Session 7


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  • Use this to segue into a review the importance of increasing the rigor and higher-order reasoning in LA/Reading classes.
  • Have participants independently complete handout S7- 16, Critical word Cloze; then have some of the participants share their completed passages. (these word fill- ins could have very different meanings and could easily generate a few laughs).
  • Have participants read the passage aloud, in chorus.

    Have them answer the questions below the passage. Note to participants that the first two questions can be answered without understanding the nonsense words, while the third answer is more difficult because it requires the comprehension of an unknown word.
  • Handout S8-1

    Pass out envelopes with phrases (in strips). Have participants work in groups of 3 or 4 (depending on the size of the group).

    According to the participant’s knowledge and what they learned from the previous session, have teams group the participants into two categories – those vocabulary practices to increase and those to decrease.

    Have the groups share categories with another group.
  • To better understand the frustration that a non-fluent reader often feels, consider the following activity.

    This passage helps us better understand the low-progress reader experience.

    Reading is a much more enjoyable experience for efficient readers.

    Facilitate whole group discussion:
    How quickly and accurately were you able to read the passage?
    Did you feel the “click of comprehension”? If not, why not?
    Comment on your frustration level as you were reading.

  • Colored dots; chart paper placed around the room with the following topics printed on them:

    I read aloud to my students at least once a week.
    My students participate in oral reading activities such as choral reading, reader’s theater, radio reading, paired reading, and echo reading.
    I confer or have conversations with my students routinely to address their individual reading goals, weaknesses, and needs.
    I assess my students’ oral and silent reading rates.
    I know the independent, instructional, and frustration reading level of all my students.
    The students in my classes evaluate their own reading behaviors and goals.
    I provide at least 90 minutes each week for my students to have sustained silent reading (SSR) and voluntary free reading opportunities with a wide variety of choices that include fiction, nonfiction, magazines, newspapers, and informational texts.
  • Handout: “Anticipation Guide for Fluency” S8-3
  • Handout: “Anticipation Guide for Fluency” S8-3
  • Assign each group a strategy to explain to the entire group and model with suggested appendix items.
  • Group 1: Model Fluent Reading – Handout S8-6
    Group 2: Choral Reading Opportunities – Handout S8-7 & 8
    Group 3: Readers’ Theater – Handout S8-9
    Group 4: Radio Reading Handout S8-10
  • Session 7

    1. 1. Competency 2 Component # 1-013-311 Center for Professional Learning Session 7 Instructor: Carmen S. Concepcion Application of Research-Based Instructional Practices Reading … Set … Go
    2. 2. Consider this…
    3. 3. Critical Word Cloze # 1  Read the cloze passage with words missing.  Independently, complete the cloze.  Share with group. Nall was so _____. She was _____ to the _____ with Charkle. She would _____ a _____ _____ so she could _____ out books. Charkle _____ her _____ out the _____. “_____, Charkle,” jibbed Nall _____ly. “Now we can _____ out _____ together!” _____ Charkle _____ly.
    4. 4. Critical Word Cloze # 2 Nall was so plamper. She was larping to the flannerby with Charkle. She would grunk a flannery barp so she could crooch out books. Charkle lanted her gib out the neb. “Parps, Charkle,” jibbed Nall plamperly. “Now we can crooch out carples together!” pifed Charkle trigly.  Who were the characters in the story?  Where were they larping?  Why did she want to grunk a flannerby barp?
    5. 5. Critical Word Cloze # 3 Nall was so excited. She was going to the library with Charkle. She would get a library card so she could check out books. Charkle helped her fill out the form. “Thanks, Charkle,” jibbed Nall excitedly. “Now we can check out books together!” laughed Charkle happily.
    6. 6. Multiple Exposures  Students must have multiple exposures to a word to learn it well. Repeated exposure to vocabulary in a variety of contexts improves word learning.  “One of the strongest findings about vocabulary instruction, weather direct instruction or learning words from context, is that multiple encounters are required before a word is really known, that is, if it is to affect a student’s comprehension and become a useful and permanent part of the student’s vocabulary repertoire. L. Beck, M.G. McKeown, & L. Kucan, 2000. p.73 Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction
    7. 7. Effective Practices in Vocabulary Development  Group Janet Allen’s Effective Practices in Vocabulary Development into 2 piles – those to increase and those to decrease.  Share your results with another group.  Compare to Allen’s chart.
    8. 8. Effective Practices in Vocabulary Development Increase Decrease 1. Time for reading. 2. Used of varied, rich text. 3. Opportunities for students to use words in a meaningful way. 4. Use of concrete contexts when possible (pictures, artifacts). 5. Opportunities for students to connect new words/concepts to those already known. 6. Study the concepts rather than single, unrelated words. 7. Teaching strategies leading to independent word learning. 8. Finding the word or concept that will have the biggest impact on comprehension rather than covering many words superficially. 9. Opportunities to inference. 1. Looking up definitions as a single source of word knowledge. 2. Asking students to write sentences for new words before they have studied the word in depth. 3. Notion that all words in a text need to be defined for comprehension. 4. Using context as a highly reliable tool for increasing comprehension. 5. Assessments that ask students for single definitions. 6. Explicit concept instruction and incidental encounters with words.
    9. 9. Fluency Outcomes  Knowledge Participants will be able to:  Define fluency  Explain the role of fluency in development of the reading process  Identify features of text that influence comprehension  Identify principles of reading fluency as they relate to reading development  Identify explicit, systematic instructional plans for scaffolding fluency development and reading endurance
    10. 10. Eumycetes or Fungi Fungi are thallophytes without chlorophyll that reproduce by means of spores. A thallophyte is a plant without differentiation into stem, leaves, and roots; consequently it has a very simple structure and is devoid of any special vascular system. Fungi are either saprophytes or parasites, the latter causing many and varied diseases of forest trees. Fungi generally have two reasonable distinct phases in their development, the vegetative and the reproductive stage, the latter usually being the most conspicuous. For example the microscopically fine mycelium hidden from view in the cells of the heartwood is the vegetative stage of a wood-destroying fungus
    11. 11. Fostering Fluency
    12. 12. Anticipation Guide for FluencyAgree Disagree __ __ 1. Fluency in reading is most relevant at the beginning states of reading. __ __ 2. Fluency is independent of comprehension. __ __ 3. Research has identified several methods to increase reading fluency. __ __ 4. Oral reading fluency is developed best through independent reading. __ __ 5. One aspect of fluency can be judged by determining the student’s rate of reading in words per minute (WPM). __ __ 6. It is appropriate to consider fluency in silent reading. __ __ 7. Fluency is actually speed of reading. __ __ 8. Fluency strategies are primarily for students experiencing difficulty in reading. __ __ 9. Students should adjust reading rate according to their purposes for reading.
    13. 13. Fluency  Fluency is the ability to read with accuracy, expression/phrasing, appropriate rate and comprehension.  Fluency is often thought about in relation to oral reading; nevertheless, fluency is also important in silent reading if students are to be efficient and effective readers.  Fluency is not the final goal in any overall reading program, but a gateway to comprehension. Fluent reading frees resources to process meaning.
    14. 14. Key Elements of Fluency •Accuracy •Reading Rate •Automaticity •Regression •Decode •Speed of Comprehension •Expression/Phrasing •Subvocalization •Fluency •Vocalization •Inner Voice •Word Recognition •Phonemic Awareness
    15. 15. Strategies for Successful Fluency Development in Students Model Fluent Reading  Echo Reading  Guided Oral Reading Opportunities  Repeated Reading  Paired Reading  Choral Reading  Reader’s Theater  Radio Reading
    16. 16. Jigsaw Activity  Group 1: Model Fluent Reading  Group 2: Choral Reading Opportunities  Group 3: Readers’ Theater  Group 4: Radio Reading
    17. 17. Investigative Activity •CPALMS •What is it? •How does it support rich instruction?
    18. 18. CPALMS Scavenger Hunt
    19. 19. Reflection: How does CPALMS support rich instruction
    20. 20. For Next Class… • This session was on the topic of fluency: defining, recognizing key elements of being a fluent reader, and suggestions. Design a week (or longer) of instruction incorporating fluency activities for your class. • What would instruction look like? • How would you know the fluency levels of your students? • How would you screen, progress monitor, or decide improvement occurred? • What resources could you use? • Post a response to this questions to the class blog. Please include the grade level and student