<ul><li>Push the  </li></ul><ul><li>“ F5”  </li></ul><ul><li>key at the top of your keyboard to view this slide show. </li...
Principles  of Photography I
S ettings & Symbols <ul><li>Every camera is different.  Finding the owner’s manual for your camera will give the most spec...
S ettings & Symbols 2 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye  Reduction Drive Mode Manual  Focus I...
S ettings & Symbols 3 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye  Reduction Drive   Mode Manual   Focu...
S ettings & Symbols 3 Shutter Speed The shutter speed determines how crisp or blurred an image is.  The higher the number,...
S ettings & Symbols 4 Shutter   Speed Battery Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode Manu...
S ettings & Symbols 5 Shutter   Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode Manual...
S ettings & Symbols 6 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode Manu...
<ul><li>The sun offers all colors of the rainbow, but the tones are different depending on the time of day. </li></ul>S et...
<ul><li>Clouds absorb the slower (yellow and red) light waves.  This gives a blue tone to your photos. </li></ul>S ettings...
<ul><li>Incandescent lights give a yellow or brown tone to your photo. </li></ul>S ettings & Symbols 6
<ul><li>Fluorescent lights give a dull green tint to your photos. </li></ul>S ettings & Symbols 6 Changing poorly colored ...
S ettings & Symbols 7 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red Eye  Reduction Drive   Mode Manua...
S ettings & Symbols 8 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive Mode Manu...
S ettings & Symbols 9 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode Ma...
S ettings & Symbols 10 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 11 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 12 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 13 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 14 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 15 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 16 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 16 Exposure Setting Subject   Icons This helps to darken bright sunlight or lighten dark scenes.  Brig...
S ettings & Symbols 17 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 18 Shutter   Speed Battery   Life Exposure   Mode White   Balance Red   Eye   Reduction Drive   Mode M...
S ettings & Symbols 19 Section Summary Before going heavy on photo taking, review your owner manual and your camera.  Usin...
W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach us how to make judgments about quality and aesthetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlik...
I ntroduction <ul><li>The study of Principles can cause disappointment as a photographer feels required to control picture...
I ntroduction <ul><li>There are many Principles of photography.  This class allows work in five specific Principles. </li>...
I ntroduction <ul><li>One goal of this class is for students to “make” their photos, not “take” their photos.  This approa...
R ealism <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Realism - an effort to display things as they really are.  It is a reaction ...
R ealism <ul><li>The face is the primary source of emotion in a shot and that emotion is what makes or breaks a photo.  </...
R ealism <ul><li>Because realism shows things as they really are, the use of a flash is not permitted for realism photogra...
R ealism <ul><li>Allowing the subjects to be aware of your picture taking destroys the Realism.  They now become only acto...
R ealism <ul><li>Naturalism is a form of realism that celebrates nature.  </li></ul><ul><li>In its extreme forms, naturali...
R ealism <ul><li>Although there is an effort to focus on nature, naturalism can still include a theme of how people are af...
R ealism <ul><li>“ Detail is the heart of realism…” - Clive Bell </li></ul>Cash Hollow, TN 2004 - Mike Smith Escuela Mazah...
R ealism Amanda Lilly Delaware dancing  - Lyntha Eiler Bride - David Lloyd Click on the picture below that you think repre...
R ealism Click Here To Continue Correct! The girl is shown in a natural setting.  No one is calling to her to, “Smile” or,...
R ealism Click Here To Continue The bride is beautiful, but it is definitely aimed at being “perfect.”  This image is base...
R ealism <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>In an effort to show things as they really are, the photographer shou...
R ealism <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Not seeing the face of the photo subjects. </li></ul>15
W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach us that problems can have more than one solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Art allows...
E xpressionism <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism – images altered from their natural appearance so they h...
E xpressionism <ul><li>This photo uses texture and strong geometric shapes.  </li></ul><ul><li>Using strong contrast backg...
E xpressionism <ul><li>Most of the meaning comes from the person viewing it.  Think of your photograph as an emotion and y...
E xpressionism <ul><li>It is our  vision  that creates the expressionist image.  </li></ul><ul><li>No longer are we paying...
E xpressionism <ul><li>One test for expressionism is when someone looks at your photo and says, “What’s that!?!”  This tel...
E xpressionism Observer - Travis Klug Untitled – Travis Klug Click on the picture below that you think represents expressi...
E xpressionism Click Here To Continue Correct! The photographer leaves the true nature of the image up to the viewer.  The...
E xpressionism Click Here To Continue Definitely an interesting photo with great composition.  Unfortunately it provides d...
E xpressionism <ul><li>On your next click, a photo will appear.  Pay attention to your first reaction.  This is the emotio...
E xpressionism <ul><li>&quot;It is not exactly the presence of a thing but rather the absence of it that becomes the cause...
E xpressionism <ul><li>This is not a principle for graphic illustration made largely in Photoshop.  Here we are looking fo...
E xpressionism <ul><li>Every day objects become expressionist art when seen from a different perspective.  </li></ul><ul><...
E xpressionism Out of a Box – Christopher Delaney Sisters – Rob Jensen Click on the picture below that you think represent...
E xpressionism Click Here To Continue Correct! By proper framing, the photographer has reduced a waterfall into the basic ...
E xpressionism Click Here To Continue The photograph shows plenty of emotion.  Unfortunately the emotion comes from the ph...
<ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Out of focus. </li></ul><ul><li>In the attempt to obscure the reality of a photo...
E xpressionism <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>A photographer uses expressionism by distorting reality for the...
W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach that multiple perspectives are valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the large le...
E mphasis <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis - the ability to make the subject  of a photo stand out from its s...
E mphasis <ul><li>Color is a great tool for providing emphasis.  </li></ul><ul><li>As an artist, you may ask subjects to w...
E mphasis <ul><li>Even without manipulation, the choice of strong colors provides an emphasis. </li></ul>Untitled - Michae...
E mphasis <ul><li>Complimentary colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel will increase contrast and emphasis...
E mphasis <ul><li>Complimentary colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel will increase contrast and emphasis...
E mphasis <ul><li>Close-up photography steady hands. Any camera motion makes a blurry photo. That’s why the number one too...
E mphasis <ul><li>Using depth of focus provides emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first image, the cormorants are nearly ...
E mphasis <ul><li>Using lighting is one of the great skills in photography.  A photographer should plan what the light is ...
E mphasis <ul><li>Lighting can be changed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Where the photographer stands </li></ul><ul><li>Time of da...
E mphasis Cactus after Rain  - Jennifer Valencia 10
E mphasis Tubes - Eric Noel 11
E mphasis Space Needle - Eric Noel 12
E mphasis <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Photographers emphasize the subjects in their photos by color, focus...
H alf Way Point <ul><li>You are over halfway through with the Principles.  This slide is to take a break and inspire your ...
W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach that purposes and problems are rarely fixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in art...
M ovement <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Movement - portraying action in a still image. </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred Mo...
M ovement <ul><li>Since “A picture is worth a thousand words,” movement in a picture makes it worth a million words. </li>...
M ovement <ul><li>Blurred Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Your eyes don’t freeze action precisely, so why should your pictures?...
M ovement <ul><li>Blurred Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the visual anchor in low light conditions is made easier if y...
M ovement <ul><li>Sports are an excellent place to study movement in photography. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like any photogra...
M ovement <ul><li>Implied Movement </li></ul><ul><li>The story being told in the photograph can definitely communicate mov...
M ovement <ul><li>A completely out of focus picture is pretty much useless. </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to capture the critic...
M ovement <ul><li>Placing more space in front of the vehicle than behind will support the idea that an object has someplac...
M ovement <ul><li>“ [The body is] a marvelous machine…a chemical laboratory, a power-house.  Every movement, voluntary or ...
M ovement <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Taken from a moving car. </li></ul><ul><li>The image will be superior ...
M ovement <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>No visual anchor. </li></ul>9
M ovement <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Photographers use blurred and implied movement to show action in the...
W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts develop an ability to work with others toward a common goal.  </li></ul><ul><li>Spor...
B alance <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Balance - the creation of an equality or harmony between the parts of a comp...
B alance <ul><li>We need to learn what classically trained artists have known for centuries: how the human eye looks at a ...
B alance <ul><li>Balance is commonly shown by using “Power Positions” or the “Rule of Thirds.” </li></ul><ul><li>Another w...
B alance <ul><li>The rule of thirds divides an image into three equal parts horizontally and three vertically. Placing you...
B alance <ul><li>The rule of thirds divides an image into three equal parts horizontally and three vertically. Placing you...
B alance <ul><li>Being aware of these three Principles and how they should be positioned, isolated and enhanced will provi...
B alance <ul><li>While interesting for other reasons, the lack of balance can give the viewer a sense of uneasiness. </li>...
B alance <ul><li>Instead of using the “Power Positions,” this  image is balanced into horizontal thirds.  </li></ul><ul><l...
B alance <ul><li>Balance is a concept used in many art forms besides photography. </li></ul><ul><li>Architect Charles Jean...
<ul><li>The most important point in working with pictures of people, is that  the eyes are the focal point  of the image. ...
B alance Anhinga #3 - Bill Silliker 12 The redish out of focus branch in this image distracts from an otherwise well focus...
B alance <ul><li>Find a balance in lighting  </li></ul><ul><li>A significantly brighter object that immediately pulls your...
B alance <ul><li>Find a balance with interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The image of the Egret has high interest with the fish in...
B alance <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Using classical ideas of balance, photos can be divided into thirds a...
T itles <ul><li>Titling your photographs is another way for the artist to communicate with the viewer.  While it is not ne...
T itles 1 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Tim Pratt This photo uses balance because the child’s ...
T itles 2 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Wanda Burgner This photo uses realism and emphasis bec...
T itles 3 Sara Gettys Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses emphasis by focus
T itles 4 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Kevin Brady This photo uses realism,  emphasis and imp...
T itles 5 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Abigail Rhodes This photo uses realism and emphasis be...
T itles 6 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Avain Winthrop This photo uses realism, emphasis becau...
T itles 7 Sara Gettys Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses realism and a balance of h...
T itles 8 Sara Gettys Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses expressionism and balance ...
T itles 9 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Antonio Reins This photo uses realism and blurred move...
T itles 10 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Ethan Polk This photo uses realism, emphasis because ...
T itles 11 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Ethan Polk This photo uses emphasis because of focus
T itles 12 Andy Keller Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses realism, emphasis because...
T itles 13 Andy Keller Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses balance by horizontal thi...
T itles 14 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Hannah Gregorich This photo uses balance by lining up...
T itles 15 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Hannah Gregorich This photo uses emphasis because of ...
T itles 16 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Ethan Polk This photo uses realism, balance because t...
T itles 17 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Kristina Rawlins This photo uses realism, a horizonta...
T itles 18 Whitney Gress This photo uses realism and a vertical balance. Next to the slide number, write your title to thi...
T itles 19 Whitney Gress This photo uses realism. Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo.
T itles 20 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Whitney Gress This photo uses a focused emphasis by h...
T itles 21 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo is expressionism because the ...
T itles 22 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo uses realism with an emphasis...
T itles 23 Mike Carlson This photo uses realism with an emphasis on naturalism.  It displays nature as it really is with n...
T itles 24 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo uses emphasis by creating a f...
T itles 25 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo uses emphasis of light with a...
T itles <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Titling your photographs is another way for the artist to communicate with the v...
 
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Principles of photography I

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This slideshow is used for partial completion of a .5 semester credit of fine art, occupational education, or elective credit. Some of the font and the instructional pieces did not convert very well, but are in place when I downlaoded the file.

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Principles of photography I

  1. 1. <ul><li>Push the </li></ul><ul><li>“ F5” </li></ul><ul><li>key at the top of your keyboard to view this slide show. </li></ul>Push the “ F5” key at the top of your keyboard to view this slide show.
  2. 2. Principles of Photography I
  3. 3. S ettings & Symbols <ul><li>Every camera is different. Finding the owner’s manual for your camera will give the most specific information about your camera. This section of the class is intended to introduce you to common symbols and settings. </li></ul>1 LCD Screen from Minolta Dimage 5
  4. 4. S ettings & Symbols 2 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This type of screen is often found on the top or back of a camera.
  5. 5. S ettings & Symbols 3 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The shutter speed determines how crisp or blurred an image is. The higher the number, the faster and more clean the photo. Nighttime photos will need slower shutter speeds to allow more light.
  6. 6. S ettings & Symbols 3 Shutter Speed The shutter speed determines how crisp or blurred an image is. The higher the number, the faster and more clean the photo. Nighttime photos will need slower shutter speeds to allow more light. A slow shutter speed was used to make the background blurred while following the cyclist. A high shutter speed was used to stop the water splash in mid air. Well placed lights make this possible.
  7. 7. S ettings & Symbols 4 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This indicates the amount of battery power remaining. Using a flash will use up battery power quickly. You may also want to check your camera for power saving settings like automatic shutdown when the camera has been left on.
  8. 8. S ettings & Symbols 5 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Exposure control can be selected for Programmed ( Automatic (the camera averages all settings) Shutter speed, or Manual (the photographer provides all settings). Each of these produce a different effect on your photo.
  9. 9. S ettings & Symbols 6 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The light from the sun , clouds , incandescent (standard home light bulbs) , fluorescent , and tungsten (commonly used in photo studios) all affect the colors in your photographs. White balance settings balance those affects so that your colors are more true.
  10. 10. <ul><li>The sun offers all colors of the rainbow, but the tones are different depending on the time of day. </li></ul>S ettings & Symbols 6 A sunset offers the warm reds, yellows, and finally the pinks and violets.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Clouds absorb the slower (yellow and red) light waves. This gives a blue tone to your photos. </li></ul>S ettings & Symbols 6 This can be adjusted to give a natural coloring by adjusting the white balance.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Incandescent lights give a yellow or brown tone to your photo. </li></ul>S ettings & Symbols 6
  13. 13. <ul><li>Fluorescent lights give a dull green tint to your photos. </li></ul>S ettings & Symbols 6 Changing poorly colored photos to black & white may save an otherwise good picture.
  14. 14. S ettings & Symbols 7 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This makes the flash fire off several times before the main flash fires. This makes the pupils constrict and reduces red glare coming from the back of the eye in low light settings when a flash is used. With red eye reduction Without red eye reduction
  15. 15. S ettings & Symbols 8 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This allows the camera to be set on a timer or to take several pictures in a row as long as the shutter button is being held down.
  16. 16. S ettings & Symbols 9 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Most automatic cameras do not allow manual focus, but if you can, this is good for close ups of flowers, bugs, or other photos with a shallow depth of field.
  17. 17. S ettings & Symbols 10 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This sets the size of the photo file saved onto your memory card. The larger the size, the better quality picture you will produce. Smaller file sizes are better for uses like email and websites.
  18. 18. S ettings & Symbols 11 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Memory cards have a limit on the number of pictures they can save. Changing the settings to smaller image size will allow more photos, but also sacrifice quality.
  19. 19. S ettings & Symbols 12 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The ISO establishes the camera’s sensitivity to light. Low numbers are good for brightly lit and very clear images. Higher numbers are used in low light and fast motion settings, but often increases fuzziness called “camera noise”.
  20. 20. S ettings & Symbols 13 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons
  21. 21. S ettings & Symbols 14 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Color settings allow a choice of black & white photos, sepia (old fashioned brown tone), negative, and more.
  22. 22. S ettings & Symbols 15 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons The contrast setting can improve dull or gray settings that come from over cast or some indoor photos. Like all of these settings, this must be established before the photo is taken.
  23. 23. S ettings & Symbols 16 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons This helps to darken bright sunlight or lighten dark scenes. Brightening dark scenes may produce photos that are washed out. This can be adjusted by using the contrast setting.
  24. 24. S ettings & Symbols 16 Exposure Setting Subject Icons This helps to darken bright sunlight or lighten dark scenes. Brightening dark scenes may produce photos that are washed out. This can be adjusted by using the contrast setting. This photo is underexposed because the camera adjusted for the light behind him. This photo is washed out and over exposed. The exposure setting is determined by the size of the camera’s aperture (hole that lets the light in).
  25. 25. S ettings & Symbols 17 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons Identifies which automatic subject setting is selected.
  26. 26. S ettings & Symbols 18 Shutter Speed Battery Life Exposure Mode White Balance Red Eye Reduction Drive Mode Manual Focus Image Size Pictures Remaining Sensitivity Flash Setting Color Setting Contrast Setting Exposure Setting Subject Setting Subject Icons <ul><li>This automatically sets exposure and shutter speed for a variety of scenes: portrait, sports, sunset, night portrait, and text. </li></ul>
  27. 27. S ettings & Symbols 19 Section Summary Before going heavy on photo taking, review your owner manual and your camera. Using the tools it comes with will make you a more skilled photographer and make this class go smoother.
  28. 28. W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach us how to make judgments about quality and aesthetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike many classes where correct </li></ul>1 Untitled - Stefano Rossi answers and strict rules apply, the arts encourage the learner to make judgments about the art.
  29. 29. I ntroduction <ul><li>The study of Principles can cause disappointment as a photographer feels required to control pictures too much. Putting too much effort into precisely duplicating limited definitions creates stiff images. </li></ul><ul><li>With this caution, remember that there are criteria. Being comfortable using these Principles will help create superior images. This should be your goal. Use the information in this class to create powerful photos. </li></ul>Glen Canyon - Ryan Archibald 2
  30. 30. I ntroduction <ul><li>There are many Principles of photography. This class allows work in five specific Principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul>Dock Construction - Bob Brawdy 3
  31. 31. I ntroduction <ul><li>One goal of this class is for students to “make” their photos, not “take” their photos. This approach takes planning and mental preparation to capture that one brief moment. </li></ul>Ansel Adams, 1920 4 Photographer at Work – Max Lyons
  32. 32. R ealism <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Realism - an effort to display things as they really are. It is a reaction to romanticism which tries to show an image of perfection. </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalism - Related to realism, this includes nature or nature themes and limiting of human involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Idealism - the effort to portray the world in perfection through art. This is the opposite to realism. </li></ul>5
  33. 33. R ealism <ul><li>The face is the primary source of emotion in a shot and that emotion is what makes or breaks a photo. </li></ul><ul><li>Shots of a person’s back limits the photo’s message. Try to move to an angle where you can see part of their face. </li></ul>The Duel – Angga Bhaskara 6
  34. 34. R ealism <ul><li>Because realism shows things as they really are, the use of a flash is not permitted for realism photographs. The flash can be turned off on most cameras by using the “no flash” setting identified by this symbol: </li></ul>It’s A Hard Life - Darylann Turner 7 Notice the uneven lighting that happens when a flash is used.
  35. 35. R ealism <ul><li>Allowing the subjects to be aware of your picture taking destroys the Realism. They now become only actors. </li></ul>Sweet Happiness – Alexandra Aaron 8 3 – Michelle Frimodt Car #2 – Darylann Turner
  36. 36. R ealism <ul><li>Naturalism is a form of realism that celebrates nature. </li></ul><ul><li>In its extreme forms, naturalism removes any human influence from the image. This means things like: no roads, no telephone wires, no people in the background, etc. </li></ul>Mountain Goat on Mt Stuart - Ron Carlson 9
  37. 37. R ealism <ul><li>Although there is an effort to focus on nature, naturalism can still include a theme of how people are affected by nature and vice versa. </li></ul>Center of Town, Woodstock Vermont - Marion Post-Wolcott 10
  38. 38. R ealism <ul><li>“ Detail is the heart of realism…” - Clive Bell </li></ul>Cash Hollow, TN 2004 - Mike Smith Escuela Mazahura - Mariana Yampolsky 11
  39. 39. R ealism Amanda Lilly Delaware dancing - Lyntha Eiler Bride - David Lloyd Click on the picture below that you think represents realism. 12
  40. 40. R ealism Click Here To Continue Correct! The girl is shown in a natural setting. No one is calling to her to, “Smile” or, “Say cheese”. Put a +1 at the top of your paper. 13
  41. 41. R ealism Click Here To Continue The bride is beautiful, but it is definitely aimed at being “perfect.” This image is based on idealism. The flowers are held perfectly, the makeup is all in place, and a fill-flash was used to help the lighting. The photo of the girl is the one with realism. 13
  42. 42. R ealism <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>In an effort to show things as they really are, the photographer should be careful not to manipulate the images by interactions with the subject or through camera technology. </li></ul>14 The Centurion – Mike Carlson
  43. 43. R ealism <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Not seeing the face of the photo subjects. </li></ul>15
  44. 44. W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach us that problems can have more than one solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Art allows for thousands of </li></ul>1 Untitled - Stefano Rossi variables and even more solutions. Training the creative mind is too often undervalued in the mainstream subjects.
  45. 45. E xpressionism <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionism – images altered from their natural appearance so they have been simplified to their basic contours/forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast – the difference in a lighting scale between the dark and light. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract – a style of art that refers to various types of 20th-century avant-garde art. </li></ul>2
  46. 46. E xpressionism <ul><li>This photo uses texture and strong geometric shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Using strong contrast background allows with shapes to stand out instead what it really is. </li></ul>Solar Geometries – Mike Carlson 3
  47. 47. E xpressionism <ul><li>Most of the meaning comes from the person viewing it. Think of your photograph as an emotion and you will be very close to capturing the idea of expressionism. </li></ul>Untitled - Mike Carlson 4
  48. 48. E xpressionism <ul><li>It is our vision that creates the expressionist image. </li></ul><ul><li>No longer are we paying attention to the visual facts, but now it is the emotional and psychic values that become important. </li></ul>I Can Dance - Sundero Atomic Level – Mike Carlson 5
  49. 49. E xpressionism <ul><li>One test for expressionism is when someone looks at your photo and says, “What’s that!?!” This tells you that you have gotten beyond what the actual object is and are working in emotions. </li></ul>Untitled - Mike Carlson 6
  50. 50. E xpressionism Observer - Travis Klug Untitled – Travis Klug Click on the picture below that you think represents expressionism. 7
  51. 51. E xpressionism Click Here To Continue Correct! The photographer leaves the true nature of the image up to the viewer. The invitation to create meaning is shown by leaving the photo “Untitled”. Put a +1 at the top of your paper. 8
  52. 52. E xpressionism Click Here To Continue Definitely an interesting photo with great composition. Unfortunately it provides distinct images of the river and individual in deep thought. The untitled photo is the best example of expressionism. 8
  53. 53. E xpressionism <ul><li>On your next click, a photo will appear. Pay attention to your first reaction. This is the emotional connection the art is trying to make. </li></ul>GC17-08 - Pogo 9
  54. 54. E xpressionism <ul><li>&quot;It is not exactly the presence of a thing but rather the absence of it that becomes the cause and impulse for creative motivation.&quot; - Alexander Archipenko </li></ul>Abstract - Bob Snell 10
  55. 55. E xpressionism <ul><li>This is not a principle for graphic illustration made largely in Photoshop. Here we are looking for line, shape, pattern, etc. </li></ul>Flair – Tom Anderson 11 Scoops of Sun – Anapum Pal
  56. 56. E xpressionism <ul><li>Every day objects become expressionist art when seen from a different perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>What every day objects were used to make these faces? </li></ul>Face #2 – Jack Orble 12 Face #1 – Jack Orble
  57. 57. E xpressionism Out of a Box – Christopher Delaney Sisters – Rob Jensen Click on the picture below that you think represents expressionism. 13
  58. 58. E xpressionism Click Here To Continue Correct! By proper framing, the photographer has reduced a waterfall into the basic forms of a box with water and shadow creating an arc. This photo was enhanced in Photoshop by pushing it to high contrast. Put a +1 at the top of your paper. 14
  59. 59. E xpressionism Click Here To Continue The photograph shows plenty of emotion. Unfortunately the emotion comes from the photograph and not from the viewer. Out of a Box is the best example of expressionism. 14
  60. 60. <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Out of focus. </li></ul><ul><li>In the attempt to obscure the reality of a photographic subject, it is still necessary to stay in clean focus. </li></ul>E xpressionism 15
  61. 61. E xpressionism <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>A photographer uses expressionism by distorting reality for the purpose of creating basic shapes. These subjects in the photographs are often not recognizable for what they really are. </li></ul>13 Untitled – Ricardo Guzman
  62. 62. W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach that multiple perspectives are valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the large lessons in art is that there are many ways </li></ul>1 to see and interpret the world. Untitled - Walter Horishnyk
  63. 63. E mphasis <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis - the ability to make the subject of a photo stand out from its surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Color - the visible range of reflected light. </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow Depth of Focus - using zoom settings to allow the foreground to be focused, but the background is out of focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Background – the area of the photo that appears farthest away and is used to show depth. </li></ul>2
  64. 64. E mphasis <ul><li>Color is a great tool for providing emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>As an artist, you may ask subjects to wear specific clothing or change the surroundings of what you photograph. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes moving the camera only a few inches gives different colors. </li></ul>This photo was retouched in an editing software to keep color. Corbin Miller - Mike Carlson 3
  65. 65. E mphasis <ul><li>Even without manipulation, the choice of strong colors provides an emphasis. </li></ul>Untitled - Michael Ray Notice the use of primary colors in this photograph (red, yellow & a touch of blue) 4
  66. 66. E mphasis <ul><li>Complimentary colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel will increase contrast and emphasis. </li></ul>Orange - Alex Koloskov 5 This photo is actually of the orange being dropped into water, but is flipped over to increase interest.
  67. 67. E mphasis <ul><li>Complimentary colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel will increase contrast and emphasis. </li></ul>Isabella at an angle - Daniel Rice 5 Consider using the Macro setting on your camera for this kind of close-up.
  68. 68. E mphasis <ul><li>Close-up photography steady hands. Any camera motion makes a blurry photo. That’s why the number one tool in the close-up photographer’s collection is a tripod. </li></ul>Chiles - Nicholas Hellmuth 6 Consider using the Macro setting on your camera for this kind of close-up.
  69. 69. E mphasis <ul><li>Using depth of focus provides emphasis. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first image, the cormorants are nearly camouflaged with the background. </li></ul><ul><li>Using a telephoto setting limits the depth of focus and brings attention to the birds. </li></ul>There is further balance here with the repeating image of the three birds. Cormorants #4 - Bill Silliker Cormorants #2 - Bill Silliker 7
  70. 70. E mphasis <ul><li>Using lighting is one of the great skills in photography. A photographer should plan what the light is doing in their image. Too much light, too little light or a combination of the both can ruin a perfectly good image. </li></ul>Aspens, Northern New Mexico - Ansel Adams 8
  71. 71. E mphasis <ul><li>Lighting can be changed by: </li></ul><ul><li>Where the photographer stands </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day </li></ul><ul><li>The direction of the light </li></ul><ul><li>How a subject is standing </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a flash </li></ul><ul><li>Specific ideas about portrait lighting are given by clicking on this photo. </li></ul>Untitled - Wayne Grey 9
  72. 72. E mphasis Cactus after Rain - Jennifer Valencia 10
  73. 73. E mphasis Tubes - Eric Noel 11
  74. 74. E mphasis Space Needle - Eric Noel 12
  75. 75. E mphasis <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Photographers emphasize the subjects in their photos by color, focus and light. These techniques allow the subject to stand out from its surroundings. </li></ul>13 Mt. Thor – Mike Carlson
  76. 76. H alf Way Point <ul><li>You are over halfway through with the Principles. This slide is to take a break and inspire your mind with some photos set to music. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to have headphones on and click the picture below to start. </li></ul>13
  77. 77. W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach that purposes and problems are rarely fixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in art requires being willing </li></ul>1 to surrender to the possibilities as they unfold. Untitled - Walter Horishnyk
  78. 78. M ovement <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Movement - portraying action in a still image. </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred Movement - using slowed shutter speeds and allow the movement to be blurred while other parts of the image are in focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Implied Movement - allowing the movement to be understood by the viewer because of their experience in a similar setting. </li></ul>2
  79. 79. M ovement <ul><li>Since “A picture is worth a thousand words,” movement in a picture makes it worth a million words. </li></ul>Piñata Attack - Mike Carlson 3 The blur of the bat and hands tells much of the story.
  80. 80. M ovement <ul><li>Blurred Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Your eyes don’t freeze action precisely, so why should your pictures? Blurred hands and feet show movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Having at least part of the image in sharp focus will be a visual anchor. With that in place, a little motion is acceptable and in many cases desired. </li></ul>Mayorga v Mitchell - Will Hart 2000 Bobsled - Mathias Heikel 4
  81. 81. M ovement <ul><li>Blurred Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the visual anchor in low light conditions is made easier if you use a tri-pod and even a cable release to reduce camera shake. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera shake is especially a problem for digital cameras that delay taking the photo after the button is pushed. </li></ul>4
  82. 82. M ovement <ul><li>Sports are an excellent place to study movement in photography. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like any photograph, location is everything. </li></ul><ul><li>The closer you can get to your subject, the more detail and impact you will have. </li></ul>Willie Bloomquist - Josh Hoschauer Ultimate Frisbee - Bill Elsinger 5
  83. 83. M ovement <ul><li>Implied Movement </li></ul><ul><li>The story being told in the photograph can definitely communicate movement. The human imagination will fill in the rest of the story to give the feeling of movement. </li></ul>Kodiak Brown Bear 0691 - Moose Peterson Waterfall - Mike Carlson 6
  84. 84. M ovement <ul><li>A completely out of focus picture is pretty much useless. </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to capture the critical moment of action means anticipating where action might occur. </li></ul><ul><li>A common solution to get focus is to press the shutter button halfway down. Often a light flashes and then holds steady. This indicates the camera has set the lighting and focus. </li></ul>This image is diminished because of the lack of focus Bullet through Banana - Harold Edgerton 7
  85. 85. M ovement <ul><li>Placing more space in front of the vehicle than behind will support the idea that an object has someplace to go. </li></ul>Mark Go-Karting – John Harvey 8
  86. 86. M ovement <ul><li>“ [The body is] a marvelous machine…a chemical laboratory, a power-house. Every movement, voluntary or involuntary, full of secrets and marvels!” - Theodor Herzl </li></ul>Jean Luc Cretier - Wolfgang Rattay 9
  87. 87. M ovement <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Taken from a moving car. </li></ul><ul><li>The image will be superior if the movement is in the photo, not the photographer. </li></ul>9
  88. 88. M ovement <ul><li>Common Problems </li></ul><ul><li>No visual anchor. </li></ul>9
  89. 89. M ovement <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Photographers use blurred and implied movement to show action in their still images. This Principle is used to tell the story of the image. </li></ul>10 Untitled – Derek Hahn
  90. 90. W hat the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts develop an ability to work with others toward a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports do this too, but we can't all be athletes. In art… everyone can be a winner. </li></ul>1 Untitled - Damien Wright
  91. 91. B alance <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Balance - the creation of an equality or harmony between the parts of a composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Thirds - divide the frame into thirds vertically or horizontally and place the subject in one of the three sections, the resulting photo is more interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Power Position - any one of four crossing points created by using the rule of thirds. Based on studies of the human mind that shows objects at these points are best received by the brain. </li></ul>2
  92. 92. B alance <ul><li>We need to learn what classically trained artists have known for centuries: how the human eye looks at a painting - or a photograph. </li></ul><ul><li>While &quot;the eye of the beholder&quot; determines what is art, some photos work better than others. Well placed principles can lead the eye around a picture to make more interesting photographs. Balance of shapes, lines and color all work. </li></ul>Self Portrait - Rembrandt Michelangelo 3
  93. 93. B alance <ul><li>Balance is commonly shown by using “Power Positions” or the “Rule of Thirds.” </li></ul><ul><li>Another way of saying this is, “Don’t put the neat stuff in the middle. </li></ul>Snail on Wire – John Harvey 4
  94. 94. B alance <ul><li>The rule of thirds divides an image into three equal parts horizontally and three vertically. Placing your image into the center square makes a boring composition. </li></ul>Placing the subject of your photo at any of the places where the lines cross is called a “Power Position”. 5
  95. 95. B alance <ul><li>The rule of thirds divides an image into three equal parts horizontally and three vertically. Placing your image into the center square makes a boring composition. </li></ul>Bull Moose - Bill Silliker Here the moose is placed in a “Power Position”. 6
  96. 96. B alance <ul><li>Being aware of these three Principles and how they should be positioned, isolated and enhanced will provide you with a basis to avoid the typical subject-centered image with a 50/50 split. </li></ul>Composition – John Harvey Here the house is placed in a “Power Position” with strength added by the lighthouse along the line of thirds. 7
  97. 97. B alance <ul><li>While interesting for other reasons, the lack of balance can give the viewer a sense of uneasiness. </li></ul>Urban Sled Dogs – Christopher Scott 8 This unbalanced photo has the man’s head in the top center square, no major points of interest in the Power Positions and angled bars that give a feeling of falling to the right.
  98. 98. B alance <ul><li>Instead of using the “Power Positions,” this image is balanced into horizontal thirds. </li></ul><ul><li>Getting close to the right format is often just fine. </li></ul>Mt. St. Helens - Scott Hinderman 9 Here the image is broken up into horizontal layers.
  99. 99. B alance <ul><li>Balance is a concept used in many art forms besides photography. </li></ul><ul><li>Architect Charles Jeanneret used the rule of thirds in a design for the UN building. The sides are in mathematical balance, with distinctive marks. </li></ul><ul><li>This shows that a good artist would be a master of many subjects in order to give the best work. </li></ul>United Nations, New York 10
  100. 100. <ul><li>The most important point in working with pictures of people, is that the eyes are the focal point of the image. This means that eyes never end up in the exact center of the picture. Instead, try to get them in the upper-right or upper-left third. (Depending on the direction of the action) </li></ul>B alance 11 Michael Wald - Mike Carlson
  101. 101. B alance Anhinga #3 - Bill Silliker 12 The redish out of focus branch in this image distracts from an otherwise well focused picture. This could be easily solved in some kind of digital image editing software. <ul><li>Effort has to be made to keep the subject the main attraction of a photo. Survey the entire image for things that may rob you of a perfect shot. </li></ul>
  102. 102. B alance <ul><li>Find a balance in lighting </li></ul><ul><li>A significantly brighter object that immediately pulls your eye away from the subject might pull your attention away from the main subject entirely. </li></ul>Lake Pafuse - Moose Peterson 13 Horizontal balance strengthens the lighting balance in this photo.
  103. 103. B alance <ul><li>Find a balance with interest. </li></ul><ul><li>The image of the Egret has high interest with the fish in his bill, a well focused eye, and the curved neck that anchors the image by leading the eye out of the frame. </li></ul>Notice the triangulation of this photo that balances areas of interest. Egret, Bill Silliker 14
  104. 104. B alance <ul><li>Principle Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Using classical ideas of balance, photos can be divided into thirds and the subject can be made more powerful if it is placed in a power position. </li></ul>14 Foosball, Derek Hahn
  105. 105. T itles <ul><li>Titling your photographs is another way for the artist to communicate with the viewer. While it is not necessary to title all art… being capable of appropriate naming gives you the power to chose. In other words, if you don’t possess the skill of naming, then you are left without the choice. </li></ul><ul><li>What follows are a series of photos intended to get your mind flowing rapidly using brainstorming. </li></ul>
  106. 106. T itles 1 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Tim Pratt This photo uses balance because the child’s face is in a power position and emphasis because of light and color.
  107. 107. T itles 2 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Wanda Burgner This photo uses realism and emphasis because of light
  108. 108. T itles 3 Sara Gettys Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses emphasis by focus
  109. 109. T itles 4 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Kevin Brady This photo uses realism, emphasis and implied movement
  110. 110. T itles 5 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Abigail Rhodes This photo uses realism and emphasis because of focus
  111. 111. T itles 6 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Avain Winthrop This photo uses realism, emphasis because of focus and blurred movement
  112. 112. T itles 7 Sara Gettys Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses realism and a balance of horizontal thirds
  113. 113. T itles 8 Sara Gettys Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses expressionism and balance by a top right power position
  114. 114. T itles 9 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Antonio Reins This photo uses realism and blurred movement
  115. 115. T itles 10 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Ethan Polk This photo uses realism, emphasis because of focus, implied movement and balance by vertical thirds
  116. 116. T itles 11 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Ethan Polk This photo uses emphasis because of focus
  117. 117. T itles 12 Andy Keller Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses realism, emphasis because of light and blurred movement
  118. 118. T itles 13 Andy Keller Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. This photo uses balance by horizontal thirds and emphasis because of light
  119. 119. T itles 14 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Hannah Gregorich This photo uses balance by lining up the subject with a power line
  120. 120. T itles 15 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Hannah Gregorich This photo uses emphasis because of light, color and focus
  121. 121. T itles 16 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Ethan Polk This photo uses realism, balance because the golfers are placed along the vertical power lines and emphasis because of light and color
  122. 122. T itles 17 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Kristina Rawlins This photo uses realism, a horizontal balance and emphasis most of the photo is grey with the color of the buildings standing out.
  123. 123. T itles 18 Whitney Gress This photo uses realism and a vertical balance. Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo.
  124. 124. T itles 19 Whitney Gress This photo uses realism. Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo.
  125. 125. T itles 20 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Whitney Gress This photo uses a focused emphasis by having a macro setting that blurs the background.
  126. 126. T itles 21 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo is expressionism because the stripe of color and the cropping distort the reality of the whole image for an emotional effect.
  127. 127. T itles 22 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo uses realism with an emphasis on naturalism. It displays nature as it really is with no effort to idealize it.
  128. 128. T itles 23 Mike Carlson This photo uses realism with an emphasis on naturalism. It displays nature as it really is with no effort to idealize it. Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo.
  129. 129. T itles 24 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo uses emphasis by creating a focus on the first fishing pole and leaving the others out of focus.
  130. 130. T itles 25 Next to the slide number, write your title to this photo. Mike Carlson This photo uses emphasis of light with a silhouette.
  131. 131. T itles <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Titling your photographs is another way for the artist to communicate with the viewer. </li></ul>17 Science in Action – Mike Carlson
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