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Grammar Book

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Caroline's Grammar Book

Caroline's Grammar Book

Published in: Business, Education

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  • 1. GRAMMAR BOOK (SECONDSEMESTER)By: Catalina Taylor
  • 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Pretèrito 2. –car, -gar, -zar 3. Spock 4. Cucaracha 5. Snake/Snakey 6. Modal Verbs 7. Adverbs 8. Progressive- Past and Present 9. Future 10. Future- Irregulars 11. Future- Conditional 12. Superlatives 13. Formal Commands 14. Prepositions 15. Demonstratives
  • 3. PRETÈRITO The prederite is used for past actions that have already been completed. -ar verbs -er/-ir verbsé amos í imosaste asteis iste isteisó aron ió ieron
  • 4. –CAR, -GAR, -ZAR Tocar Jugar Comenzar Toqué Jugué Comencé Tocaste Jugaste Comenzaste Tocó Jugó Comenzó Toamos Jumamos Comenzamos Tocaron Jugaron Comenzaron
  • 5. SPOCK I Iste dar D-/v- Io ver Imos ieron-Fui-Fuiste-Fue-Fuimos-FueronHiceHicisteHizoHicimosHicieron
  • 6. CUCARACHAAndar Anduve-Estar Estuve-Poder Pud-Poner Pus-Quere Quis-Saber Sup- -e -imosTener Tuv- -iste -isteisVenir Vin- -o -ieronConducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  • 7. SNAKE/SNAKEY Stem Changers Dormí DormimosDormir Dormiste Durmió Durmieron *The “o” changes to a “u” in the third person. “Y” Changers Leí LeimosLeer Leiste Leyó Leyeron *The “i” changes to a “y” in the third person.
  • 8. MODAL VERBS Conjugate and pair the model verb with an infinitive to create a new meaning.  Ir + a + infinitive(going to do something)  Poder + infinitive(are able to do something)  Querer + infinitive(want to do something)  Deber + infinitive(should do something)  Tener que + infinitive(to have to do something)  Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to…)
  • 9. ADVERBS -mente adverbs: formed by adding –mente to the ending of the feminine singular form of a word unless it ends in a consonant or –e. Adjective Feminine form Adverb Alegre Alegre Alegremente When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the socond uses the –mente ending; the other is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. There are also irregular adverbs that’s don’t use the –mente ending such as mucho, muy, and mal.
  • 10. PREGRESSIVE TENSE- PRESENT AND PAST Past Progressive: Conjugate estar to the imperfect tense, drop the –ar, -er, -ir of the infinitie, and attach the progressive tense.  ESTAR + -ando/-iendo/-yendo  Example: Estaba hablando a ti.(I was talking to you.) Pressent Progressive: formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle.  ESTAR + -ando/-iendo/-yendo  Example: Estoy hablando a ti.(I am talking to you.)
  • 11. FUTURE “WILL” The future tense describes what will occur in the future.  Example: I will eat.  Yo comè. È Ás Infinitive + Á Emos Án
  • 12. FUTURE- IRREGULARS Decir  Dir- Hacer  Har- Poner  Pondr- È Salir  Saldr- Ás Tener  Tendr- Á Emos Valer  Vendr- Án Ponder  Podr Querer  Querr Saber  Sabr
  • 13. FUTURE- CONDITIONAL The conditional tense is used to express probability in the future tense. To conjugate regular -ar, -er and -ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infinitive: -ía -íamos -ías -íais -ía -ían
  • 14. SUPERLATIVES When you want to say that something has the most of least of a certain quality, use a superlative. Most Least El más El menos Los más Los menos La más La menos Las más Las menos Examples:  Luis es el más alto.  Carmen es la menos cansada.
  • 15. FORMAL COMMANDS For Us./Uds affirmative commands, put the verb in the “yo” form and change it to the opposite vowel ending. For formal negative commands, add “no”the beginning and do the same procedure as above.  Examples: Hable chico.  No coma helado.
  • 16. PREPOSITIONS Arriba : up Encima: above Detrá s: behindIzquierda: Derecha:left right Dentr Lejos: o: Cerca: withi far n close Delant e: in front Abajo: below Debajo:
  • 17. DEMONSTRATIVES • Este/ Esta (this)- aquí • Ese/Esa (that)- allí Singular • Aquel/Aquella (that over there)- allá • Estos/Estas (these)- aquí • Esos/Esas (those)-allí Plural • Aquellos/Aquellas (those over there)- allá*adding an accent over the “e” turns it into a pronoun