Differentiated Instruction in the Math Classroom
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Differentiated Instruction in the Math Classroom

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  • Coordinators may wish to have index cards or post-its available for participants to write their definitions. When the definitions are shared with the whole group you may wish to chart them or write them on an overhead transparency.
  • Explain that this concept map of Differentiated Instruction is from Tomlinson. Pass out the handout with the concept map since you will have specific slides with definitions and notes from which you can elaborate. Briefly review and you may wish to point out the importance of utilizing both informal and formal assessment. Teacher observations of students reading and writing is considered important informal assessment. You may wish to elaborate on flexible grouping.
  • You may wish to have participants view the handout as you move from slide to slide. Be aware that you may get questions about some of the instructional strategies (practices) that are not familiar to participants e.g. 4MAT and orbitals. In Tomlinson’s book, “How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms” page 64 you can find the definition for 4MAT. Information about orbitals can be found on page 58.
  • Presenter will explain the definition and examples of differentiating by content include: use of leveled text, use of manipulatives in math, use of videos, use of books on tape.
  • Presenter will explain the definition and some examples of process include: the use of Literature Circles, graphic organizers, journals, use of learning contracts, think-pair-share.
  • Some examples of products can include: designing a web page, creating a pop-up book on a topic, developing and creating an exhibit, creating a model of a structure with specific dimensions or even an oral presentation. You may wish to mention that teachers probably will need to create a rubric so that certain criteria are met to demonstrate mastery or understanding of the concepts.
  • How do you know what they learned? It could be a test, but it could be a report, or a presentation, or a non-linguistic representation, or further research. It doesn’t have to look the same for all students, and all learners.
  • We all have different things that will draw our attention and we would like to learn more about, the content of what we would like to learn may vary. For example: some of us like chocolate,
  • How do you know what they learned? It could be a test, but it could be a report, or a presentation, or a non-linguistic representation, or further research. It doesn’t have to look the same for all students, and all learners.
  • You may wish to mention that teachers use formal and informal assessment to gauge and determine readiness. Also remind participants that teacher observation is important in determining readiness.
  • Remind participants that student engagement is a powerful motivator. Interest and choice are two key factors that lead to student engagement. Use of informal interest inventories or other teacher created inventories can provide important information on student interest.
  • Remind participants that learning style (auditory, visual or kinesthetic), intelligence preference, gender, and culture can influence learning profile. Some teachers have students take multiple intelligence tests or learning styles tests. You may wish to share any personal experiences with multiple intelligence test or learning styles tests.
  • Remind participants that in a differentiated classroom a teacher would continually be at a different place on the continuum. Remember that the hallmark of a differentiated classroom is “flexibility”. Differentiation is a dynamic process (always in flux and change).

Differentiated Instruction in the Math Classroom Differentiated Instruction in the Math Classroom Presentation Transcript

  • Hialeah Gardens High School October 28, 2010 Differentiated Instruction Overview
    • Participants will be able to:
    • Identify ways instruction can be differentiated
    • Identify instructional practices that can be used to differentiate content, process, and product
    • What is your definition of Differentiated Instruction?
    • Share your definitions with others at your table. After sharing create one definition of Differentiated Instruction per table.
    • Share definition with the whole group.
    View slide
    • “… differentiated instruction refers to a systematic approach to planning curriculum and instruction for academically diverse learners. It is a way of thinking about the classroom with the dual goals of honoring each student’s learning needs and maximizing each student’s learning capacity.”
      • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2003
      • Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide
      • for Differentiating Curriculum Grades 5-9 , p. 3
    View slide
    • Students differ in experience, readiness, interest, intelligences, language, culture, gender, and mode of learning.
    • Educators must meet each student at his or her starting point and ensure substantial growth during each school term.
    • Teachers that ignore student differences are unlikely to maximize potential in any student who differs significantly from the “norm.”
    • Teachers need to make modifications in instruction for students rather than assume students must modify themselves to fit the curriculum.
    • Teachers should always keep in mind that human brains learn best when curriculum is highly interesting and highly relevant.
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001
    • The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners , p. 24
    Principles of Differentiation
  • is a teachers’ response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation, such as flexible grouping ongoing assessment and adjustment respectful tasks ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 The Differentiated Classroom, p. 15
  • multiple intelligences jigsaw taped material anchor activities varying organizers varied texts varied supplementary materials literature circles tiered lessons tiered centers tiered products learning contracts small-group instruction group instruction orbitals independent study 4MAT varied questioning strategies interest centers interest groups varied homework compacting varied journal prompts complex instruction according to students’ through a range of instructional and management practices such as Content Process Product Interests Readiness Learning Profile ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 The Differentiated Classroom, p. 15
    • “ Content is what the students learn and the materials or mechanisms through which learning is accomplished.”
    • “ It is what a student should come to know (facts), understand (concepts and principles), and be able to do (skills) as a result of a given assignment of study (a lesson, learning experience, a unit).”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999
    • The Differentiated Classroom, p. 11, 43
    • If the classroom objective is for all students to subtract using renaming, some of the students may learn to subtract two-digit numbers, while other may learning to subtract larger numbers in the context of word problems.
    • “ Process describes activities designed to ensure that students use key skills to make sense out of essential ideas and information.”
    • “ It is the opportunity for students to make sense of the content. “
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999
    • The Differentiated Classroom, p. 11, 43
    • One student may explore a learning center, while another student collects information from the web.
  • Definition of Product Products are assessments or demonstrations of what students have come to know, understand, and be able to do as the result of an extended sequence of learning. A product is the student’s opportunity to show what she has learned throughout a unit. ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001 How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-ability Classrooms
    • “ Products are important not only because they represent your students’ extensive understandings and applications, but also because they are the element of curriculum students can most directly ‘own’.”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001
    • How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-ability Classrooms , p. 85
    • For example, to demonstrate understanding
    • of a geometric concept, one student may solve a problem set, while another builds a model.
  •  
  •  
    • When teachers differentiate, they do so in response to a student’s readiness, interest, and/or learning profile.
    • “ Readiness is a student’s entry point relative to a particular understanding or skill.”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999
    • The Differentiated Classroom, p. 11
    • “ Interest refers to student’s affinity, curiosity, or passion for a particular topic or skill.”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999
    • The Differentiated Classroom, p. 11
    • “ When interest is tapped, learning is more likely to be rewarding, and the student becomes a more autonomous learner (Bruner, 1961).”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson & Susan Demirsky Allan, 2000
    • Leadership for Differentiating Schools & Classrooms, p. 19
    • “ By helping students discover and pursue their passions, we can maximize their engagement in learning, their productivity, and their individual talents (Amabile, 1983; Collins & Amabile, 1999).”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson & Susan Demirsky Allan, 2000
    • Leadership for Differentiating Schools & Classrooms, p. 14
    • “ Learning profile refers to ways in which we learn best as individuals. Each of us knows some ways of learning that are quite effective for us, and others that slow us down or make learning feel awkward. . . . The goals of learning-profile differentiation are to help individual learners understand modes of learning that work best for them, and to offer those options so that each learner finds a good learning fit in the classroom.”
    • ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001
    • How to Differentiate Instruction in
    • Mixed-ability Classrooms , p. 60
    • Use diagnostic assessments to determine student readiness (Formal or informal)
    • Teachers can give pre-tests, question students about their background knowledge, or use KWL charts (charts that ask students to identify what they already Know, what they Want to know, and what they have Learned about the topic).
    • Identify student learning styles and environmental preferences
    • Determine student interest:
    • Using interest inventories and/or including students in the planning process.
    • Teachers can ask students to tell them what specific interests they have in a particular topic, and then teachers can try to incorporate these interests into their lessons.
    • Identify student learning styles and
    • environmental preferences:
    • Learning styles can be measured using learning style inventories.
    • Teachers can also get information about student learning styles by asking students how they learn best and by observing student activities.
    • Identifying environmental preferences includes determining whether students work best in large or small groups and what environmental factors might contribute to or inhibit student learning.
  • Quote “ A teacher in a differentiated classroom does not classify herself as someone who ‘already differentiates instruction.’ Rather that teacher is fully aware that every hour of teaching, every day in the classroom can reveal one more way to make the classroom a better match for its learners.” ~ Carol Ann Tomlinson, 2001 How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-ability Classrooms, p. 5
  • Not Differentiated Fully Differentiated Examine the differentiation continuum and place yourself on the continuum for each of the specific areas. adapted from Carol Ann Tomlinson, 1999 The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners, p. 16 Differentiation Continuum Not Differentiated Fully Differentiated Assessment is at the end. Assessment is ongoing. A single form of assessment is used. Diagnostic assessment is used. Intelligence is viewed narrowly. Multiple forms of intelligence are valued. Single option assignments. Assignments offer multiple options. Time is inflexible. Time is flexible in terms of student needs. Instruction is whole class. Flexible grouping is practiced. Teacher directs student behavior. Teacher scaffolds self-reliant learning. Coverage of texts and curriculum drive instruction. Materials are varied. Teacher solves problems. Teacher facilitates student problem-solving. Grading is based on teacher-set, inflexible objectives. Grading is determined by learning goals.
    • What 3 things about differentiated instruction did you learn or were clarified for you?
    • What 2 things about differentiated instruction are you interested in learning about or what 2 questions do you still have about differentiated instruction?
    • What 1 thing do you feel is the most important aspect about differentiated instruction that you must be aware of when planning for instruction?
    • Caldwell, J.S. & Ford, M.P. (2002). Where have all the bluebirds gone? How to soar with flexible grouping . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Tomlinson, C. & Allan, D. S. (2000). Leadership for differentiating schools & classrooms . Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    • Tomlinson, C. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms . Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    • Carol Ann Tomlinson
    • http://www.caroltomlinson.com/
    • http://www.frsd.k12.nj.us/rfmslibrarylab/di/differented_instruction.htm
    • Hotlist of Web Sites on Differentiated Instruction
    • http://www.frsd.j12.nj.us/rfsmslibrarylab/di/differentiated_instruction.htm
    • http://worldmusic.about.com/od/genres/p/Reggae.htm
    • http://www.caroltomlinson.com/articles/SPage_RAFT_Rev.pdf
    • Carmen S. Concepción
    • [email_address]
    • &
    • Danette Hernandez
    • [email_address]