Roots and affixes


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Roots and affixes

  1. 1. Roots and Affixes How words are created
  2. 2. Vocabulary • English vocabulary include short words like the article a as well as longer word such as inextricably and denunciation. • Short word such as speak and solve are called base words • Base words cannot be reduced to smaller parts. • Other words can be added to them to produce longer words with various meanings.
  3. 3. Word Parts • There are two kinds of word parts: roots and affixes. • A root is a word part that comes from another language, such as Greek or Latin. • An affix is a word part that can be attached to either a root or a base word to create a new word.
  4. 4. Affixes • Affixes can be divided into two categories: prefixes (appear at the beginning of words) and suffixes (appear at the end of words). Common Prefixes Common Suffixes Bi- two -al adjectival suffix Anti- against -fy verb suffix Inter- between -ic adjectival suffix Pre- before -ion noun suffix Super- above -ism noun suffix Trans- across -ize verb suffix Dis- not -ous adjectival suffix
  5. 5. Check it out Roots Affixes Latin Root: tang, meaning “touch” Prefix: in-, meaning “not” Greek Root: chrome, meaning “color” Suffix: -ible, meaing “able to”
  6. 6. Meaning • The meaning of a word is related to the meaning of its word parts. • To unlock the meaning of an unfamiliar word, break the word down into its component parts; then think about the meaning of the word’s affixes and root.
  7. 7. Apply • For example one could analyze the word intangible, using the chart shown previously. • First break the word into its parts: PREFIX ROOT SUFFIX ENGLISH WORD In- + tang + -ible = intangible Tang In-ible is a latin roots meaning “touch” is a prefix meaning “not” is a suffix meaning “able to”
  8. 8. Word Families • A group of English words may be derived from the same word part of root. Such a group is called a word family. • You can use this knowledge to help you determine the meaning of unknown words. • Try this out: Shared roots: solo, solitary, solitude Root: sol= ?
  9. 9. Answer: Alone, can you think of other words in the family? • Solitare • Soloist • Based on your knowledge of the root and the meaning of other words in the same family, try to define the meaning of the above words. • Solitare- a card game played by one person • Soloist- one who performs alone
  10. 10. Try one: Words: • Diminish • Diminutive • Minimum • What do these words have in common? • Which words do you know? • What do you think the meaning of the root is?
  11. 11. Word Family Practice Questions: • Word family: ethnicity, ethnic, ethnographer Root: ethn Meaning: ▫ Ocean ▫ Nation ▫ Hesitation
  12. 12. Word Family Practice Questions: • Word family: maniac, maniacal Root: mania Meaning: ▫ Education ▫ Sanitation ▫ Madness
  13. 13. Word Family Practice Questions: • Word family: epidermis, dermatology Root: derm Meaning: ▫ Skin ▫ Body ▫ Mind
  14. 14. Word Family Practice Questions: • Word Family: laboratory, labor Root: lab Meaning: ▫ Work ▫ Good ▫ Weak
  15. 15. Let’s see what you know: • Divide and indivisible are members of the same word family. Which root so they share? A. –visB. -visibleC. -div• What is the meaning of this root? A. separate B. shrink C. junk • What is another member of the same word family? A. December B. dividend C. invisible