America In The Beginning Who were the first Americans? This land bridge is known as Beringia. Animals like mammoths crossed the bridge or migrated to the America's. This caused ocean levels to drop and expose land. In the Bering straight a land bridge appeared connecting Siberia(Asia)& the Americas 30,000 years ago During a period of low temperatures called an ice age The world was covered in glaciers or sheets of ice. How and why did they come here?
America In The Beginning What happened when they came to America? The ice age ended warming up glaciers causing water levels to rise covering up the land bridge. Some animals died off like mammoths. Living in many different parts of the Americas the Natives needed to adjust or adapt to every thing in the new surrounds that made up each of their own environments in order to survive. How did they meet their new needs? Hunter's in Asia who moved from place to place to find food or nomads followed the mammoths and spread out or migrated to the America's
How did Native Americans adjust to the new environments? America In The Beginning Different groups in different environments developed their own beliefs and ways of life or culture. Groups in the same environments adapted similar life styles, and language creating cultural region. Many Native American have these things in common. 1. Nature has a spirit and believe in many gods. 2. No one can own land. 3. Only use what is needed (no waste). 4. Trade was important to most societies Living in many different parts of the Americas the Natives used the different natural resources in their own different environments for food, clothing, and shelter. What did they have in common?
8 Cultural Regions California Great Basin Great Plains South East North West Coast Plateau Eastern Woodlands South West Plateau Northwest coast Great basin Northeast California Plains Southeast Southwest
8 Cultural Regions
North West Coast Weather: long cold winters cool summers heavy rainfall Natural Resources: ocean/beaches thick forests of fir, spruce, and cedar rugged mountains seafood/salmon deer, moose, bear, elk, beaver, mountain goats Culture: Tools: Use cedar canoes to hunt. Fenced in salmon laying eggs Used cedar to make rope, mat and baskets, shell needles Used wedges, sledge hammers drills and knives to carve wooden masks Clothing: Cedar water proof clothing like capes with decorative shell buttons Shelter: Lived near the coast, cedar long houses with cedar bark roofs
California Weather: rainy winters hot dry summers Natural Resources: ocean/coast foothills valley's deserts mountains acorns, oak trees grass, and plants redwood trees salmon/seafood/shellfish deer, rabbits, ducks, roots berries, pine nuts Culture: Tools: Used bow and arrows, snares, and nets used cooking stones to cook acorn meals. Tools from antlers Clothing: Grass/leather apron and skirts Shelter: Cone shaped made of red wood bark. Poles and reeds woven into mats
Great Basin Weather: little rain hot during the day cold at night Natural Resources: mostly dessert low areas surrounded by mountains at the edges with valleys that had seasonal lakes and streams plants that need little water like grasses, sagebrush, pinon trees, at the outer edges pine trees, and willow small animals rabbits, lizards, grasshoppers, snakes sometimes ducks , duck eggs during certain seasons seeds,berries pine nuts, roots, cattail Culture: Tools: Water basket sealed with tree sap. Floating duck decoys, nets sharp sticks and flat baskets for catching seeds. Clothing: rabbit robes in winter Shelter: Nomadic temporary cone shelters of willow brush and reeds
Plateau Weather: long cold winters comfortable summers Natural Resources: mountains with dense forests in areas flatter in the center with drier grass lands rivers driftwood, mud, dirt, grass and sage brush fish, antelope, deer, seeds onions, carrots, camas roots, salmon Culture: Tools: Woven baskets, willow digging sticks, wooden fishing platforms, nets and spears for salmon Clothing: antelope and deer hides leggings dresses and skirts, woven hats seed and shell design Shelter: Near rivers, partly underground out of driftwood, mud, sap and reeds
Great Plains Weather: cold winters hot summers Natural Resources: mountains surrounding edges treeless grasslands in the center east more water and softer soil west drier dense grass Buffalo and smaller animals Culture: Tools: Bow made of buffalo tendon, arrows, V shaped stone trap, fire, bone knives, shield Clothing: Buffalo robes and hides Shelter: Houses call tipi’s (plains word for dwelling)
South West Weather: high temperatures little rain dry/arid Natural Resources: mountains, canyons desserts, flat top mesas rivers, little water clay, brightly colored plants, cotton corn, beans, squash, peppers, rabbits Houses: Made of bricks of adobe(sun baked clay) Up to four stories and hundreds of rooms Clothes: made of cotton. Using plants to dye the fabric Tools: lived in flooded areas. Men dug irrigation ditches and dams to hold the summer rain. Women were grinding corn kernels into cornmeal. They used clay pots to cook chili pepper stews.
Eastern Woodlands Weather: snowy winters , rain Natural Resources: rivers, ocean/coast lots of lakes and streams Forests, plants, maple trees, elm, deer, bears, beavers, birds, fish corn, sunflowers, tobacco, vegetables, nuts, berries House: Long house sturdy , long-framed houses covered with elm bark. About 20 feet wide and over 100 feet long. Several related families live in sections of the house. Clothing: Skirts capes and moccasins made of deer skin Tools: Ground corn with wooden sticks, used wooden canoes, speared fish For farming land, man burnt small sections of trees and underbrush. Women used hoes for planting. Made maple syrup and wooden storage canisters.
South East Weather: long warm humid summers mild winters Natural Resources: rivers, ocean/coast Fertile coastal plains mountains, swamps Trees, clay, shells, corn, beans, squash, pumpkins, sunflowers, sweet potatoes squirrels, rabbits, turkeys, deer, alligators, turtles, wild rice, persimmons Houses: made of strips of young trees woven into a rectangular frame, then plastered with clay. These houses had pointed roofs made of leaves. Towns included many mounds which as burial sights and used as platforms and temples. Clothing: Made of deer skin. Jewelry made of stones, shells, feathers, pearls, bones, and clay. Tools: used hoes made of stone, shell or animal shoulder blades. Hunted using small blow guns, bows and arrows.