Open Educational Resources at the mAlliance and OAS Seminar seriesPresentation Transcript
Carolina Rossini, LL.M., MBA, JDOER-Brazilwww.rea.net.brOpen Educational ResourcesConcepts, Environment, Policies and Brazil
Paul Baran (1964)
GNU General Public License:The use of IPs to create freedom
“Information is an activity; information is a life form;and information is a relation.”John. P. Barlow
“OER are teaching, learning, and researchmaterials in any medium that reside in thepublic domain or have been released under anopen licence that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.”
“An open license is one that allows anyone toaccess, reuse, modify and share the OER. Theuse of open technical standard for OERplatforms and files improves access and reusepotential of OERs which are developed andpublished digitally.”
The OER 4 freedomsReuse the right to reuse the content in its unaltered /verbatim formRevise the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter thecontent itselfRemix the right to combine the original or revisedcontent withother content to create something newRedistribute the right to share copies of the originalcontent, your revisions, or your remixes withothershttp://opencontent.org/definition/
Interoperability(legal and technical)as essential conditionfor new institutions=An issue of design
the opposite of open isn’t “closed”
the opposite of open is “broken”
“OER are teaching, learning, and researchmaterials in any medium that reside in thepublic domain or have been releasedunder an open licence that permits theirfree use and re-purposing by others.”
The OER 4 freedomsReuse the right to reuse the content in itsunaltered / verbatim formRevise the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alterthe content itselfRemix the right to combine the original or revisedcontent withother content to create something newRedistribute the right to share copies of the originalcontent, your revisions, or your remixeswith othershttp://opencontent.org/definition/
• Open education policy: Governments, schoolboards, colleges and universities should maketaxpayer- funded educational resources OER.• Open content licenses: OER should be freelyshared through open licenses which facilitate use,revision, translation, improvement and sharing.• Collaborative production: Educators and studentscan participate in creating, using, adapting andimproving OER.Strategies for OE
“Social inclusion has today a new and importantdimension: digital inclusion. Digital inclusion is anattribute of citizenship: a new right in itself and a way toensure basic rights to people, such as free expression andaccess to culture and education. For Brazil, digital inclusionis a tool to ensure that citizens and institutions have themeans to access, use, produce and distribute informationand knowledge through Information and CommunicationTechnologies (ICT) so that they can participate actively inInformation Society, as receivers and providers ofknowledge.”Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs atUNECO OER@Paris Conference
• The right to copy books;• Taxpayer funding;• Government providing tax• exemptions, funding and buying;• 30% out of print• Problems access due to high cost• 90% covered by state through scholarshipshttp://www.gpopai.usp.br/
86% of the books (sample of 1,910 books adopted by 25 different courses inmore than 14 institutions) were authored by full-time, employed professorsfrom public institutions.the total invested by universities and public financial agencies (such as the SaoPaulo Research Foundation - FAPESP), through scholarships and publicationgrants, is R$78,410 over three years per master’s thesis per student andR$155,344 over three years per doctoral thesis per student.By comparing these values with that invested by publishers of books derived fromtheses, the GPOPAI (2008) study concluded that 17.9% of the total cost of abook based on a master thesis comes from private investment, while 82.1%comes from public investment.For doctoral theses, 9.9% is from private sources, while the remaining 90.1%comes from public investment.Who pays? Yes – we pay twice!
The Green Paper*There are four axes of structure to the OER context in Brazil, echoing internalstructures of traditional education as well as the new opportunities afforded by themove to digital networks for dissemination and use of educational materials:• public access to educational materials in general, as an open education strategy toinclude the individual, the family, the community and the whole society in the process oflearning and of collaborative knowledge production;• the economic cycle of educational materials production and its impact on the “right ofcitizens to learn”;• the possible benefits OER may bring to learning strategies, the production ofeducational resources more sensitive to issues driven regional diversity and regionalstandards of quality;• the impact of digital, online, open resources on teachers’ continuous professionaldevelopmenthttp://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1549922.
Case Studies• Analysis of more that 14 Brazilian Projects which missionsare to provide (open) educational recourses.• The analysis was done on its legal and technicalinteroperability, and in regard to who owns the rights overthe content.• Conclusions and recommendations were built.
47 questions and answershttp://rea.net.br/site/faq/
Partner with Legislatorswho care about:• efficient use of national / state money coming from taxes;• saving students money;• increasing access to education;• Understand the need to innovate in educationalmethodology.
• Efficient use of public funds toincrease student success andaccess to quality educationalmaterials.
The National Plan of Education (PNE) represents thehighest level of educational policy in Brazil.Discussions to include OER in the PNE directives started in2008.More than 3,000 changes until now, the Plan setsguidelines, goals, and priorities to be implemented by2020.OER is mentioned in two guidelines (7.10 and 7.12)http://www.camara.gov.br/proposicoesWeb/fichadetramitacao?idProposicao=490116
“Há muitos anos trabalho a questão de acesso aoconhecimento e entendo a Internet como instrumentofundamental a tal fim. Ao repensar a educação na era dasociedade do conhecimento, me deparei com o conceito derecursos educacionais abertos e percebi como nossalegislação não trabalha esta questão. O Brasil não pode ficarde fora deste debate, ainda mais porque nosso governo éum dos maiores financiadores de recursos educacionais,seja por meio de compras públicas, seja por meio desalários e bolsas de estudo e pesquisa, seja por meio deisenção de impostos em toda a cadeia produtiva de livros.Os números impressionam! Creio que todos, empresas epessoas, que recebem tal montanha de dinheiro vindo doscofres públicos, têm uma obrigação para com a sociedade:compartilhar o resultado de suas pesquisas e odesenvolvimento delas com a sociedade que o/a financiou,permitindo o uso livre de tal recurso educacional”Deputado Paulo Teixeira
if you care about the emergence ofknowledge federation systems thatallow broader access toknowledge) you may have to havesome kind of intervention…and notwait for organic emergence.
Inclusion/cooperationWide dissemination of education contributes tomore inclusive and cohesive societies, fostersequal opportunities and innovation in line withthe priorities of a renewed social agendafocused on the knowledge society. In this sense,this study brings a series of recommendations tofoster this dialogue.