Scoring the responses will give values for a model with two axes: a "perceptual space duality," concrete vs. abstract , and an "ordering duality," sequential vs. random. The resulting quadrants are the "styles":
Gregorc adds another dimension to this concept: learners also have a preference for concrete (literal, actual, hands-on) or abstract (theoretical, conceptual, symbolic) , content. This leads to the four learning style combinations or types described below:
Concrete Random (BC): Use an experimental, trial and error approach, have “flashes of insight” and make “intuitive leaps” and prefer learning tasks such as learning games, independent study projects, discovery learning/constructivist activities, and problem-solving activities. This learning style is most compatible with a cognitive discovery teaching style.
Abstract Sequential (AD): Like written and verbal symbols, often think in “conceptual pictures,” grasp ideas easily through reading and listening, and like learning activities such as reading assignments, lectures about theories and ideas, writing essays, concept maps. This learning style is most compatible with the cognitive expository teaching style.
Abstract Random (AC): Prefer to receive information in an unstructured manner, enjoy group discussion, cooperative learning, and multi-sensory experiences, often connect feelings with concepts and ideas and prefer to learn through simulations, discussion-based activities, confluent/holistic education, and cooperative/collaborative learning. This learning style is most compatible with a humanistic teaching style.
Gregorc, A. F. An Adult's Guide to Style . Maynard, MA: Gabriel Systems, 1982. Sauve, J. (2004). Styles Comparison. http://chat.carleton.ca/~jsauve/channels.html Seidel, L. E., England, E. M. (1999). Gregorc’s cognitive styles: College students’ preferences for teaching methods and testing techniques. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 83 (3) , 859-857.
Individuals with clear-cut dispositions toward concrete and sequential reality chose approaches such as ditto sheets, workbooks, computer-assisted instruction, and kits. Individuals with strong abstract and random dispositions opted for television, movies, and group discussion. Individuals with dominant abstract and sequential leanings preferred lectures, audio tapes, and extensive reading assignments.
Those with concrete and random dispositions were drawn to independent study, games, and simulations. Individuals who demonstrated strength in multiple dispositions selected multiple forms of media and classroom approaches. It must be noted, however, that despite strong preferences, most individuals in the sample indicated a desire for a variety of approaches in order to avoid boredom.
Learning styles emerge from inborn, natural predispositions or proclivities. An obvious implication of this finding is that individuals are capable of using their minor proclivities to varying extents and that development of these proclivities is necessary because of the multivariate demands from our environment.
Seidel and England (1999) investigated the relation between college student's learning styles (as assessed by the Gregorc Style Delineator) and their preferences for common teaching methods and testing techniques..
They found that students who scored higher on the sequential end of the sequential-random continuum, had a stronger preference for structured teaching methods, assigned homework problems and organized lectures, compared to those students who scored on the random end of the continuum.
This study has important implications for students' success and academic achievement. Lack of motivation may be related to a mismatch between teaching methods and students' learning styles rather than a lack of students' ability.
This study revealed that distinct cognitive style differences exist between males and females. More males than females were found to be abstract sequential and concrete random, and more females than males were identified as abstract random.
Systematic differences in area of study were also demonstrated in the study. Students who were majoring in Rehabilitation and Special Education had higher scores on the abstract random channel compared to Business majors or other various majors in the Arts and Sciences.