Florida K-12 Reading Endorsement Competency Three   Foundations of Assessment Session Two FLaRE Professional Development C...
Quote <ul><li>“…  reading is a message-getting, problem- solving activity which increases in power and flexibility the mor...
Define  system : <ul><li>A group of elements that interact and function together as a whole. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional ...
Define  working system : <ul><li>A group of elements that interact and function together as a whole capable of being used ...
Define  assembling a working system : <ul><li>To bring together a group of elements that interact and function together as...
Working systems identified by the National Reading Panel, 2000 FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundation...
<ul><li>When he first came there she resented him; after that she had gone on to ignore him. It had been clear enough at f...
<ul><li>The making and breaking of chemical bonds is the job of a particular and very varied group of substances found in ...
<ul><li>From the brain the  circumoesophageal commissures  pass around the gut to the suboesophageal ganglion lying ventra...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING con...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING con...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  Graphophonic Working System THINKING EXECUT...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  Lexical Working System Graphophonic Working...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  Schematic Working System  Lexical Working S...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  Syntactic Working System Schematic Working ...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  Semantic Working System  Syntactic Working ...
FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2  THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING con...
<ul><li>Comprehension and fluency are paramount </li></ul><ul><li>Working systems may create new sources of information </...
To obtain a complete picture of overall reading development . . . it is . . . important <ul><ul><li>to  observe </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Assessment helps the reader to make adjustments while reading the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is the teache...
Florida’s Formula for Reading Success <ul><li>5 + 3 + ii + iii = No Child Left Behind </li></ul><ul><li>5  —  critical are...
Purposes of Assessment   <ul><li>An effective and comprehensive reading program includes the following assessments to acco...
Some Types of Tests <ul><li>Norm-referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Test </li></ul...
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Session 2

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  • Reading as a process is a framework for thinking about reading. As we talk about this framework, think about your own reading and the working systems and understanding that has to be in place for you to make meaning from print.
  • Have participants define system on Handout S2-23. Ask for volunteers to share with large group.
  • Have participants define working system on their Handout S2-23. Ask for volunteers to share with large group.
  • Have participants define assembling a working system on Handout S2-23. Ask for volunteers to share with large group. Ask “How are your students assembling working systems?” (ex: using background knowledge, knowing letters and sounds, using strategic activities, etc.). Allow time for responses. Ask “When do students disassemble working systems?” (ex: nonparticipation, difficulty comprehending, lack of strategic activities,, etc.).
  • In 2000 the National Reading Panel (NRP) identified working systems of effective reading instruction based on scientific research. The NRP identified phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension as working systems that each reader needs to construct meaning from print.
  • Have participants get with a partner. As one participant reads, the partner observes and records reading behaviors. They should only write down what they see and hear – no assumptions. They should look for body language, prosody, pausing, etc. (Example: write down he/she laughed, not that they enjoyed it) .
  • Switch partners and repeat previous activity.
  • Continue with partners – record observations as one of the partners reads the passage. Share observations with large group. Ask participants to share what they did when they had difficulty reading or comprehending. Record observations on chart paper.
  • Share with participants: When you are reading these are the processes you go though: Thinking – predicting and anticipating Executing – execute an action – read Re-think – if something doesn’t make sense Adjust – self-correcting
  • The whole process depends on the context of the reading. It depends on the subject matter, genre, interest, purpose, etc.
  • During the reading process we are constantly using working systems in order to construct meaning. One of the working systems we use is Graphophonics – the relationship between letters and sounds.
  • The Lexical Working System is another system we use in conjunction with graphophonics. This is your working knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, origins of words, etc.
  • Schematic Working System – using background knowledge to make sense of print. Bring the familiar to unfamiliar to aid in comprehension.
  • The Syntactic Working System refers to the grammar or the ongoing flow of the language. A reader needs to be able to look at sentence structure and organizational patterns and know they can use this information to organize their efforts to construct meaning.
  • The Semantic Working System is the knowledge of the meaning of the text – the understanding of what makes sense.
  • The Pragmatic Working System is the interpretation of the content. What was the author’s intent? How will you read different texts? You know you will not read an instruction manual the same way you would read a novel.
  • All the Working Systems operate in relationship to one another. Good readers assemble and disassemble these working systems constantly thinking, executing, rethinking, and adjusting to construct meaning. When one of these systems breaks down, the reader is not proficient and can have difficulty comprehending text.
  • Notes for each bullet point: • Comprehension and fluency go hand in hand. • Ask participants what new sources of information are used at the word level, (i.e., sounds, 2 letters make 1 sound) and then at the sentence level (i.e., punctuation, structure, etc.). • Use all components of reading in any context. • Feedforward motivates our reading – gives the reader the emotional hook and makes reading efficient. • Feedback allows us to use the working systems in our head. Readers need to monitor reading so the process can be effective. • Working systems are transformational – constantly changing – not the same reader as we were last year.
  • Ask participants to reflect in writing after reading the quote, then share with the whole group.
  • Share as a summary.
  • Discuss Slide S3-4, Handout S3-2 with participants.
  • Show Slide S3-6 ( last paragraph will not initially show). Make copies of the “Uses of Assessment in a Data Driven Classroom” handout ( page S3-28 of this manual) to cut apart as puzzles. Distribute the puzzles to each small group and ask them to reconstruct the chart in their table groups before you show it to the participants. Give each group a blank chart with the following headings to facilitate the task ( page S3-29 of this manual). Encourage discussion as the participants put the pieces together. Refer participants to Handout S3-3 for a completed chart and Handout S3-4-5 for further information on Screening, Progress Monitoring, Diagnosis, and Outcome Measurement.
  • Session 2

    1. 1. Florida K-12 Reading Endorsement Competency Three Foundations of Assessment Session Two FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    2. 2. Quote <ul><li>“… reading is a message-getting, problem- solving activity which increases in power and flexibility the more it is practiced.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Marie M. Clay, 1991 Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control, p. 6 </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    3. 3. Define system : <ul><li>A group of elements that interact and function together as a whole. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    4. 4. Define working system : <ul><li>A group of elements that interact and function together as a whole capable of being used to further an activity. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    5. 5. Define assembling a working system : <ul><li>To bring together a group of elements that interact and function together as a whole capable of being used to further an activity. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    6. 6. Working systems identified by the National Reading Panel, 2000 FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 Fluency Comprehension Comprehension Comprehension Comprehension Vocabulary Alphabetics (Phonemic awareness & Phonics)
    7. 7. <ul><li>When he first came there she resented him; after that she had gone on to ignore him. It had been clear enough at first that she did not like his being there. The companionship and the interest that he had there was with Stenning in their work and in the farm. She had a habit whenever they were in the house together of always interrupting Johnson when he spoke. She always helped him last at meal-times, so that it should be plain that he was their servant and not one of them. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 taken from Clay, 1991, Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control , p. 9
    8. 8. <ul><li>The making and breaking of chemical bonds is the job of a particular and very varied group of substances found in every living cell and in many body fluids such as saliva and gastric juices —the enzymes. These compounds speed up the forming or decomposing of polymers and other complex substances by making or breaking the chemical bonds between the various parts of these giant molecules. Any one enzyme can usually act on only one particular bond, say, for example, the bond between two glucose molecules in a starch chain. Thus every different chemical reaction needs its own enzyme. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 taken from Clay, 1991, Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control , p. 9
    9. 9. <ul><li>From the brain the circumoesophageal commissures pass around the gut to the suboesophageal ganglion lying ventrally in the head. Nerves arising from here innervate the mouth parts. From the suboesophageal ganglion paired connectives pass back to the pro-thoracic ganglion in the floor of the prothorax . Then follow the next two thoracic ganglia. The ganglia supplying the first two abdominal segments have probably fused with the meta-thoracic ganglion. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 taken from Clay, 1991, Becoming Literate: The Construction of Inner Control , p. 9
    10. 10. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING
    11. 11. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context
    12. 12. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Graphophonic Working System
    13. 13. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 Graphophonic Working System THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Lexical Working System
    14. 14. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 Lexical Working System Graphophonic Working System THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Schematic Working System
    15. 15. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 Schematic Working System Lexical Working System Graphophonic Working System THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Syntactic Working System
    16. 16. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 Syntactic Working System Schematic Working System Lexical Working System Graphophonic Working System THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Semantic Working System
    17. 17. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 Semantic Working System Syntactic Working System Schematic Working System Lexical Working System Graphophonic Working System THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Pragmatic Working System
    18. 18. FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2 THINKING EXECUTING ADJUSTING RETHINKING context context context context context context Graphophonic Working System Lexical Working System Schematic Working System Syntactic Working System Semantic Working System Pragmatic Working System
    19. 19. <ul><li>Comprehension and fluency are paramount </li></ul><ul><li>Working systems may create new sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency are embedded in context </li></ul><ul><li>Feedforward (predicting and anticipating) makes the process efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback (checking, searching, and self-correcting) makes the process effective </li></ul><ul><li>Working systems are transformational </li></ul>A Model of Reading As A Process FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    20. 20. To obtain a complete picture of overall reading development . . . it is . . . important <ul><ul><li>to observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the way that the child integrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all sources of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about words in text , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and this can only be estimated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by carefully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>observing children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as they read connected passages. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>~ Joseph L. Torgesen, 1998 Catch Them Before They Fall American Educator , Spring/Summer 1998, 22, p. 39 </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    21. 21. <ul><li>Assessment helps the reader to make adjustments while reading the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is the teacher’s window into the student’s reading processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment is one of the complex processes of literacy and reading instruction. </li></ul>A Model of Reading As A Process FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    22. 22. Florida’s Formula for Reading Success <ul><li>5 + 3 + ii + iii = No Child Left Behind </li></ul><ul><li>5 — critical areas of reading identified by the NRP </li></ul><ul><li>3 — types of assessment to guide instruction </li></ul><ul><li>ii — initial instruction in all classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>iii — immediate intensive instruction </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    23. 23. Purposes of Assessment <ul><li>An effective and comprehensive reading program includes the following assessments to accomplish four purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screening </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progress Monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcome Measurement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the same assessment is used for the purposes of screening and outcome measurement, hence the 3 assessments designated in Florida’s Formula. </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2
    24. 24. Some Types of Tests <ul><li>Norm-referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Test </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul>FLaRE Professional Development Competency Three: Foundations of Assessment S2

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