Chapter Three Who are Today’s Students in a Diverse Society?
Sources of Student Diversity Racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds Language (other than English) Academic abilities, achievements, & learning styles Diverse needs (develop at different rates) Gender Sexual orientation Socioeconomic backgrounds
Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity Racial similarity or difference Common culture Language Customs Religion Race Common ancestry & physical characteristics Give me five (5) examples for each
Assimilation v. Cultural Pluralism Cultural Pluralism Each subculture maintains its own individuality Seeks healthy interaction among diverse groups Assimilation Members of subcultures expected to give up their own customs and learn American ways How would you integrate one or both into a classroom project, game or activity?
What does it look like in the classroom? Approaches to Multicultural Education Teaching the exceptional and culturally different Human relations Single-group studies Multicultural approaches Multicultural social justice Culturally Responsive Teaching Takes a social justice perspective Responds to conflicts of communication styles, expectations between students and teacher or school Equity pedagogy
ELL Student Language Backgrounds Spanish - 77% Vietnamese - 2.4 % Hmong - 1.8 % Korean - 1.2 % Arabic - 1.2 % French (Haitian) Creole - 1.1 % Cantonese - 1.0 % All others together - less than 1%
Bilingual Education Models Define: Immersion English as a Second Language (ESL) Transitional Maintenance or Developmental
Six Principles of Special Education Six principles provide the framework of IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act ), around which education services are designed and provided to students with disabilities: Free appropriate public education Appropriate evaluation Individualized Education Program (IEP) Least restrictive environment Parent and student participation in decision making Procedural safeguards
Mainstreaming and Inclusion Inclusion Students in regular school and classroom as much as possible Brings services to the child in the classroom. Mainstreaming Students with disabilities in general education classrooms for at least part of the day. Additional classes, services as needed
Guidelines for Teaching Students With Disabilities Be open to including students with disabilities in your classroom Learn each child’s limitations and potential Learn instructional methods & technology that can help each child Insist that needed services be provided Use a variety of teaching strategies Co-teach with a special education teacher
Acceleration and Enrichment for Gifted and Talented Students Enrichment Go beyond regular curriculum Greater depth and breadth Individual or collaborative inquiry activities Develop problem-solving abilities Acceleration Learn regular curriculum at a pace commensurate with abilities Progress to advanced materials faster than age norms or grade levels
Guidelines for Teaching Gifted and Talented Students Provide teaching that allows use of the regular class as a forum for research, inquiry, and projects Encourage curiosity and confidence Allow exploration beyond standard curriculum Differentiate instruction Help students develop the skills required for self-directed learning Group students of varying ability levels by interest for cooperative projects Teach complex thinking processes Look for alternative curriculum materials Implement curriculum compacting Match students with mentors
Glasser’s Choice Theory Students make choices to satisfy basic needs Survival Love and Belonging Power Freedom Fun Class works better if teachers plan learning activities that help satisfy, instead of frustrating, needs
Promoting Gender Equity Have high expectations for all students, boys and girls. Organize classroom, technology schedules so students don’t segregate or monopolize by sex. Avoid biased instructional materials. Examine and address, if needed, the frequency with which students are called on and the kind of responses teachers provide. Eliminate sex-stereotyped assignments & tasks. Structure learning to give girls equal opportunity to participate. Model sex-equitable behavior.
Making School Safer for Students of All Orientations Establish classroom guidelines against name-calling. Respect different points of view. Make no assumptions about students’ families or their sexual orientations. Be a role model; treat all students with respect and dignity.
Teaching Your Diverse Students Seek out experiences to broaden your cultural and societal understanding. Spend time with people who differ from your ethnicity, culture, or language. Volunteer in schools that differ from those you attended. Learn about and appreciate the values and backgrounds of your students. Teach to your students’ strengths. Provide a variety of educational experiences. Involve students’ families. Respect values of both school and families.