will look first for clauses; if you wish to see how wordshave been combined in simple sequences, you will look for phrases. Clause is the mainfield of written formal language. That [she answered the question correctly] pleased him greatly.The italicizing is intended to emphasize the similarity between subordinate (ordependent) clauses and independent sentences.The structures realizing sentence elements are composed of units referred as parts ofspeech, which include: I. Open Class Items: They are indefinitely extendable.  Nouns: John, I, room, game, answer…  Adjective: happy, free, new,large…  Adverb: completely, steadily, very  Verb: go, come, search, ask, study… II. Closed-Class Items: They cannot normally be extended by the creation ofadditional members.  Article: the, a(n)  Demonstrative: this, that.  Pronoun: he, they, anybody, one, which  Proposition: of, at, without, in spite of  Conjunction: and, that, when, although  Interjection: ah! Ugh, phewThe distinction between both types must be treated cautiously, as parts of speech tendto be rather heterogeneous. Página 6 de 19
  7. 7. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.1.3 Sentence StructureAccording to David Crystal there are only seven basic sentence types: 1. Subject + Verb (only): S + V I /yawned. Maria/ is working. It/ has been raining. Of course, we can add extra information if we want to, but the extra information is not necessary to make sense: Maria is working very hard these days I has been raining for day 2. Subject + Verb + Noun Phrase (S + V + O) Fred/opened/the door My friend/met/me John/is/the best player These sentences are not complete without the noun phrase. 3. Subject + Verb + Complement (S + V + C) Dinner/ is/ ready The noise/was/terrible She/looked/beautiful 4. Subject + Verb + Adverbial (S + V + A) Dick/ went/ to London John/ run/ 6 miles. 5. Subject + Verb + Object + Object (Noun Phrase). S + V + O + O Romeo / gave / Juliet / a kiss I gave/my sister/a present He/told/me/ a joke Sentences of this type can be made with verbs such as: ask, bring, find, leave, make, offer, sell, send, teach or wish. Página 7 de 19
  8. 8. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. 6. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement (S + V + O + C) Henry / got / his feet / very wet I/kept/myself/warm It/made/him/angry 7. Subject + Verb+ Object + Adverbial S + V + O + A Sam / put / the bottles / in the cellar She/took/things/outside We/put/the kettle/on the tableClauses that function as subject, object or complement replace noun phrases, so theyare called nominal clauses. Those that function as adverbs/adjectives areadverbial/adjectival clauses.Let`s see in further detail the sentence elements:1.4 Sentence Elements:According to Quirk, a sentence may be seen as comprising five units called ELEMENTSOF A SENTENCE (or Clause structure): Subject (S), object (O), verb (V), complement (C), adverbial (A) 1. Subject: The subject is a noun or noun phrase, pronoun or subordinate clause. o The dog was sick. (n) o Pretty girls laughed out loud. (NP) o I am happy. (pn.) o What she said is untrue. (sub.clause) 2. Object: usually follow the verb. They may be direct or indirect. o Direct object: I sent an e-mail. o Indirect object: I sent an e-mail to my boss 3. Verb: This is the central and obligatory element. A clause must contain at least one verb phrase. I have been living here for ages. 4. Complement: is anything which adds to the meaning of the subject or object. o Subject complement follows the verb. She is a doctor o Object complement follows the direct object. He makes me happy Página 8 de 19
  9. 9. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. 5. Adverbial: Add to or complete the meaning of the verb: I sat comfortablyLet`s see them into further detail: 1. Subject: Some of the simplest sentences and clauses consist of a verb and anoun, a pronoun or a noun phrase acting as the verbs subject. The subject normallystands just before the verb. In order to find the subject, once you determine the verb,ask a wh...? question of the verb. This will locate the subject(s): SUBJECT VERB She won. The girl with brown hair slipped. Moving my arm hurts. 2. Verb: The verb is the fundamental part of the sentence because it isessential. The rest of the sentence, with the exception of the subject, depends verymuch on the verb. It is important to have a good knowledge of the forms used aftereach verb (verb patterns), for example: to tell [someone] TO DO [something] . The verb isIn English, as in other languages, the rest of the sentence may be seen as an expansionof the verb. If the verb is won, we know that the sentence is about an incident in whichsomeone won something.Each of the other elements in the sentence answers some question about the verb: Who won? She won. What did she win? She won the first race. When did she win? She won yesterday. How did she win? She won by cheating. Página 9 de 19
  10. 10. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.We can classify verbs according to different types: a) Intensive vs Extensive verbs: Intensive verbs have subject complements. She is a new student The rest can be considered extensive and can be classified as:b) Transitive vs Intransitive. Transitive verbs take a direct object whereas intransitiveverbs take an indirect object: I love sports I saw herHowever, some verbs permit both direct and indirect objects becoming ditransitive: I gave my parents a big surpriseA few verbs such as make, take an object complement and they become complextransitive: I made him workc) We also find a difference in meaning between State vs Action Verbs. Verbs candescibe the action (something the subject actually does) or state (something that istrue of the subject) of the subject.For example:  Action: I play football twice a week.  State : Ive got a car.Some verbs can represent both actions and states, depending on the context.For example work:  Action: Davids working in the bank.  State: David works in a bank. 3. Object: The object is the person or thing affected by the action described inthe verb. Objects come in two types, direct and indirect.The direct object refers to a person or thing affected by the action of the verb. He opened the doorThe indirect object refers to a person or thing who receives the direct object. I gave him the book hereThe verb - or the last verb in a chain - may be accompanied by a second noun, pronounor noun phrase or clause. This is the verbs object, which normally follows the verb. Página 10 de 19
  11. 11. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.We can find transitive object, intransitive object and complements.4. Complements: Some verbs, for example be, seem appear, get, become, sometimesneed their basic meaning to be completed. This complement (c) which completesthe verb normally follows both the verb and the object (if there is one).5) Adverbial: They modify the verbs meaning by adding information about time,place, manner etc. (a)because this is the main role of adverbs. Adverbials are not fixedto one position but move fairly freely: they can be at the start (a1), in the middle (a2)or at the end (a3). Página 11 de 19
  12. 12. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.1.5 Types of Sentence Structure.Bringing together the distinction so far made, we can present some basic sentence-structure diagrammatically. Intensive: She is in London (Place) Stative He is a student (Complement) Extensive and Transitive: I heard the noise Intensive: She became famous (after her film)SENTENCE Dynamic Mono: They ate the meal Transitive Di He offered her a drink Extensive Complex They made him boss Intransitive The train arrivedSo far we have provided a complete vision of the main morphological and syntacticelements of the English language. It is time now to look at the communicativestructures and situations where we can use these elements for communicativepurposes.1.6 Variations according to purposeAccording to Quirk simple sentences may be divided into four major syntactic classes:Statements, Questions, Commands and Exclamations, which correspond with fourcommunicative functions: Declaratory, Interrogative, Imperative and Exclamatory.Let`s focus then on these major syntactic classes. 1. Declarative is the simplest clause form. Here the subject is before the verb as in: You are my friend. 2. Interrogatives can be divided into:  Yes/no interrogative (expecting the answer yes or no). Did you see that?/Are you my friend?  Wh interrogative: Who are you?/When is the party? Página 12 de 19
  13. 13. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. 3. Exclamative. Here too there is a wh-word at the beginning, but the subject is in its normal position before the verb. What a friend you are! How tall you are! 4. Imperative: they lack a subject, as it is clearly presupposed to be the person addressed directly: Go out!  Variables according to discourse function:When we speak or write to each other, we perform acts, such as thanking andpromising. These are “speech acts”. Certain general types of speech act are very basicin that most, if not all, languages have ways of representing them by means of thegrammar. These are: 1) Statements: primarily used to convey information. 2) Questions: intended to seek for information of a specific point 3) Directives: aimed at instructing somebody to do something 4) Exclamations: with the idea of expressing the extent to which the speaker is impressed by something.The basic correspondence between clause type and speech acts is summarized asfollows:Clause Type Basic Speech Act ExampleDeclarative making a statement You are carefulInterrogative asking a question Are you careful?Interrogative asking a question How careful are you?Exclamative making an exclamation How careful you are!Imperative issuing a directive Be careful!We can also deal with another type: the Passives.Many verbs can be either active or passive, a contrast which is traditionally calledvoice. Active: Sam built this house. Página 13 de 19
  14. 14. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. Passive: This house was built by Sam.The information is the same but the focus is different.The first sentence is about what Sam did, so Sam is the subject of the active verb. Thesecond sentence is about the house, and the house is the subject of the passive verb.  Passive verbs have a different form (was built) from active verbs  The active verbs object (the house) is the passive verbs subject.  The active verbs subject (Sam) may be omitted in the passive, or may be included with by.In an active clause the "doer" or agent is always clear: Moriati shot the stranger.But in a passive clause it is possible not to reveal "who done it": The stranger has been shot. Or a doer can be identified using by : The stranger has been shot by Dr Watson. The passive form is the same as the past participle, and is often combined with theauxiliary be: We saw it It was seen I have mended it It has been mended We must finish it It must be finished David is painting it It is being painted by DavidSometimes we use get instead of be: He got arrested.When to use the passive  In order to leave the actor unspecified, perhaps because we don’t know who Página 14 de 19
  15. 15. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. done it, or don’t want to say, or because the actor remains to be decided. A report should be written … Application forms must be returned. I have been told about these rumours.  To focus attention on the actor, by adding the by phrase, normally at the end of the clause. The best essay was written by the youngest pupil. It was broken by vandals.  To change the position of the natural subject and object, in order to link back to what has gone before.Q. Who ordered pizza and who wanted pasta?A. The pizza was definitely ordered by John. I’m not sure about the pasta. 2. AGREEMENTWe will finally concentrate of the rules of agreement or concord (as stated by Quirk)which can be found in the simple sentence. We will establish relations between themain elements:2.1 Subject-Verb Agreement.It is the most important type of concord in English. The verb agrees with its subject innumber and person. For all verbs other than be the distinctions are only found in thepresent tense, where the 3rd person singular has the –s whereas the rest keep the baseform. The girl lives here The girls live hereThere are further distinctions as it is the case of the verb be, which changes with 1 st,2nd and 3rd person. The girl is /was here The girls are/were here  The agreement affects the first verb in the verb phrase, whether it is a main verb or an auxiliary verb. Modal auxiliaries do not make distinction, however, between number or person: Página 15 de 19
  16. 16. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. The girl is/was living here The girls are/were living here The girl may live here The girls may live here  Noun Phrases coordinated with and are generally plural. The president and the Vice President were at the ceremony  Clauses are generally singular: Going trekking is very relaxing2.2 Notional Concord and Proximity. According to Quirk, Notional agreement isagreement of verb with subject according to the idea of number rather than the actualpresence of a grammatical marker for that idea. Thus, collective nouns such as “thegovernment” can be treated as plural or singular. The government have broken their agreementThe principle of proximity denotes agreement of the verb with whatever noun orpronoun closely precedes it. No one except his own supporters agree with him One in ten take drugs2.3 Collective NounsIn British English, collective nouns, notionally plural but grammatically singular, obeynotional concord in examples where American English usually shows the singular: The public are (UK)/is (US) tired of demonstrations The audience were (UK)/was (US) enjoyingThe choice is mainly based on whether the group is being considered as a singleundivided body or as a collection of individual. Thus, plural is more likely than singular.Contrastingly, singular has to be used in sentences like The audience was enormous!2.4. Coordinated subjectWhen a subject consists of two or more noun phrases coordinated by and, a distinctionmust be made between apposition and non-appositional coordination. Tom and Jerry are on TV (Tom is on TV and Jerry is on TV) What I say and what I think are my own business (what I said, and what I think….two things) Página 16 de 19
  17. 17. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA.A singular verb , however is used with cojoinings which represent a single entity: The hammer and the sickle (hoz y martillo) was flying from a tall flag poleWith the less common appositional coordination, no such reduction is possible, as thecoordinated structures refer to the same thing, hence using singular: The temple of ugliness and memorial to bad taste was erectedSome latitude is allowed in the interpretation of abstract nouns: Your fairness and impartiality has/have been appreciated.  In some cases we may find a non-count noun subject preceded by a plural verb: Good and bad taste are inculcated by example  In the cases of concord involving (either…) or we find clear cases such as: Either you or me is going to come In cases of conflict, the principle of proximity intervenes: Either your eyesight or your brakes are at fault  Correlatives neither…nor behave like and as regards concord: Neither he nor his wife have arrived  Grammatical concord is usually obeyed for more than: More than a thousand people attend the demonstration More than one person has already complained. 2.5 Indefinite expression of amount. It involves cases such as none, neither or either. I have ordered the drinks, but none (of them) have/has arrivedGrammatical concord suggests that none is singular, but notional concord invites aplural verb. Have is more idiomatic and Has is more conventionally “correct”.The proximity principle abovementioned can also be applied to concord between Página 17 de 19
  18. 18. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA 23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DE CONCORDANCIA. indefinites such as each, every, everybody, anybody and nobody which go with a plural noun: Nobody, not even the teachers, were listening And with singular nouns of kind or quantity: A large number of people have applied for the job 2.6 Concord of Person. As well as concord of number, there is concord of person between subject and verb: I am your friend (1st person singular concord) He is ready (3rd person singular concord) Following the principles of proximity, the last noun phrase of a coordinate subject determines the person of the verb: Either your wife or I am going 2.7 Other types of concord.  Subject-Complement Concord Concord of number happens in SVC types: The child was an angel The children were angels There are some exceptions such as: Good manners are a rarity What we need most is books. Subject-Object Concord of number, person and gender is necessary where the second element is a reflexive pronoun: He hurt himself with a knife/ You should ask yourself why In British English, collective noun subjects permit plural concord: The Navy congratulated themselves on the victory Pronoun concord: Personal pronouns in the 3rd person agree with their antecedents both in number and in gender: John hurt his foot/Jane hurt her foot Página 18 de 19
  19. 19. EQUIPO DIDÁCTICO ACADEMIA 21 INGLÉS SECUNDARIA23. LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE: TIPOS, ESTRUCTURA Y ELEMENTOS CONSTITUYENTES. FENÓMENOS DECONCORDANCIA. CONCLUSIONThe present topic dealt with the basic structure of the highest element in syntax, thesentence. We provided a general review including definition, setting the boundaries ofthe concept, the types, structure and constituent elements to end up with a finalrevision of the most significant cases of agreement/concord problems in the Englishlanguage. Learning to make simple sentences is a first basic step for students to helpmaster the grammar of a language, which will make him/her possible to communicate.Once students know how to make a simple sentence, it is possible to apply strictmechanical "rules" to move into both compound and complex sentences, as we willsee in next topics. And with just these three sentence types, it is possible to makegood discourse, with good sentence variety, perfectly acceptable to becomecompetent language users in the foreign language, our main aim in teaching English. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Dawning A., Locke, P. English Grammar. A University Course. Routledge, 2006.  Greenbaum, S and Nelson, G An Introduction to English Grammar. Pearson, 2002.  Huddleston, R. and Pullum, G. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002.  Leech, G. Startvik,J. A Communicative Grammar of English. Pearson Education, 2002.  Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, 1990.  Quirk. R and Greenbaum. S. A University Grammar of English. Longman Group: England,1993.  Quirk, R. Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman. 1993. Página 19 de 19

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