Factors Involved in Reading and Writing Difficulties Ch. 2
Chapter Two Factors Involved in Reading and Writing Difficulties After: Before:
Anticipation Guide Read each of the following statements below and take note on whether you agree or disagree with each statement. <ul><li>The major cause of reading problems in young children is the schools’ failure to teach phonics. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunately, most low-achieving readers do not have emotional difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies in auditory processes are more likely to cause reading problems than are difficulties in visual processes. </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate origin of severe reading difficulty is probably neurological. </li></ul>
How Much Do You “Think” You Know About Reading Difficulties? K now W ant to Know L earned
Reading problems are often a result of a host of interacting or contributing causes. Possible factors that lead to reading and writing difficulty. Cognitive Visual /Perceptual Linguistic Emotional Physical Educational Social Cultural Economic
Cognitive Factors <ul><li>A number of cognitive factors are possible causes of reading problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Cognitive Ability/ Ability to Learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associative Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to pay attention </li></ul></ul>
The relationship between cognitive ability and reading achievement. <ul><li>Items such as memory, attention and associative learning all aid in linguistic/ reading achievement and cognitive ability to develop in parallel. </li></ul><ul><li>Through reading, we acquire a broader base of knowledge which fosters cognitive growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The main thing these two ideas have in common is the quality of the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary reading and the students’ motivation all play a key role in their success. </li></ul>
Overall Cognitive Ability <ul><li>Our ability to process information is based in part, on how much we know. </li></ul><ul><li>Through reading, we acquire a broader base of knowledge, which should foster cognitive growth ( West Stanovich, & Mitchell, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties may arise when students have lower cognitive levels which result in a depressed rate of vocabulary and language development. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading requires bringing to a conscious level one’s implicit knowledge of language. Delayed language development may hinder reading development. </li></ul></ul>
Memory Outside data is translated into a code (encoded) and placed into working memory and then long-term memory , from which it can later be retrieved through recall or recognition . Verbal encoding is essential in reading. Inefficient verbal encoding may be at the heart of word recognition, comprehension, and vocabulary difficulties. Inefficient use of working memory may hinder comprehension.
Associative Word-Learning Difficulty Serious difficulty learning to associate symbols and their spoken equivalents: letters and sounds; written words and their oral equivalents. Rooted in phonological coding difficulties and inefficient memory
“ There can be no learning without …. ATTENTION Attention fulfills three functions: screening out irrelevant stimuli, selecting relevant elements, and shifting from one stimulus to another (Robeck & Wallace, 1990) Reading difficulty may arise when students have difficulty paying attention, when it becomes a serious impediment doctors may diagnose students with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Students with ADHD seem to be at greater risk for a reading disorder. “In a recent study, about 30% of boys and 17% of girls who had serious reading problems were also judged to have ADHD. In contrast on 5% of boys and 3% of girls without serious reading problems were assessed as having ADHD” (Willcutt & Pennington, 2000).
Language: Deficits in oral language are a major characteristic of low-achieving readers. <ul><li>These deficits may take the form of: </li></ul>Articulation problems Auditory discrimination and phonological difficulties Deficiencies in vocabulary, syntax and knowledge of story grammar Slowness in rapid automatized naming Slowness in word retrieval.
What role do language factors play in reading disabilities? <ul><li>Between language impairment which is a condition in which children have difficulty learning or using language (but there is no obvious cause) and language delay which is a condition in which development follows a normal but slower part of development, these students are almost sure to have problems with reading. In contrast language of impaired students develops differently. They do not grow out of their impairment, in fact they may still have problems learning to read and write. </li></ul>
Social/Emotional Factors <ul><li>Social and emotional maladjustment can be the cause of a reading problem, an effect, or a mixture or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness can be an effect of a reading difficulty, but in time it becomes a cause for continued lack of progress. </li></ul>
What are the causes and cures for learned helplessness? Learned helplessness is the response manifested by people who believe they are unable to exert any influence over a situation. A large cause for this attribute in the social/emotional factor is based on a student’s repeated failure which leads them to convincing themselves that they are unable to read. The cure is to breed success. Teachers can do this by allowing students the opportunity to complete tasks that are leveled and appropriate and by consistently providing positive reinforcement.
Helping Struggling Readers <ul><li>Seeking Help for a Struggling Reader: Seven Steps for Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Children come to our classrooms from so many different ability levels and backgrounds. As a teacher, it's important to recognize and know what to do to help a struggling reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage good literacy habits at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Tap into the specialists and resources in your building. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on your own research-based teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate for the student through school-based and outside resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay informed. </li></ul>