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Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
Grammar Book
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Grammar Book

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  • 1. GRAMMAR BOOK (SECONDSEMESTER)By: Catalina Taylor
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Imperfect 2. Pretèrito 3. –car, -gar, -zar 4. Spock 5. Cucaracha 6. Snake/Snakey 7. Modal Verbs 8. Adverbs 9. Progressive- Past and Present 10. Future 11. Future- Irregulars 12. Future- Conditional 13. Superlatives 14. Formal Commands 15. Prepositions 16. Demonstratives
  • 3. IMPERFECTVerbos Regulares-AR Verbos Irregulares- ir-aba -ábomos Iba Ĺbamos-abas -abais Ibas Ibais •Ongoing-aba -aban Iba iban action •RepeatedVerbos Regulares-ER Verbos Irregulares- ser action •No definite-ĺa -ĺamos Era Éramos beginning or-ĺas -ĺais Eras Erais end-ĺa -ĺan •Time/date/ag Era Eran e/feelings/des criptionsVerbos Regulares-IR Verbos Irregulares- ver •Interrupted-ĺa -ĺamos Veía Veíamos activity-ĺas -ĺais Veías Veíais-ĺa -ĺan Veía Veían
  • 4. PRETÈRITO The prederite is used for past actions that have already been completed. -ar verbs -er/-ir verbsé amos í imosaste asteis iste isteisó aron ió ieron
  • 5. –CAR, -GAR, -ZAR Tocar Jugar Comenzar Toqué Jugué Comencé Tocaste Jugaste Comenzaste Tocó Jugó Comenzó Toamos Jumamos Comenzamos Tocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  • 6. SPOCK I Iste dar D-/v- Io ver Imos ieron-Fui-Fuiste-Fue-Fuimos-FueronHiceHicisteHizoHicimosHicieron
  • 7. CUCARACHAAndar Anduve-Estar Estuve-Poder Pud-Poner Pus-Quere Quis-Saber Sup- -e -imosTener Tuv- -iste -isteisVenir Vin- -o -ieronConducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  • 8. SNAKE/SNAKEY Stem Changers Dormí DormimosDormir Dormiste Durmió Durmieron *The “o” changes to a “u” in the third person. “Y” Changers Leí LeimosLeer Leiste Leyó Leyeron *The “i” changes to a “y” in the third person.
  • 9. MODAL VERBS Conjugate and pair the model verb with an infinitive to create a new meaning.  Ir + a + infinitive(going to do something)  Poder + infinitive(are able to do something)  Querer + infinitive(want to do something)  Deber + infinitive(should do something)  Tener que + infinitive(to have to do something)  Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to…)
  • 10. ADVERBS -mente adverbs: formed by adding –mente to the ending of the feminine singular form of a word unless it ends in a consonant or –e. Adjective Feminine form Adverb Alegre Alegre Alegremente When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the socond uses the –mente ending; the other is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. There are also irregular adverbs that’s don’t use the –mente ending such as mucho, muy, and mal.
  • 11. PREGRESSIVE TENSE- PRESENT AND PAST Past Progressive: Conjugate estar to the imperfect tense, drop the –ar, -er, -ir of the infinitie, and attach the progressive tense.  ESTAR + -ando/-iendo/-yendo  Example: Estaba hablando a ti.(I was talking to you.) Pressent Progressive: formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle.  ESTAR + -ando/-iendo/-yendo  Example: Estoy hablando a ti.(I am talking to you.)
  • 12. FUTURE “WILL” The future tense describes what will occur in the future.  Example: I will eat.  Yo comè. È Ás Infinitive + Á Emos Án
  • 13. FUTURE- IRREGULARS Decir  Dir- Hacer  Har- Poner  Pondr- È Salir  Saldr- Ás Tener  Tendr- Á Emos Valer  Vendr- Án Ponder  Podr Querer  Querr Saber  Sabr
  • 14. FUTURE- CONDITIONAL The conditional tense is used to express probability in the future tense. To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infinitive: -ía -íamos -ías -íais -ía -ían
  • 15. SUPERLATIVES When you want to say that something has the most of least of a certain quality, use a superlative. Most Least El más El menos Los más Los menos La más La menos Las más Las menos Examples:  Luis es el más alto.  Carmen es la menos cansada.
  • 16. FORMAL COMMANDS For Us./Uds affirmative commands, put the verb in the “yo” form and change it to the opposite vowel ending. For formal negative commands, add “no”the beginning and do the same procedure as above.  Examples: Hable chico.  No coma helado.
  • 17. PREPOSITIONS Arriba : up Encima: above Detrá s: behindIzquierda: Derecha:left right Dentr Lejos: o: Cerca: withi far n close Delant e: in front Abajo: below Debajo:
  • 18. DEMONSTRATIVES • Este/ Esta (this)- aquí • Ese/Esa (that)- allí Singular • Aquel/Aquella (that over there)- allá • Estos/Estas (these)- aquí • Esos/Esas (those)-allí Plural • Aquellos/Aquellas (those over there)- allá*adding an accent over the “e” turns it into a pronoun

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