DR. JOSE RIZAL Example of a many splendored hero Ranked with the words geniuses, physician, poet, dramatist, essayist, novelist, historian, architect, painter, sculptor, educator, linguist, musician, naturalist, ethnologist, surveyor, engineer, farmer, businessman, economist, folklorist, philosopher, translator, inventor, magician, humorist, satirist, sportsman, traveler, and prophet a HERO and a POLOTICAL MARTYR who sacrificed his life for the REDEMPTION OF HIS PEOPLE.
THE BIRTH OF NATIONAL HERO Born on the moonlit night of Wednesday between 11:00 and midnight of June 19, 1861 in Calamba, Laguna Baptized in June 22 by Fr. RufinoCollantes, a Batangueno His Godfather was Fr. Pedro Casanas
RIZAL’s PARENTS FRANCISCO MERCADO RIZAL (1818-1898) - born in Binan, Laguna on May 11, 1818 - Studied Latin & philosophy in College of San Jose - After his parent’s death, he moved to Calamba and became tenant-farmer of the Dominican-owned hacienda - Hardy and independent minded, talked less and worked more, strong in body and spirit - Died on January 5, 1898 - Rizal called him “A MODEL OF FATHERS”
DONA TEODORA ALONZO REALONDA (1826-1911) - born in Manila on November 8, 1926; studied in College of Sta. Rosa - Possessed refine culture, literary talented, business ability and fortitude, spoke Spanish, mathematician, read many books - Died in Manila on August 16, 1911
THE RIZAL CHILDREN 11 children; 2 boys and 9 girls Saturnina (1850-1913) – nickname Neneng; married to Manuel T. Hidalgo of Tanawan, Batangas. Paciano (1851-1930) – confidant of Rizal; become combat general of Philippine Revolution; Retired to his farm in Los Banos; Died on April 13, 1930, an old bachelor; Had a boy and a girl by his mistress SeverinaDecena
3. Narcisa (1852-1939) – married to Antonio Lopez (nephew of Father Leoncio Lopez), a school teacher of Morong 4. Olimpia (1855-1887) Ypia; she married Silvestre Ubaldo, a telegraph operator from Manila 5. Lucia (1857-1919) – married to Mariano Herbosa of Calamba, who was a nephew of Father Casanas; Herbosa died of cholera in 1889 and was denied Christian burial because he was a brother-in-law of Dr. Rizal.
6. Maria (1859-1945) – Biang; she married Daniel Faustino Cruz of Binan 7. Jose (1861-1896) Greatest Filipino Hero and peerless genius nicknamed PEPE 8. Concepcion (1862-1865) – nickname Concha;died at the age of three (3) 9. Josefa (1865-1945) - Panggoy; she died an old maid at 80 10. Trinidad (1868-1951) – Trining; died an old maid at age 83
11. Soledad (1870-1929) – Choleng; married to Pataleon Quintero of Calamba Rizal immortalized Paciano in his Noli Me Tangere as the wise PilosopoTasio; Regarded Paciano as the “Most noble of Filipinos and more generous and noble than all the Spaniards put together”
RIZAL’s ANCESTRY DOMINGO LAMEO - Rizal’s great-great grandparent on his father side; Chinese immigrant from Fukien City of CHANGCHOW arrived in Manila about 1690. Became Christian and married a rich Chinese Christian girl from Manila named INES DELA ROSA and assumed in 1731, the surname MERCADO - (market in English); They have a son named FRANCISCO MERCADO who married Chinese Filipinas CIRILA BERNACHA and was elected GOBERNADORCILLO. One of their sons JUAN MERCADO (Rizal’s grandfather) married CIRILA ALEJANDRO, Chinese Filipina mestiza, elected also as GOBERNADOCILLO; had 13 children youngest being FRANCISCO MERCADO, Rizal’s father.
DONA TEODORA’S great grand father (Rizal’s maternal great-great-grandfather) was EUGENIO URSULA (of Japanese ancestry) married a Filipina BENIGNA (surname unknown) their daughter REGINA married MANUEL de QUINTOS Fil-Chinese lawyer from Pangasinan. Their daughter BRIGIDA married LORENZO ALBERTO ALONSO a prominent Spanish-Fil of Binan. Their children were Narcisa, Teodora (Rizal’s mother), Gregorio, Manuel and Jose.
SURNAME RIZAL MERCADO – was adopted in 1731 by DOMINGO LAMCO (the paternal great-great grandfather of Rizal) RIZAL – was given by Spanish Alcalde Mayor of Laguna – a family friend. - A Spanish word which means a FIELD where wheat, cut while still green, sprouts again.
Two-storey stone house, rectangular in shape, built of adobe stones and hard woods and roofed with red tiles;
Dr. Rafael Palma described it as follows: The house was high and even sumptuous, a solid and massive earthquake proof structure with sliding shell windows. Thick walls of lime and stone bounded the first floor; the second floor was made entirely of wood except for the roof, which was of red tile, in the style of the buildings in Manila at that time… At the back there was an azotea and a wide, deep cistern to hold rain water for home use.
Behind the house were the poultry yard full of turkeys and chickens and a big garden of tropical trees – atis, balimbing, chico, macopa, papaya, santol, tampoy, etc.
A GOOD MIDDLE CLASS FAMILY
Rizal family belong to the PRINCIPALIA, a town aristocracy in Spanish Philippines
Rented farm from Dominican Order; harvested rice, corn and sugar cane; raised pigs, chickens and turkeys
DonaTeodora managed general good store and operated a small flour-mill and home-made ham press.
Able to build a large stone house; owned a carriage and a private library
Able to send all their children to colleges in Manila
HOME LIFE OF THE RIZAL
Simple, contended and happy life
Close family ties; children were loved but not spoiled
Strict parents, believe in the maxim “spare the rod and spoiled the child”; children were trained to love God, behave well, to be obedient and respectful
Religious; attend Sunday mass, pray together at home the Angelus and rosary.
CHAPTER 2 CHILDHOOD YEARS IN CALAMBA
CALAMBA, the HERO’s Town- Hacienda town which belong to the DOMINICAN ORDER Nestling on a verdant plain covered with rice fields/sugar-lands To the south looms the legendary Mount Makiling East of the town is the Laguna de Bay; In the middle of the lake is the island of Talim At the north is the distant Antipolo, famous mountain shrine of the miraculous Lady of Peace and Good Voyage. UN RECUERDO A MI PUEBLO (1876) – Wrote this poem when he was only 15 yrs old/student at Ateneo de Manila
EARLIEST CHILDHOOD MEMORIES Aya (nursemaid) employed to care for the frail, sickly and undersized Rizal At the aged of three (3) he watched from nipa hut the culiauan, maya, maria, capra, martin, pipit and other birds with wonder and joy to their twilight songs. Angelus prayer Happy moonlit night at Azotea where the Aya related to the Rizal Children many stories about fairies. These stories aroused in Rizal enduring interest in Legends and Folklores. Nocturnal moonlit walk in the town and by the river
FIRST SORROW Concha died of sickness in 1865 when she was only three years old DEVOTED SON OF THE CHURCH Grew up a good Catholic At age 3, he began to take part in family prayers and at age 5 he began to read haltingly Spanish family bible. Went to church, pray and take part in novenas and join religious processions Rizal used to visit esteemed and respected Father Leoncio Lopez, Calamba priest and listen to the latter’s stimulating opinions on current events and sound philosophy of life.
PILGRIMAGE TO ANTIPOLO On June 6, 1868 – Rizal and his father left Calamba for Antipolo to fulfill his mother’s vow which was made when Jose was born Describing the experience of crossing Laguna de Bay in a casco he said “ With what pleasure I saw the sunrise; for the first time I saw how the luminous rays shone, producing a brilliant effect on the raffled surface of the wide lake” On their way back they visited Saturnina in Manila who was then a boarding student at La Concordia College in Sta. Ana.
THE STORY OF THE MOTH The young moth did not heed the repeated warning of the old moth not to get so close to the light which to the young moth was so beautiful and attractive, and so the young moth met its death by burning itself by reason of curiosity and attraction to the luminous light. Rizal justified such noble death (died martyr to its illusions) asserting that “to sacrifice one’s life for it (ideal), is worthwhile. Like that young moth, he was fated to die a martyr (in search for light – education, reforms for his country/people)
ARTISTIC TALENT At age 5, made sketches with his pencil, mould clay and wax objects
He painted in oil colors a new banner that delighted the crowd – it’s better than the original
FIRST POEM BY RIZAL His mother – lover of literature encourage Rizal to write poetry At age of 8, he wrote his poem in the native language entitled “Sa AkingMgaKababata”. This poem reveals Rizal’s earliest nationalist sentiment and proclaimed that people who love the native language will strive for liberty.
FIRST DRAMA BY RIZAL Tagalog comedy applauded in Calamba festival the manuscript of which was bought by gobernadorcillo from Paete, Laguna for P2.00. It was shown also during Paete’s fiesta.
RIZAL AS BOY MAGICIAN Making coin appear and disappear in his fingers Handkerchief vanishing in the air Magic-lantern exhibition – lamp casting its shadow on a white screen Twisted his fingers into shapes, making their enlarged shadows on the screen resemble certain animals/persons Manipulated marionettes (puppet shows) Read books on magic and attended performance of great magicians
LAKESHORES REVERIES With his pet dog (Usman) used to meditate at Laguna de Bay asking what might be over on the other side of the waves. Thinking of the Guardia Civil caning and injuring unarmed and peace loving villagers whose only act was not having taken off their hats and vowed while passing in front of the former. No restraint put upon Spanish brutality committed daily “In view of these injustices and cruelties, although yet a child, my imagination was awakened and I made a vow dedicating myself someday to avenge the many victims.”… (letter to Mariano Ponce)
INFLUENCE ON THE HEROE’S BOYHOOD HEREDITARY INFLUENCE Malayan Ancestors – love for freedom; innate desire to travel and his indomitable courage.
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE Scenic beauties of Calamba and the beautiful garden of the Rizal family stimulated Rizal’s inborn artistic and literary talents. Religious atmosphere at home – fortified his religious nature Paciano – instilled in his mind the love for freedom and justice From his sisters – he learned courtesy and kindness to women Fairytales told by his Aya – awakened his interest in folklore and legends Tio Jose Alberto who studied for 11 years in British School in Calcutta, India/ traveled to Europe – inspired him to develop his artistic ability
Tio Manuel – husky and athletic – encouraged him to develop his frail body through exercise, walking, wrestling Tio Gregorio – book lover – intensified Rizal’s voracious reading of good books Fr. Leoncio Lopez – fostered Rizal’s love for scholarship and intellectual honesty Death of Concha (1865), imprisonment of his mother in 1871-74 – strengthened his character Spanish abuses, cruelties, brutal acts of guardia civil and the alcalde, tortures on innocent Filipinos and execution of GOMBURZA (1872) awakened his patriotism
3. AID OF DIVINE PROVIDENCE God endowed him with versatile gifts of a genius, vibrant spirit of nationalistic and valiant heart for a noble cause.