Use this to segue into a review the importance of increasing the rigor and higher-order reasoning in LA/Reading classes.
Have participants independently complete handout S7- 16, Critical word Cloze; then have some of the participants share their completed passages. (these word fill- ins could have very different meanings and could easily generate a few laughs).
Have participants read the passage aloud, in chorus.
Have them answer the questions below the passage. Note to participants that the first two questions can be answered without understanding the nonsense words, while the third answer is more difficult because it requires the comprehension of an unknown word.
Pass out envelopes with phrases (in strips). Have participants work in groups of 3 or 4 (depending on the size of the group).
According to the participant’s knowledge and what they learned from the previous session, have teams group the participants into two categories – those vocabulary practices to increase and those to decrease.
Have the groups share categories with another group.
To better understand the frustration that a non-fluent reader often feels, consider the following activity.
This passage helps us better understand the low-progress reader experience.
Reading is a much more enjoyable experience for efficient readers.
Facilitate whole group discussion: How quickly and accurately were you able to read the passage? Did you feel the “click of comprehension”? If not, why not? Comment on your frustration level as you were reading.
Colored dots; chart paper placed around the room with the following topics printed on them:
I read aloud to my students at least once a week. My students participate in oral reading activities such as choral reading, reader’s theater, radio reading, paired reading, and echo reading. I confer or have conversations with my students routinely to address their individual reading goals, weaknesses, and needs. I assess my students’ oral and silent reading rates. I know the independent, instructional, and frustration reading level of all my students. The students in my classes evaluate their own reading behaviors and goals. I provide at least 90 minutes each week for my students to have sustained silent reading (SSR) and voluntary free reading opportunities with a wide variety of choices that include fiction, nonfiction, magazines, newspapers, and informational texts.
Handout: “Anticipation Guide for Fluency” S8-3
Handout: “Anticipation Guide for Fluency” S8-3
Assign each group a strategy to explain to the entire group and model with suggested appendix items.
Group 1: Model Fluent Reading – Handout S8-6 Group 2: Choral Reading Opportunities – Handout S8-7 & 8 Group 3: Readers’ Theater – Handout S8-9 Group 4: Radio Reading Handout S8-10
Component # 1-013-311
Center for Professional Learning
Instructor: Carmen S. Concepcion
Application of Research-Based Instructional
Reading … Set … Go
Critical Word Cloze # 1
Read the cloze passage with words missing.
Independently, complete the cloze.
Share with group.
Nall was so _____. She was _____ to the _____
with Charkle. She would _____ a _____ _____ so
she could _____ out books. Charkle _____ her
_____ out the _____. “_____, Charkle,” jibbed
Nall _____ly. “Now we can _____ out _____
together!” _____ Charkle _____ly.
Critical Word Cloze # 2
Nall was so plamper. She was larping to the
flannerby with Charkle. She would grunk a
flannery barp so she could crooch out books.
Charkle lanted her gib out the neb. “Parps,
Charkle,” jibbed Nall plamperly. “Now we can
crooch out carples together!” pifed Charkle
Who were the characters in the story?
Where were they larping?
Why did she want to grunk a flannerby barp?
Critical Word Cloze # 3
Nall was so excited. She was going to the
library with Charkle. She would get a library
card so she could check out books. Charkle
helped her fill out the form. “Thanks, Charkle,”
jibbed Nall excitedly. “Now we can check out
books together!” laughed Charkle happily.
Students must have multiple exposures to a word
to learn it well. Repeated exposure to vocabulary
in a variety of contexts improves word learning.
“One of the strongest findings about vocabulary
instruction, weather direct instruction or learning
words from context, is that multiple encounters
are required before a word is really known, that is,
if it is to affect a student’s comprehension and
become a useful and permanent part of the
student’s vocabulary repertoire.
L. Beck, M.G. McKeown, & L. Kucan, 2000. p.73
Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction
Effective Practices in
Group Janet Allen’s Effective Practices in
Vocabulary Development into 2 piles – those to
increase and those to decrease.
Share your results with another group.
Compare to Allen’s chart.
Effective Practices in
1. Time for reading.
2. Used of varied, rich text.
3. Opportunities for students to use
words in a meaningful way.
4. Use of concrete contexts when
possible (pictures, artifacts).
5. Opportunities for students to
connect new words/concepts to
those already known.
6. Study the concepts rather than
single, unrelated words.
7. Teaching strategies leading to
independent word learning.
8. Finding the word or concept that will
have the biggest impact on
comprehension rather than covering
many words superficially.
9. Opportunities to inference.
1. Looking up definitions as a single
source of word knowledge.
2. Asking students to write sentences
for new words before they have
studied the word in depth.
3. Notion that all words in a text need
to be defined for comprehension.
4. Using context as a highly reliable
tool for increasing comprehension.
5. Assessments that ask students for
6. Explicit concept instruction and
incidental encounters with words.
Participants will be able to:
Explain the role of fluency in development of the
Identify features of text that influence
Identify principles of reading fluency as they relate
to reading development
Identify explicit, systematic instructional plans for
scaffolding fluency development and reading
Eumycetes or Fungi
Fungi are thallophytes without chlorophyll that
reproduce by means of spores. A thallophyte is a
plant without differentiation into stem, leaves, and
roots; consequently it has a very simple structure
and is devoid of any special vascular system.
Fungi are either saprophytes or parasites, the
latter causing many and varied diseases of forest
trees. Fungi generally have two reasonable
distinct phases in their development, the
vegetative and the reproductive stage, the latter
usually being the most conspicuous. For example
the microscopically fine mycelium hidden from
view in the cells of the heartwood is the
vegetative stage of a wood-destroying fungus
Anticipation Guide for
__ __ 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning
states of reading.
__ __ 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension.
__ __ 3. Research has identified several methods to increase
__ __ 4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through
__ __ 5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining the
student’s rate of reading in words per minute (WPM).
__ __ 6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading.
__ __ 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading.
__ __ 8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students
experiencing difficulty in reading.
__ __ 9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their
purposes for reading.
Fluency is the ability to read with accuracy,
expression/phrasing, appropriate rate and
Fluency is often thought about in relation to oral
reading; nevertheless, fluency is also important in
silent reading if students are to be efficient and
Fluency is not the final goal in any overall reading
program, but a gateway to comprehension. Fluent
reading frees resources to process meaning.
Key Elements of Fluency
•Accuracy •Reading Rate
•Decode •Speed of Comprehension
•Inner Voice •Word Recognition
Strategies for Successful
Fluency Development in
Students Model Fluent Reading
Guided Oral Reading Opportunities
Group 1: Model Fluent Reading
Group 2: Choral Reading Opportunities
Group 3: Readers’ Theater
Group 4: Radio Reading
For Next Class…
• This session was on the topic of fluency: defining,
recognizing key elements of being a fluent reader,
and suggestions. Design a week (or longer) of
instruction incorporating fluency activities for your
• What would instruction look like?
• How would you know the fluency levels of your
• How would you screen, progress monitor, or
decide improvement occurred?
• What resources could you use?
• Post a response to this questions to the class
blog. Please include the grade level and student