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  • The college professor said: “Such rawness in a student is a shame; lack of preparation in high school is to blame.” Said the high school teacher: “Good heavens! That boy’s a fool. The fault, of course, is with the middle school.” The middle school teacher said: “From stupidity may I be spared. They sent him in so unprepared.” The primary teacher huffed: “Kindergarten blockheads all. They call that preparation” Why, it’s worse than none at al.” The kindergarten teacher said: “Such lack of training never did I see. What kind of woman must that mother be.” The mother said: “Poor helpless child. He’s not to blame. His father’s people were all the same.” Said the father at the end of the line: “ I doubt the rascal’s even mine.”
  • Materials: Slide S4-3-11, Handout S4-2-4, index cards, markers (at least 7 different colors), wall charts with the words: static, dynamic, norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, survey, formal, informal Display Slide S4-3. (Only tile initially appears). Have each participant write their definition of assessment on an index card. At their tables, have participants discuss their definitions and then create a common definition. 3. Share common definition with the entire group. While sharing chart key words. 4. Share definition on Slide S4-3, Handout S4-2.
  • After students are assessed, differentiated instruction will need to be implemented in order to match instruction to the different needs of students in the classroom and organize differentiated phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension instruction.

Session 4 Blog Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Florida K-12 Reading Endorsement Competency Three Foundations of Assessment Sessions Four FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S4
  • 2. Outcomes
    • Knowledge
    • Participants will be able to:
      • Explain the role of assessment in planning fluency, phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, and comprehension instruction to meet student learning needs.
      • Identify fluency, phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, and comprehension assessment techniques appropriate for diagnosing and monitoring reading progress.
      • Identify characteristics and uses of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests.
    • Skills
    • Participants will be able to:
      • Use data to differentiate fluency, phonics, phonemic awareness, vocabulary, and comprehension instruction and match students with appropriate curricular materials.
      • Analyze data to identify trends that indicate adequate progress in student reading development.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 3.
    • For data analysis techniques to be valuable to educators, the techniques must enhance the chance that educators gain insight into student performance and that they translate this insight into improved educational experiences for children.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 4.
    • BEFORE STANDARDS:
    • Teachers taught what they thought was important.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 - AFTER STANDARDS: Teachers are expected to teach the content standards.
  • 5. DATA-DRIVEN DECISION MAKING
    • Data-driven decision making is using data that are gathered on a regular basis (and additional information as needed) to inform planning, decision making and evaluation and reporting activities.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 6. “ D3” IS LIKE DRIVING A CAR
    • The instruments on the dashboard help guide the decisions we make.
      • The speedometer monitors our speed so we can avoid a speeding ticket.
      • The fuel gauge indicates when we are low on gas.
      • The turn signal tells those around us what direction we are going.
    • Arien Van der Ploeg,NCREL,2000
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 7. AVOIDING “D3”
    • Data Driven Decision-making makes it seem as if you can take the data and make a decision.
    • “ D3” should mean Data Driven Discussions. Create a forum and culture for examining and talking about data.
    • It’s about student needs and instructional planning.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 8.
    • “ Without data, you are just another person with an opinion.”
    • Boeing Aircraft Company
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 9. TEACHERS USING DATA
    • Evaluate student progress
    • Define the problems and needs
    • Select improvement strategies and academic goals
    • Initiate change
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 10. HOW DO WE START? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
    • Establish Goals
      • • Where do we want to go?
    • Make Comparisons
      • • Where are we now?
      • • Where were we before?
      • • Are there others like us who are ahead of us?
    • Learn
      • • What have we learned?
      • • What does the research say?
      • • What do “best practices” suggest ?
  • 11. TYPES OF STUDENT ASSESSMENT AND RELEVANT QUESTIONS Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 - Feedback Relevant Question Type of Assessment Daily Are students learning it? Classroom assignments Weekly Did students learn it? Classroom Unit Tests Every 9 weeks How are students performing in general? Student Report Cards, FAIR As needed What are students instructional strengths and needs? Diagnostic Assessments (DAR) Annually Are students meeting state standards and benchmarks? FCAT/SAT10 Alternative Assessment
  • 12. WHY DO WE ASSESS STUDENT LEARNING?
    • Diagnose learning problems
    • Improve instruction
    • Be accountable
    • Know if we are achieving our standards
    • Assess individual or group achievement
    • Make sure students “do not fall through the cracks”
    • Make decisions about instruction, curriculum or educational programs
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 13. WHERE TO START WITH DATA?
    • Create a system for organizing data reports that increases the effectiveness of their use.
    • Delineate the necessary and provide options for other appropriate sources of data.
      • -Individual Data binders for teachers
      • -Coach’s Data binders with school data
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 14.
    • When you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.”
    • Wayne Dwyer
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 15. CYCLE OF INQUIRY Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 - Academic Focus Inquiry Question Measurable Goals Major Strategies Actions Data Analysis
  • 16. ACADEMIC FOCUS
    • While making progress towards efficacy for all students, more needs to be done to sufficiently close achievement gap.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 17. MEASURABLE GOALS
    • Meet or exceed goals in all areas
    • Increase student achievement
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 18. MAJOR STRATEGIES
    • Continue focus of data driven teacher practice and student achievement in literacy
    • Align professional development with classroom and School Improvement Plan
    • Increase number of classroom visits by Literacy Coach
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 19. ACTIONS
    • Assessments
    • Conduct meetings
    • Professional Development
    • Before and After-school Programs
    • Tutoring Programs
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 20. DATA ANALYSIS
    • Continue focus on language development, fluency and comprehension
    • Focus on a particular group of students
    • Continue use of assessment
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 21.
    • What have we learned from the places that are improving?
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 22.
    • No excuses: Everybody takes responsibility for student learning
    • Student performance isn’t blamed on kids and their families.
    • Embrace state standards and assessments as benchmarks
    • Clear and specific goals
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 23. Who’s to Blame The college professor said: “Such rawness in a student is a shame; lack of preparation in high school is to blame.” Said the high school teacher: “Good heavens! That boy’s a fool. The fault, of course, is with the middle school.” The middle school teacher said: “From stupidity may I be spared. They sent him in so unprepared.” The primary teacher huffed: “Kindergarten blockheads all. They call that preparation” Why, it’s worse than none at all.” The kindergarten teacher said: “Such lack of training never did I see. What kind of woman must that mother be.” The mother said: “Poor helpless child. He’s not to blame. His father’s people were all the same.” Said the father at the end of the line: “ I doubt the rascal’s even mine.” Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 24. DATA CONVERSATIONS
    • Look for patterns!
    • Similar patterns in past years?
    • Are trends moving toward our goals?
    • Does the data surprise you?
    • Are there other data that show similar patterns?
    • Use Data Chats form
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 25. Involve Students
    • Thinking about my reading performance…
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 26. Brainstorm Carousel
    • Static
    • Dynamic
    • Formal
    • Informal
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 27. Types of Assessment
    • Static (summative) assessment
    • Static assessment refers to measuring the student’s individual performance to assess actual development or what the student has already learned. Static assessments have established procedures for their administration and interpretation. The consistent procedures are necessary for reliability in supporting validity of quantitative information.
    • Dynamic (formative) assessment
    • Dynamic assessment refers to measuring the student’s assisted performance during collaboration to assess potential development or what the student is in the process of learning. Dynamic assessments provide information on the amount and type of help students need to perform a task.
    • L. Dixon-Krauss, 1996 Vygotsky in the Classroom: Mediated Literacy Instruction and Assessment
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 28. Types of Assessment
    • Formal assessment
    • Formal tests may be standardized. They are designed to be given according to a standard set of circumstances, they have time limits, and they have sets of directions which are to be followed exactly.
    • Informal assessment
    • Informal tests generally do not have a set of standard directions—they have a great degree of flexibility in how they are administered. They are constructed by teachers and have unknown validity and reliability.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 29. Principles of Effective Literacy Assessment
    • Principles of Effective Literacy Assessment for Grades
    • K-12 in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,
    • vocabulary, and comprehension should:
    • be reliable and valid.
    • be done on an ongoing basis to monitor progress.
    • be an integral part of instruction.
    • inform instruction.
    • identify students’ strengths and needs.
    • be based on what we know about how students learn to read and write.
    • reflect changing academic demands as students move up through the grades and encounter higher-level comprehension and study skills.
    • be a blueprint for instruction, not an end in itself.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 30. The Role of Assessment
    • Assessment may guide decisions about:
    • Students
      • Screening of students
      • Diagnosis of students’ strengths and needs
      • Placement of students
      • Monitoring of students’ progress
      • Student outcomes
      • Class progress
    • Teachers
      • Planning for phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension instruction
      • Selecting appropriate materials to promote phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension
      • Meeting students’ needs based on strengths
      • Developing Individual Professional Development Plans (IPDP)
    • School progress
    • School districts
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 31.
    • Keep in mind that everything students do and say can be assessment information if we use it to guide our teaching.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 32. Why So Much Emphasis on Reading and Assessment?
    • In order to partially answer this question, we need to revisit
    • the scope of the reading problems in America. Here are some
    • crucial indicators:
    • “ Overall, national longitudinal studies show that more than 17.5 percent of the nation's children—about 10 million children—will encounter reading problems in the crucial first three years of their schooling.” ~ National Reading Panel Progress Report , 1999, Introduction
    • Approximately 75% of students identified with reading problems in the third grade are still reading disabled in the 9th grade. ~ S. E. Shaywitz, et al. 1992 Distribution and temporal stability of dyslexia in an epidemiological sample of 414 children followed longitudinally New England Journal of Medicine , 326, 145-150. ~ D. J. Francis, et al. 1996 Developmental Lag versus Deficit Models of Reading Disability: A Longitudinal, Individual Growth Curves Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology , 88, 1, 3-17
    • In a sample of 54 students, Juel found the probability of being a poor reader in fourth grade given you were a poor reader in first grade was 88%. ~ C. Juel, 1988 Learning to Read and Write: A Longitudinal Study of Fifty-four Children from First through Fourth Grades Journal of Educational Psychology , 80, 437-447
    • Students in the bottom 25% of the reading continuum have a trajectory of progress that diverges early from their peers who have learned to read successfully. ~ Big Ideas in Beginning Reading , 2004
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 33. Why So Much Emphasis on Reading and Assessment?
    • Schools are facing a period of rising enrollments after a long period of decline.
    • Many more disabled students, particularly those with learning disabilities, are receiving special services.
    • Many more students speak a language other than English at home and have difficulty speaking English, a likely indication that even more students may have difficulty reading and writing in English.
    • Many children live in poverty (21% or 15.3 million), and these children typically live in neighborhoods and attend school together.
    • The fastest growing demographic group in the country from 1980 to 1990 was the prison population, which increased 139% with recent rates estimated at 300%. There were 1,000,000 people in prison in 1994, twice that of just ten years before. The US has the highest prison population in the world. ~ H. L. Hodgkinson, 1992
      • A Demographic Look at Tomorrow
    • The illiteracy rate among current US prisoners is 86%.
    • The rising level of students scoring at Level 1 and 2 on FCAT.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S3 -
  • 34. Follow Up – Session 4
    • Read Assessing Reading Fluency by Tim Rasinski.
    • Find one statement in the article that best defines fluency.
    FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S4