Change Management Mengelola Proses Perubahan secara Efektif
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Motivating change and creating readiness for change Sensitize organizations to pressure for change Reveal discrepancies between current and desired states Convey credible positive expectations for the change
Force Field Analysis Model Current Situation Restraining Forces for Change Driving Forces for Change
Force Field Analysis Model Strengthening or adding driving forces Removing or reducing restraining forces Changing the direction of some of the forces Change
Take this opportunity to think of a situation in your organization where Force Field Model could be demonstrated. Begin by identifying a change being instituted in your organization.
List the driving forces
List the restraining forces
Resistance to Change Source: Information Week, June 20, 1994 Limitations of Existing Systems Lack of Executive Commitment Lack of Executive Champion Unrealistic Expectations Lack of Cross-Functional Team Inadequate Team and User Skills Technology Users Not Involved Project Charter Too Narrow Barriers to Change 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Individual Resistance Individual Resistance Habit Selective Information Processing Economic Factors Job Security Fear of the Unknown
Organizational Resistance Organizational Resistance Threat to Established Power Relationship Group Inertia Threat to Established Resource Allocations Structural Inertia Limited Focus of Change
Overcoming Resistance to Change Education and Communication Participation and Involvement Facilitation and Support Negotiation Manipulation and Cooptation Coercion Overcoming Resistance to Change
2. Creating Vision of Change Constructing the Envisioned Future Bold and Valued Outcomes Desired Future State
3. Developing Political Support Assessing Change Agent Power Identifying Key Stakeholders Influencing Stakeholders Developing Political Support
Influencing Key Stakeholders What would make them more supportive of the change?
Information / understanding?
Involvement and ownership?
Changes in planned actions?
Direction from more senior managers?
Evidence of the success of the change?
Influencing Key Stakeholders What would make them less supportive of the change?
Personal threat ?
Non-involvement in decisions ?
Personal rivalries ?
Insufficient evidence in ‘trial period’ (defined by them) ?
4. Managing the Transition Current State Desired Future State Transition State
Change Management Team
5. Sustaining Momentum Sustaining Momentum Providing Resource for Change Building a Support System for Change Agents Developing New Competencies and Skills Reinforcing New Behaviors Staying the Course
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