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Dna sequencing

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  • 1. By: Carly Beckstedt
  • 2.  the process of figuring out the correct order of the four nitrogen-containing bases: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine in a section of DNA Sections of DNA are separated by size, recreating the original piece of DNA
  • 3.  Established by Fred Sanger in 1977 When DNA is being replicated and a dideoxy base is associated into a new chain, it stops the replication reaction
  • 4.  A primer is annealed to a single-stranded section of DNA
  • 5.  DNA- primer mixture is put into 4 separate tubes with DNA polymerase and a solution of dNTPs at a concentration of 100 times lower than the dNTP concentration
  • 6.  DNA Pol uses dNTPs to extend the DNA
  • 7.  ddNTPs are put together randomly, resulting in different lengths of fragments
  • 8.  Fragments that are from each of the reactions are denatured and separated by size using gel electrophroesis
  • 9.  The gel is used to visually detect the DNA fragments. The fragments are to be read from bottom to top and this represents the complementary sequence of the original strand of DNA.
  • 10.  Allows scientists to  Provides details about determine genome individuals and their sequence families Identify the genes  Police have DNA causing genetic samples of people that diseases have committed no crime
  • 11.  Too expensive Religious beliefs Diagnosing a genetic disorder before we have the science to treat it causes distress in patients
  • 12.  Forensics  Identify individuals  Determine the paternity of a child  Identifies endangered and protected species Medicine  Detect genes that are hereditary or cause diseases Agriculture  Map the genome of microorganisms
  • 13.  Projects might focus on researching:  The links to develop lifestyle  Genomic and cardiovascular disease  Early detections of cancer
  • 14.  "Dideoxy Sequencing Animation." Dideoxy Sequencing Animation. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://spine.rutgers.edu/cellbio/assets/flash/dideoxy.htm>. "Sangers Method of Dna Sequencing Video." World News. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://wn.com/Sangers_Method_of_DNA_Sequencing_Video>. "DNA Sequencing: Method, Benefits and Applications." DNA Sequencing: Method, Benefits and Applications. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://www.biotecharticles.com/Genetics-Article/DNA-Sequencing- Method-Benefits-and-Applications-248.html>. Russell, Robert. "The Disadvantages of DNA Analysis." EHow. Demand Media, 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/list_6083198_disadvantages-dna- analysis.html>. "Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project." Ethical Issues of the Human Genome Project. Web. 23 May 2012. <http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/IE/Ethical_Issues_of_the_H GP.php>.