FAIR Instructional Ideas

2,391 views
2,261 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,391
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
727
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
46
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • As we begin to interpret the scores several profiles of students will begin to emerge, but before we talk about the instructional implications of specific profiles let’s talk about some strategies that have been found to be effective for adolescent students. As we discuss these strategies, think about instruction in two categories: accuracy and understanding of the skill and automaticity/application/generalization. Think about how you will teach understanding and accurate use of the skill as well as how you will include activities that encourage automaticity with the skill, application and eventually generalization.
  • These 5 recommendations are general strategies that have been found to be effective for improving adolescent literacy. They were taken from the practice guide published by IES – Institute of Education Sciences. We will walk you through each one. The first one we are going to address is ‘provide explicit vocabulary instruction’. Taken directly from “Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide”
  • When the NRP reported on what instruction methods improved vocabulary they found it was a combination of several things, not one method that worked best. Research was concentrated on students in grades 3-8 and both direct instruction and incidental learning were effective. Review the slide content and highlight the key concepts of both direct instruction and incidental learning bulleted under each .
  • What does it mean to know a word? Knowing a word is not an all or nothing proposition. Word knowledge is a rather complex concept. The knowledge that a person has about a word can range from a little to a lot and this can vary by the context in which the word is being used. Take for instance the word “salubrious” do you know it well and can explain it, know something about it, have seen or heard it, or don’t know it. It is an adjective of Latin origin and means “favorable to health; promoting health; healthful” The multi-faceted nature of word knowledge has implications for vocabulary learning.
  • April, 2008 Time: 1 minute Materials: Edge Teacher Editions: Vocabulary/Fluency Tab (if needed)
  • In addition to shades of meaning we can teach students about roots and affixes. Knowing the meaning of root words and prefixes and suffixes is helpful for vocabulary, reading, and spelling development. Especially as students move through the grade levels and begin to encounter words that occur with less frequency in their content area readings/textbooks. Here are just a few of the words that can be written with the form “cycl” . Cyclone, bicycle, motorcycle, and recycle are relatively easy to see the relationship between the Greek meaning and their meanings. How about encyclopedia? It has to do with having a circular or well-rounded education. Optional Activity : How many words can you think of with the Latin root “cred” (to believe)? Give participants 2-3 minutes to generate a list and report back to the large group. Have them discuss their thinking process when determining which words to write down. Some responses could be: accredit, accreditation, credible, creed, incredible, discredit, credit Another Latin root for this activity: Dic, dict (to say or tell): dedicate, abdicant, contradict, indict, verdict, edict, dictate, malediction, vindicate
  • Let’s discuss point 2. Read point 2 Taken directly from “Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide”
  • The comprehension instructional strategies in the box on the left were highlighted by the NRP as effective methods to improve students’ comprehension (cooperative learning, while more a method than strategy was included here by the NRP). The box on the left contains the strategies that have continued to be found effective in research studies occurring after the NRP. You will see a lot of overall between the two boxes. Therefore we do not need to change what we are teaching, but rather continue to teach these strategies and help students become adept at selecting the appropriate strategy for the text they are reading at that moment.
  • We are going to use metacognition as a type of “umbrella” for thinking about the comprehension process at each of these three levels. Below is a continuum of the Research-based strategies mentioned in the NRP(2000) and by Block and Parris (2008). When we think of comprehension broken into sentence, paragraph and text we can think back to the Broad Screen and the two TDI tasks. If the student struggles on the Maze task, then the student’s comprehension might be breaking down at the sentence level. This would also be the case if WA was difficult, the student might have trouble decoding even at the sentence level. The Broad Screen really assesses comprehension more at the paragraph and text level (on some of the longer passages). This diagram can help teachers think about the assessment results and determining at what level the breakdown is occurring and then think about the strategies that would be most appropriate at that level because some of these strategies can be used at all 3 levels of text while others lend themselves to instruction with one level easier than others. For example, it is difficult to synthesize at the sentence level. This is more easily taught at the text level or with a long paragraph. This slide is to get us thinking about how and when we use strategies (aka metacognition). We also need to stress the importance of monitoring one’s comprehension to effectively use known strategies.
  • In addition to learning about the components of a sentence, it is essential that students understand and be able to use signal words that provide clues as to the text structure. Here are some examples of signal words for cause and effect, sequencing, and comparison. Review slide content .
  • Reciprocal Teaching is one example you may be familiar with. It can be used at the paragraph and text level. These strategies include: clarifying, visualizing, questioning, summarizing, predicting
  • Remember, comprehension is complex! It involves the interaction of the reader, the text and the context of the reader. We need to break down the different steps for students to be in charge of their own comprehending and model it. If necessary we can begin with sentence level instruction and extend those activities to larger units of text (i.e., paragraph and text). When working at paragraph and text level think about what’s involved when a student is constructing meaning as falling under 3 categories: Interactive - involves the reader and the text in addition to the context in which reading takes place Strategic - involves having a purpose for reading, readers use a variety of strategies and skills as they construct meaning Adaptable- involves changing the strategies being used by readers as they read various texts or for different purposes
  • Let’s discuss point 3. Review point 3 . Taken directly from “Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide”
  • Here is a strategy, Think Pair Share, that most of you are familiar with. The next slide offers a variation on this process. Review this slide if your participants are not as familiar with this process.
  • This adaptation has students write their responses, share them with the group and then go back and make changes based on input from their peers. This can be a highly motivating activity for some students who enjoy collaboration. It also requires students to discussion their thinking behind their responses and through the discussion with their peers may be asked to expand upon or defend their position or comments. This extended discussion has been found to be helpful and effective when working to increase student comprehension.
  • Let’s discuss point 4. Review point 4 . Taken directly from “Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide”
  • Read slide . Motivation can play a key role in helping students comprehend text. This quote is suggesting that motivated students work hard to understand what they are reading because it is their desire to understand the text that interests them.
  • By varying the method of response we request from students it can help maintain their engagement with the learning process. Different students may prefer one response style over another, providing opportunities for students to select how they want to respond is another way to foster engagement.
  • Let’s discuss point 4. Review point 4 . Taken directly from “Improving adolescen This is where content area teachers have to rely on the reading/intervention teachers to address the truly struggling students, but the ideas of intensive intervention are helpful to content area teachers. The next three slides give you just a few strategies that you might include as additional support in your instruction. Note. When considering the decision tree in the next section, students from boxes 3 + 5 would fall into this category. Up until this point (recommendations 1-4) the recommendations we have been discussing address the needs of all students, regardless of the boxes in which their scores fall.
  • Students with reading difficulties do not see the “patterns” of word parts within longer words and do not have a strategy for approach unfamiliar or longer words they encounter. Our core reading programs provide the components for teaching the reading of multisyllabic words, but they do not always provide an overarching framework for thinking about the syllables that make up written language. This is often something teachers need to explicitly discuss with students.
  • • Here are the 6 syllable types/syllable patterns that we will discuss on the next few slides. This is an advanced decoding skill for students. (C= consonant and V= vowel) • An important skill to help students become better readers (especially of multisyllabic words) because knowing the syllable type helps students figure out how to pronounce the vowel. -Closed: syllable ends with a consonant (or more than one) and has a single vowel that says its short sound -Open: syllable ends with one vowel and the vowel is usually it’s long sound -Vowel-consonant-e: syllable ends with an ‘e’ that is silent, but makes the vowel preceding the single consonant a long sound -Vowel team/Diphthong: syllable contains two vowels that make one vowel sound, but may be combined with one or more consonants As a side note: The generalization “when two vowels go walking the first one does the talking” only works about 45% of the time (Adams, 1990). -R-controlled: syllable in which the vowel is followed by the letter ‘r’ and it is an unexpected sound neither long or short -Final stable syllable: a final syllable, in at least a two syllable word, with the consonant-l-e ending or a nonphonetic but reliable unit
  • Structural analysis refers to breaking words into their smaller parts to read and understand the larger word. This includes compound words, affixes and base/root words. At this academic level, it is helpful to work with students to split words into their morphological parts for reading and writing. Specifically thinking about roots and affixes. Learning affixes and their meanings is a generative process, this knowledge transfers to unfamiliar words by giving students a tool/strategy to figure out meanings.
  • Remember these are the scores reported to help us make decisions about the instructional needs of our students. We are going to use the FSP and the percentile scores from Maze and WA to help us make some instructional decisions.
  • When we think about profiles or patterns - we can use a general decision tree to help us narrow the profiles down into 5 basic boxes. Please read the note at the bottom of the handout for the participants. Note: The 30th percentile cut point used in this document is given as a guide to estimate the level of instructional support necessary for student success. This cut point may need to be refined within each school and district depending on local circumstances such as available resources and student performance. At the bottom of the page, the boxes provide instruction implications for the combined profiles. We will discuss the instructional implications for each of these combined profiles in the next several slides.
  • Take a look at the first five students – what we notice are that these are the five profiles we just discussed.
  • If a student’s score falls in Box 1, then provide current levels of instruction in the high-level reasoning skills, vocabulary, and reading comprehension strategies required to meet grade level standards. These are our students who are making adequate reading growth. We will want to continue to provide them with high quality reading instruction. Here are some strategies teachers could use. Graphic organizers like the KWL or the vocabulary root word chart would also help with new vocabulary and activating background for words of similar meanings. The text features discussed within the context of the 2009 NAEP framework would also be important to explicitly teach.
  • If a student’s scores fall in Box 2 + 4, (above 30th percentile on both Maze and WA) then provide enhanced instruction in the high-level reasoning skills, vocabulary, and reading comprehension strategies required to meet grade level standards. The types of strategies do not change, it could be that the format in which the information is presented may need to be adjusted. 4 of the 5 recommendations from the adolescent literacy document discussed are appropriate here. The main difference between what content area teachers are supposed to do for 'regular' students, and students receiving the enhanced instruction is how carefully explicit and systematic the instruction is, and how much support, feedback and practice may be required for them to catch on to essential things. The instruction may also be at a slightly more fundamental level (more focus on general strategies for example, than discipline specific strategies) there will be a lot of overlap between box 1 and box 2 + 4 noting that the content based interventions (box 2 + 4) that the instruction will need to be more intensive, more explicit, and more supportive.
  • Characteristics of the ‘enhanced’ instruction. This is a chart that teachers and coaches can use to make sure they are addressing the format variations of effective instruction for students in need of enhanced especially Box 3 + 5 the students in need of intensive intervention. Use chart as a guide when writing: Differentiation Lesson Plans
  • If a student’s scores fall in Box 2 + 5, (above the 30th percentile on Maze and below the 30th on WA) then the student might have a specific weakness in spelling that does not impact reading; provide instruction in basic orthographic patterns and affixes/roots. (Note: This particular profile is still puzzling to us and more data may be required to make instructional decisions.) For this student, the teacher might want to look at the student’s errors on the WA to determine if it appears to be a problem more at the phoneme or orthographic level or if the errors occur most often at the morpheme level. Some of the strategies discussed in the vocabulary section as well as the structural analysis piece would be appropriate here.
  • If a student’s scores fall in Box 3 + 4, (below the 30th percentile on Maze and above the 30 th percentile on WA) then work on text reading efficiency (comprehension and fluency); automaticity at the phrase, sentence and paragraph level, practice with repeated readings, teach using a comprehension focus. For this student the teacher may have investigated further to determine if the concern was more with fluency or comprehension or both. The sentence level comprehension instructional strategies we discussed earlier such as teaching signal words, pronoun referents would be beneficial for students who struggled with the RC task and maze task more than anticipated. This profile of student would also benefit from explicit instruction in text features and knowing the key features of each will aid comprehension. Repeated readings would also help with fluency, but we need to be sure to touch on the vocabulary and comprehension needs as well. Fluency practice alone is not enough. Reciprocal Teaching includes: clarifying, visualizing, questioning, summarizing, predicting SQ3R is a five step process to help student make meaning while they read.
  • If a student’s score fall in Box 3 + 5 , (below 30th percentile on both Maze and WA) then provide intensive instruction in word study/recognition, work on applying decoding strategies to connected text to reinforce purpose of strategies, build fluency as accuracy increases and focus on comprehension strategies. Teaching the 6 syllables types (that were discussed earlier) and building upon that when students are proficient at decoding words by transitioning to providing instruction in the roots and affixes will greatly assist this profile of student with reading comprehension, vocabulary and writing. Specifically when reading and writing in the content areas, this knowledge of how to pronounce and how to break down the meanings of unfamiliar words is helpful. Remember: For students falling in Box 3, it will be helpful to determine if the concern occurred with fluency, comprehension or both as the teacher builds the instructional plan for this student. For students meeting the profile of box 5, it would be very helpful to look at the errors they made and determine where the trouble occurred. Was it letter-sound relationships or more a matter of not representing the prefixes and/suffixes correctly. Is there a pattern of errors that could help me plan for instruction? Let’s look at an example of determining the specific type of errors.
  • ***The resources provided in this section were selected because they are free and widely accessible to all participants.
  • One of the new ways you can get resources to help you plan instruction is through the PMRN reports. On the class status report, you can click on the three different tasks to find resources in those areas. Depending on which column header the teacher clicks on, he/she will be taken to resources helpful in those areas or taken to a search page asking more specific questions. Currently, the resources that will be provided include for grades 3 – 5: Empowering Teacher Routines and Student Center Activities and for grades 3 – 12: LEaRN videos and other LEaRN resources. Teachers can also search directly through the search tool on the FCRR home page.
  • From the FCRR website, click on the Empowering Teachers link
  • The links will also connect to resources on the LEaRN (Literacy Essentials and Reading Network) website. LEaRN provides: • Scientifically-based reading research on the five essential components of reading as identified in the National Reading Panel Report; • Reading instructional strategies based on research; • Assessment approaches that are aligned with reading research; • Video examples and lesson plans depicting research-based teaching strategies in real classrooms; and • Video of experts’ commentary on research-based teaching strategies.
  • FAIR Instructional Ideas

    1. 1. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five Using FAIR Results to Differentiate Instruction Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Instructional Ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link between the interpretation of data and instructional resources to begin planning instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some Common Profiles or Patterns in Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What instructional strategies are most appropriate for each profile/pattern? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    3. 3. You can think of skill instruction in two categories: <ul><li>Accuracy/Understanding of skill </li></ul><ul><li>Automaticity/Application/Generalization of skill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When planning for instruction, you want to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach for accuracy and understanding of the skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work towards automaticity of the skill during meaningful, engaging, and productive application of the skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With the ultimate goal being that the student will be able to generalize this skill across contexts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    4. 4. 5 Recommendations to Improve Adolescent Literacy <ul><li>Provide explicit vocabulary instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for extended discussion of text meaning and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student motivation and engagement in literacy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Make available intensive and individualized interventions for struggling readers that can be provided by trained specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (p. iii, 2008) </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    5. 5. Provide Vocabulary Instruction <ul><li>Direct Instruction – explicit and systematic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduce and discuss difficult words before reading a text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyze roots and affixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select content area terms as well as “academic vocabulary” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>actively engage students in word learning instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide multiple exposures in various contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incidental Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expose students to words in texts/stories through wide reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforce use of word-learning strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have students maintain a record/log of critical vocabulary </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    6. 6. What does it mean to know a word? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    7. 7. Make Words Your Own Vocabulary Routine <ul><li>Pronounce: Guide students in correctly pronouncing the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain: Provide a clear, student-friendly explanation of the word’s meaning. Provide synonyms or antonyms. </li></ul><ul><li>Study Examples: Encourage students to think about how and why words are used in example sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Elaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role-play, drama, or pantomime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a drawing or visual representation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generate more examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students complete sentence that requires giving an example or explaining the word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students complete sentence with target word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students identify appropriate use in a sentence </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Vocabulary and Word Analysis Instructional Activity Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    9. 9. 5 Recommendations to Improve Adolescent Literacy <ul><li>Provide explicit vocabulary instruction . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for extended discussion of text meaning and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student motivation and engagement in literacy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Make available intensive and individualized interventions for struggling readers that can be provided by trained specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (p. iii, 2008) </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    10. 10. Comprehension Strategies found to be effective in the National Reading Panel (NRP) and Since the NRP: Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    11. 11. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    12. 12. Sentence level Comprehension- Content Area Reading <ul><li>In expository text, help students learn to </li></ul><ul><li>recognize signal words at the sentence level that serve as a clue to text structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause-effect relationships : because, due </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to, as a result, for, since, so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing : first, second, next, last, finally, during, later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison : like, but, still, as, yet, however </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    13. 13. Paragraph and Text Level Comprehension <ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about the text, before, during, and after reading to modify and improve understanding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visualizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating mental images or pictures while reading the text to assist in comprehension. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stopping, rereading, and questioning if the meaning does not make sense. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarizing the text will allow a reader to identify the components of the text structure that he/she understood and then should be able to identify the main idea and draw conclusions. If the reader is unable to summarize the text, this indicates that he/she should go back and reread certain sections of the text. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Predicting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using the text, pictures and titles to predict what will happen in the story. Based on new information, the reader should be constantly adjusting and re-predicting what will happen next. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Palincsar & Brown, 1984) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    14. 14. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    15. 15. 5 Recommendations to Improve Adolescent Literacy <ul><li>Provide explicit vocabulary instruction . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for extended discussion of text meaning and interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student motivation and engagement in literacy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Make available intensive and individualized interventions for struggling readers that can be provided by trained specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (p. iii, 2008) </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    16. 16. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    17. 17. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    18. 18. 5 Recommendations to Improve Adolescent Literacy <ul><li>Provide explicit vocabulary instruction . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for extended discussion of text meaning and interpretation . </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student motivation and engagement in literacy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Make available intensive and individualized interventions for struggling readers that can be provided by trained specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (p. iii, 2008) </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    19. 19. <ul><li>“… motivated students usually want to </li></ul><ul><li>understand text content fully and therefore, </li></ul><ul><li>process information deeply. As they read </li></ul><ul><li>frequently with these cognitive purposes, </li></ul><ul><li>motivated students gain in reading </li></ul><ul><li>comprehension proficiency” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Guthrie et al., 2004) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    20. 20. Examples of Strategies to Increase Engagement and Motivation <ul><li>Engaging content goals for instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choice and autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities to collaborate with other students in discussion and assignment groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage a variety of responses by having students say or write the answer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To a partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To cooperative team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Guthrie et al., 2004) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    21. 21. 5 Recommendations to Improve Adolescent Literacy <ul><li>Provide explicit vocabulary instruction . </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direct and explicit comprehension strategy instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for extended discussion of text meaning and interpretation . </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student motivation and engagement in literacy learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Make available intensive and individualized interventions for struggling readers that can be provided by trained specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide (p. iii, 2008) </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    22. 22. Why is Instruction in Multisyllabic Word Reading Important? <ul><li>The ability to read words by breaking them into their respective syllables is a hallmark of skilled readers (Mewhort & Beal, 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Successful comprehension of content-area text requires accurate reading of multisyllabic words (Bhattacharya, 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading the word mitosis in a science text could be made easier by breaking it into syllables when introducing the word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mi (open) – to (open) – sis (closed) </li></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    23. 23. Six Syllable Types <ul><li>1. Closed (CVC) (milk, fan-tas-tic) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Open (CV) (she, si-lent) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Vowel-consonant-e (VCe) (bake, write) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Vowel team/Diphthongs (sea, train, boil) </li></ul><ul><li>5. R-controlled (horn, fir, art) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Final stable (sta-ple, rid-dle,man-age, </li></ul><ul><li>pic-ture, station) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Carreker, 2005; Steere, Peck, & Kahn, 1998) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    24. 24. Frequency of Occurrence by Type Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    25. 25. Some Components of Structural Analysis <ul><li>Base/root words a word or the main part of a word (struct is the root of destructive) that affixes are added to form a new word, they are taken from Anglo-Saxon, Latin and Greek (e.g., port meaning ‘to carry’ in Latin) </li></ul><ul><li>A prefix is a morpheme attached to the beginning of the base or root word that creates a new word with changed meaning or function, (e.g., pre, re, dis, un, in) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefixes are important to know for reading, spelling, and vocabulary acquisition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derivational suffixes – a suffix added to a base or root that forms another word that is often a different part of speech from the base or root such as – ful in hopeful. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    26. 26. Some Common Profiles or Patterns in Data Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    27. 27. The 3-12 “Score” Map Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    28. 28. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    29. 29. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    30. 30. Common Profiles/Patterns of Performance Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    31. 31. What strategies exist to help with instruction for students in Box 1? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    32. 32. What strategies exist to help with instruction for students in Box 2 + 4? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    33. 33. Effective Instruction Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    34. 34. What strategies exist to help with instruction for students in Box 2 + 5? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    35. 35. What strategies exist to help with instruction for students in Box 3 + 4? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    36. 36. What strategies exist to help with instruction for students in Box 3 + 5? Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    37. 37. Resources Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    38. 38. Linking to Resources through PMRN <ul><li>Teachers will have the option of clicking on column headers for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These links will take them to a search page which will in turn bring them to a list of resources designed to assist instruction in the chosen area. </li></ul><ul><li>Resources include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – 5: Empowering Teacher Routines and Student Center Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – 12: LEaRN videos and other LEaRN resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can also get to some of these same resources through a search tool located on FCRR home page (www.fcrr.org) </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    39. 39. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    40. 40. Florida Center for Reading Research FCRR Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    41. 41. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    42. 42. Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    43. 43. www.justreadflorida.com/LEaRN Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    44. 44. Web Resources <ul><li>FCRR (Florida Center for Reading Research), www.fcrr.org </li></ul><ul><li>Just Read, Florida!, www.justreadflorida.com </li></ul><ul><li>LEaRN (Literacy Essentials and Reading Network), www.justreadflorida.com/LEaRN </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent Literacy, www.adlit.org </li></ul><ul><li>LD Online, www.ldonline.org </li></ul><ul><li>Florida Response to intervention (RtI), www.florida-rti.org </li></ul><ul><li>Colorin’ Colorado, www.colorincolorado.org/ </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    45. 45. Web Resources <ul><li>Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades: A Practice Guide (NCEE 2007-4011). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This document reviews research studies, using the What Works Clearinghouse standards, to provide the reader with recommendations to develop research-based practices for meeting the needs of English Language Learners in their schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/practiceguides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving adolescent literacy: Effective classroom and intervention practices: A Practice Guide ( NCEE #2008-4027) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the document we have referred to throughout today’s presentation and the information is here if you would like to access the complete paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literacy instruction in the content areas: Getting to the core of middle and high school improvement. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a brief overview of the need of literacy instruction in the content area for middle and high schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieved from http://www.all4ed.org </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    46. 46. Web Resources <ul><li>Academic literacy instruction for adolescents: A guidance document from the Center on Instruction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This document provides a synthesis of the research available for improving academic literacy instruction for students in grades 4-12. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieved from www.centeroninstruction.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessments to guide adolescent literacy instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This document is divided into two sections: using assessment to improve literacy instruction for adolescents and 10 examples of assessments/assessment systems in use/under development to guide instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieved from www.centeroninstruction.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content Area Literacy Guide. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This document sets the stage for why literacy instruction in the content areas is necessary and gives examples and practical suggestions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieved from http://www.ccsso.org/projects/secondary_school_redesign/Adolescent_Literacy_Toolkit/Resources_for_Teachers/Content_Area_Literacy_Guide/ </li></ul></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    47. 47. Concluding Thoughts and Questions Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -
    48. 48. Remember <ul><li>Use the data as a tool to help you form small groups and/or identify focus skills, but don’t get bogged down in thinking there is only ONE right way to organize students and their instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the decision tree and worksheet as a starting point and guide, but keep in mind your groups/instructional focus are fluid and may change based on your progress monitoring and observations during instruction. </li></ul>Foundations and Applications of Differentiating Instruction: Competencies Four and Five S1 -

    ×