Bacteria and archaea example organisms


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Bacteria and archaea example organisms

  1. 1. Classification• From a common ancestor, 3 domains developed. These include Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria. From each of these domains, there are different phylum. The phylum under Eukarya is the Eukaryotes. The phylums under Archaea include Korarchaotes, Euryarchaeotes, Crenarchaeotes, and Nanoarchaeotes. The phylums under domain bacteria include Proteobacteria, Chlamydias, Spirochetes, Cyanobacteria, and Gram- positive bacteria.
  2. 2. • Korarchaeum cryptofilum These archaea have only been found in high temperature hydrothermal environments, particularly hot springs. They have only been found in very small numbers. Research on the gene sequences of these organisms indicates that they are very closely related, although still unique, from Crenarchaeotes and Euryarchaeotes.
  3. 3. • Methanococcus jannischii This is a thermophilic methanogenic archaea, meaning that it thrives at high temperatures and produces methane. This archaea was the first to have its complete genome sequenced. When the genome was sequenced, it became evident that it was very unique and helped with the argument that there are 3 domains instead of 2.
  4. 4. • Sulfolobus solfataricus The origins for DNA replication for this organism were identified in 2004. The results showed that the organism contained 2 origins in its genome. This was the first prokaryote to have evidence of more than one origin for its DNA. Today, it is used to study DNA replication in archaea.
  5. 5. • Nanoarchaeum equitans This organism was discovered in 2002 and is considered a thermophile. It must be in contact with other cells to survive. Scientists still debate whether or not it is a living organism. However, if it proves to be, it would be the smallest living organism on the planet, whose cells have a diameter of 400 nanometers and have a genome of only 490, 885 nucleotides long.
  6. 6. • Escherichia coli This organism is often abbreviated E. Coli. It is a rod shaped bacteria that is found in the lower intestine of warm blooded animals. Although most E. Coli is harmless, certain strands of it can be dangerous and cause food poisoning
  7. 7. • Salmonella enterica This organism is a rod shaped, flagellated bacteria. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning that it can live with or without oxygen. It is known to infect cattle and poultry, and then when people eat the infected meat, they develop a condition called salmonellosis. Raw eggs can also contain the bacteria, and so this is why people are often cautioned before they consume foods containing raw egg.
  8. 8. • Chlamydia trachomatis This is an obligate intracellular pathogen, meaning that it can grow and reproduce in its host’s cell. It causes complications such as urethritis, proctitis, trachoma, and infertility. Trachoma is a major condition associated with this bacteria, which is an infection of the eye.
  9. 9. • Chlamydia muridarum This was originally considered to be chlamydia trachomatis. However, the difference is that chlamydia trachomatis affects only humans, while chlamydia muridarum affects the family Muridae. This family includes species such as mice and hamsters.
  10. 10. • Borrelia burgdorferi This bacteria mainly exists in North America. However, it has appeared, although more rarely, in Europe. It is the cause of Lyme Disease, which is carried by ticks. Borrelia burgdorferi is one of the few pathogens that can survive without iron. It was the 3rd microbial genome ever sequenced.
  11. 11. • Treponema pallidum This bacteria is associated with the diseases of syphilis, bejel, pinta, and yaws. They are gram- negative, meaning that they have an outer membrane, but cannot be seen on a Gram stained smear because they are too skinny to be seen under a light microscope.
  12. 12. • Prochlorococcus marinus They are the smallest known photosynthetic organisms. In comparing a marine cyanobacteria with eukaryotic algae, the difference in numbers of genes is astounding. While eukaryotic algae has more than 10,000 genes, this species contains only roughly 2,000. It is estimated that 20% of the Earth’s oxygen comes from these creatures. They are also essential to food chains in the ocean.
  13. 13. • Prochloron didemni This is a unicellular photosynthetic organism found mainly in coral reefs. It is theorized in the endosymbiotic theory that these organisms are precursors to the photosynthetic parts of eukaryotes, although this is still highly debated.
  14. 14. • Actinomyces israelii This is known as the “most misdiagnosed disease” because doctors often do not catch it until the later stages. It affects the vagina, colon and mouth. One of the most common diseases associated with the bacteria is Oral- cervicofacial disease, in which the infected person has a lumpy, but painless jaw. Another common disease is thoracic disease, although this is commonly misdiagnosed as a neoplasm.
  15. 15. • Streptomyces achromogenes This bacteria is grown under conditions of 28 degrees Celsius in yeast and malt extract with glucose. It was the original source of a drug intended to help treat pancreatic cancer called, “streptozoticus”
  16. 16. • Streptomyces griseus This bacteria is most commonly found in the soil. It is a well-known producer of antibiotics, and this is the first bacterium to ever produce an antibiotic. It has also been recently discovered as an efficient water purifier.