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  • What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember. What I do, I understand. Conficius Most of the time in this course will be spent Analyzing Designing Creating & Evlatuating
  • Florida’s Formula for Reading Success - The following is on Handout S1-2 Five Critical Areas of Reading identified by the NRP (5) • Phonemic awareness • Phonics and word study • Fluency • Vocabulary • Comprehension Three Types of Assessment to Guide Instruction (3) • Screening to identify students who need additional instruction • Progress monitoring to determine if students are making adequate progress within the current instructional environment • Diagnosis to determine their specific instructional needs Initial Instruction in All Classrooms (ii) • An effective reading program has to integrate the five instructional components of effective reading instruction, identified by the NRP, into a comprehensive and cohesive instructional design. Such a design provides student-tailored instruction and includes the following: o Explicit and systematic instructional practices. o Collaborative support systems. o Many opportunities for practice with and without scaffolds. o Aligned student materials. Immediate Intensive Intervention (iii) • A classroom teacher or other teaching personnel can provide the additional instruction and practice some students may need. • Alternative instructional practices.
  • Principles of Differentiation 1. Ask participants if there are other principles they feel are important to add to this list. Post any suggestions on a chart and check at the end of the session to see if participants still feel these are fundamental beliefs.
  • 1. Share quote (Slide S1-14) as a transition into a discussion of the differentiation continuum.
  • Differentiation Continuum 1. Direct participants to examine the differentiation continuum (Slide S1-15/ Handout S1-8) and to think about their teaching practice. Ask participants to place themselves on the differentiation continuum for each of the items listed. Note to facilitator: For this slide, you will bring the continuum content into view one line at a time as you click through. The goal is to guide the participants through this reflection process. 2. After doing so, direct participants to the next slide for a pause and reflect that will deepen their reflection on their teaching practice.
  • Share Slide S1-19 which suggests a diagnostic cycle for ongoing assessment.
  • Share the following. Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development Lev Vygotsky (1962, 1978) describes the “zone of proximal development,” a zone where new learning takes place — where the concept is slightly beyond the grasp of the learner (not quite at his frustration level, yet a bit above his independent level). The role of the teacher is to “coach” or push the learner to success (known as scaffolding) and then on to independence. With this cycle repeated, learners continue to succeed. The problem exists when the “zone” is different for each learner because of developmental or experiential differences. So, a teacher’s challenge becomes how to present material within this zone. Materials presented at or below the mastery level may result in no growth. Those presented well above the zone may result in frustration. Explain the concept of scaffolding (Slide S1-21/Handout S1-9). Scaffolding is an important concept for participants to understand in differentiation. Elena Bodrova and Deborah Leong in their book, Tools of the Mind (1996), suggest that scaffolding within the zone of proximal development occurs by decreasing assistance as the learner takes more responsibility himself. Scaffolding is the process of providing, and gradually removing, external support for learning. During scaffolding, the task itself is not changed, but what the learner initially does is made easier with assistance. As the learner takes more responsibility for performance of the task, less assistance is provided.

Transcript

  • 1. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five Overview Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 2. HOW WE LEARN… DALE’S CONE OF EXPERIENCE Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 3. Florida K-12 Reading Endorsement Competencies
    • Knowledge
    • Competency 4: Foundations of Differentiation
      • Has a broad knowledge of students from differing profiles, including students with disabilities and students from diverse populations.
    • Skills
    • Competency 5: Application of Differentiated Instruction
      • Has knowledge of effective, research-based instructional methodology to prevent reading difficulties and promote acceleration of reading progress for struggling students, including students with disabilities and from diverse populations.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 4. Florida’s Formula for Reading Success
    • Florida’s formula for reading improvement is based on the current scientific research in reading:
    • 5 + 3 + ii + iii = No Child Left Behind
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 5. Outcomes
    • Knowledge
    • Participants will be able to:
      • Define differentiated instruction.
      • List benefits of differentiating instruction for teacher and student.
      • Describe the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom.
      • Describe grouping formats used to differentiate instruction.
      • Identify the characteristics of both language and cognitive development and their impact on reading proficiency.
      • Identify strategies for word recognition and comprehension used by skilled readers in contrast to strategies used by beginning and/or struggling readers.
      • Identify techniques for scaffolding instruction for learners having difficulty in the major components of reading growth.
    • Skills
    • Participants will be able to:
      • Articulate rationales for differentiating instruction.
      • Plan for differentiation based on student data.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 6. Quote
    • “ What we share in common makes us human. How we differ makes us individuals.” ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001
    • How to Differentiate Instruction
    • in Mixed-ability Classrooms , p. 1
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 7. Principles of Differentiation
    • Students differ in experience, readiness, interest, intelligences, language, culture, gender, and mode of learning.
    • Educators must meet each student at his or her starting point and ensure substantial growth during each school term.
    • Teachers that ignore student differences are unlikely to maximize potential in any student who differs significantly from the “norm.”
    • Teachers need to make modifications in instruction for students rather than assume students must modify themselves to fit the curriculum.
    • Teachers should always keep in mind that human brains learn best when curriculum is highly interesting and highly relevant.
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001
    • The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners , p. 24
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 8. Definition of Differentiation (Formal)
    • “… differentiated instruction refers to a systematic approach to planning curriculum and instruction for academically diverse learners. It is a way of thinking about the classroom with the dual goals of honoring each student’s learning needs and maximizing each student’s learning capacity.”
      • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2003
      • Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide
      • for Differentiating Curriculum Grades 5-9 , p. 3
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 9. Definition of Differentiation (Informal)
    • “ At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means ‘shaking up’ what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001
    • How to Differentiate Instruction
    • in Mixed-ability Classrooms , p. 1
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 10. Quote
    • “ It is important for all educators to view differentiation as a philosophy and then to assess the manner and degree to which differentiation occurs within each classroom. It is also important to realize that teachers will vary along the lines of a continuum in their expertise in knowing how to differentiate in the teaching and learning environment. When educators have the time to study their content and to clarify what they want students to know, understand, and be able to do, I often find that the instructional tasks that they design become more meaningful and require students to think more deeply.”
    • ~ Jann Leppien, 2006
    • Talent , Winter 2006, pp. 4-5
    • Center for Talent Development at Northwestern University
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 11. Differentiation Continuum
    • Examine the differentiation continuum and place yourself on the continuum for each of the specific areas.
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Not Differentiated Fully Differentiated adapted from Tomlinson, 1999 Not Differentiated Fully Differentiated Assessment is at the end. Assessment is ongoing. A single form of assessment is used. Diagnostic assessment is used. Intelligence is viewed narrowly. Multiple forms of intelligence are valued. Single option assignments. Assignments offer multiple options. Time is inflexible. Time is flexible in terms of student needs. Instruction is whole class. Flexible grouping is practiced. Teacher directs student behavior. Teacher scaffolds self-reliant learning. Coverage of texts and curriculum drive instruction. Materials are varied. Teacher solves problems. Teacher facilitates student problem-solving. Grading is based on teacher-set, inflexible objectives. Grading is determined by learning goals.
  • 12. Quote
    • “ Assessment is today’s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow’s instruction.”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 The Differentiated Classroom: Responding
    • to the Needs of All Learners , p. 10
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 13. Ongoing Classroom Assessment: A Diagnostic Cycle Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Summative Assessment Formative Assessment Pre- Assessment
  • 14. Quote
    • “ Challenges must be at the proper level of difficulty to be and to remain motivating; tasks that are too easy become boring; tasks that are too difficult cause frustrations.”
    • ~ National Research Council, 1999
    •   How People Learn: Brain, Mind,
    • Experience, and School, p. 61
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 15. Definition of Scaffolding
    • “ Scaffolds are forms of support provided by the teacher (or another student) to help students bridge the gap between their current abilities and their intended goal. Scaffolds may be tools, such as cue cards, or techniques such as teacher modeling.”
    • ~ Barak Rosenshine & Carla Meister, 1992
    • Educational Leadership, 49 (7), p. 26
    Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
  • 16. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 - Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -