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Spanish Grammar Book

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  • 1. Grammar BookBy: Carmen Adair
  • 2. Table of Contents1. Nationalities2. Stem Changing Verbs3. Para4. Indirect Object Pronouns5. Pronoun Placement6. Gustar7. Affirmative and Negative Words8. Superlatives9. Reflexives10. Affirmative Tu Commands + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement11. Negative Tu Command + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement12. Sequencing Events
  • 3. Nationalities
  • 4. Stem Changing Verbso ue (ex: devolver devuelvo)e ie (ex: empezar empiezo)o ue (ex: dormir duermo)e i (ex: pedir pido) The stem doesn’t change for the nosotros or vosotros forms.
  • 5. Para Parameans for or in order to. Use para to indicate:  The recipient of items. Ex: El regalo para tú mama.  Purpose. Ex: Vamos al restaurante para comer.  Implied purpose. Ex: Tengo dinero para [comprar] algo.
  • 6. Indirect Object Pronouns Me  To/for whom? Te  Put the indirect object pronoun (IOP) Le before the conjugated verb.  Attach the IOP to an infinitive (an Nos unconjugated verb form). Os  Attach the IOP to a gerund (-ing Les verb forms).  The pronouns le and les can also refer to indirect object pronouns.  To clarify what they mean they are often accompanied by a + a noun, pronoun, or name.
  • 7. Pronoun Placement1. Attach the pronoun to the infinitive2. Attach the pronoun to an progressive tense3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb
  • 8. Me T e Gustar Singular: Gust Me gusta…Le Le Te gusta…s Le gusta… a Nos gusta… Les gusta… No Plural: s Me gustan… Te gustan… • The form of gustar Le gustan… matches the noun. Nos gustan… Les gustan…
  • 9. Affirmative and Negative WordsWhen you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation, Affirmative affirmative or a negative word. you use an Words Negative Words  Algo  Nada  Alguien  Nadie  Algûn/alguno(a)  Ningún/ninguno(a)  Nunca  Siempre  tampoco  Tambien  If a verb is preceded by no, words that follow must be negative. Alguno(a) and ninguno(a)  A double negative is required inmust match the gender of Spanish when no precedes the verb.the noun they replace or  However, if a negative word comes modify. before the verb, a second negative is not needed.
  • 10. Superlatives -ísimo  Expresses extremes in most -ísimos adjectives. -ísima  The adjective must agree in -ísimas gender and number with the noun it modifies.  when the lost consonant is c, g, or z, spelling is required.
  • 11.  Describes people doing things for themselves. Reflexive pronouns are Reflexives used with reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject Reflexives: of the sentence receives  me –o the action of the verb.  te -as Include the concept of possession.  se -a The object (subject) does  nos -amos and receives the action.  se -an Subject, pronoun, and verb Position: are all in the same form.  In front of the conjugated Not all verbs can be reflexive. verb All reflexive verbs end in –  Attached to a gerund se. Steps to make a verb  Attached to an infinitive reflexive:  Attached to an affirmative 1. Conjugate the verb as command. always. 2. Add the reflexive
  • 12. Affirmative Tu Commands + Irregulars Affirmative Tú + Pronoun Placement Commands Give instructions or commands to Irregular Affirmative Tú someone by using the affirmative tú commands of irregular verbs. Commands Ends like a 3rd house form. Infinitive AffirmativeExamples: Tú Command Caminar- ¡Camina! ¡Camina en el Decir Di parque! Hacer Haz Comer- ¡Come! ¡Come toda la Ir Ve hamburgesa! Abrir- ¡Abre! ¡Abre la puerta, quiero Poner Pon entrar! Salir SalPronoun Placement Ser Sé When you use a pronoun with an Tener Ten affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the command. When using an object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end of the
  • 13. Negative Tu Command + Irregulars + Pronoun Placement Irregular Negative TúNegative Tú Commands Commands When you tell someone what not to do, use a negative Infinitive (Yo Negative Tú command. form) Command Formed by taking you from the present tense, dropping the –o, Dar (Doy) No le des mi and adding an appropriate dirección a ending. nadie.Examples: Estar (estoy) No estés ¡No hables! triste. ¡No vuelvas! Ir (voy) No vayas a laPronoun Placement tiends. Object pronouns precede the Ser (soy) No seas mala. verbs in negative commands, None of the yo forms of just as with other conjugated these verbs end in –o. verbs.
  • 14. Sequencing Events First: prfimero Then: entonces Later/after: luego/después Finally: por fin Before/after: antes de/ después de In/during the…: por la mañana/tarde/noche  No specific time given On Mondays, on Tuesdays, etc: los lunes, los martes, etc.