Insocio lecture 5 socialization

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Insocio lecture 5 socialization

  1. 1. 1 INSOCIO Socialization Ms. Ace O. Samaniego The Importance of Socialization Humans, like other mammals, are helpless at birth. The newborn infant is dependent upon others for mere physical survival. If left alone, the infant would soon die of thirst, hunger, heat, or cold. To put it simply, the human infant lacks those instincts, or unlearned form of behavior, that in other species serve to enable the survival of the young. Human young, born with incomplete nervous system and having long maturation period, will not survive unless adults feed them, protect them and provide constant care. Human contact is necessary not only for infant’s physical well being, but for healthy social and psychological development as well. As infants grow, their inborn predisposition and social experiences combine to influence the development of their individual personalities. Without social experiences, the individual personality development is impaired to the extent that functioning within human society is not possible. Because of this humans remain more object than people. Socialization is a lifelong process of social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn patterns of their culture. It is the way by which culture becomes a part of the individual. Common and unique social experiences blend together to form personality, a person’s fairly consistent pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. Nature vs Nurture Human personality and self are products of both nature and nurture. Nature is the inherited traits, brain chemistry, and genes. Nurture is the social experiences, interaction, and environment. Neither nurture nor heredity alone determines human development.
  2. 2. 2 GENDER AND SEX ROLE SOCIALIZATION Gender refers to the differences that sex makes in a culture, and influences how we think of ourselves, how we interact with people, and how we fit into our society. It refers to human traits that are linked by culture to each sex. Sex refers to the division of human beings into biological categories of female and male. In the Philippines, females are socialized to be feminine and males are socialized to be masculine. The ascription and division of statuses according to sex appears in all cultures. All societies define certain behaviors and attitudes as appropriate to each sex; men and women are expected to think and act differently. Sex roles socialization begins at birth, when the infant is first dressed in blue or pink clothing. The socialization is very effective; the majority of children in our culture eventually grows and develops according to social expectations. Through parents, schools, friends, and the mass media, boys and girls are socialized into the “appropriate” sex role values, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior patterns. By and large, parents base their child rearing on the idea that girls are naturally timid and dependent and boys are naturally brave, resourceful, and independent. Boys are therefore given their independence at an earlier age. The boy’s emancipation from the family is speeded up; the girl’s is slowed down. The Development of Self and Personality through Socialization Many notable thinkers have explored the complex process of socialization. “The Looking Glass Self” Charles Horton Cooley believed that individuals and their personalities are the products of social interaction and social forces. According to Cooley, our attitudes, behaviors, and self-concepts develop from our interaction with others; we develop a feeling about ourselves by imagining what others think about the way we look and act. Cooley used the phrase looking glass self to capture his idea that a person’s self conception is based on the responses of others. The basic social experiences of imaginatively “putting ourselves in their shoes”, in short, is the foundation of self- concept. Three major elements compose Cooley’s concept of the looking glass self: 1. our imagination of how other see us 2. our imagination of how other judge our appearance 3. the feeling of self that results from our imagination of the thoughts of others have on us.
  3. 3. 3 George Herbert Mead: The Social Self Another important contributor to the concept of self was George H. Mead. He developed a detailed analysis of the self as it emerges through the process of socialization. He like Cooley believed that self is not present at birth, but is a social product that develops through social experience and interaction with others. For Mead, the self gradually develops as the individual comes into contact with others. For Mead the development of language and self must be preceded by social interaction. Non verbal communication (gestures) between individuals also must precede and is a prerequisite to communication through language. For example children cannot understand the meaning of the word “angry” until they understand an angry gesture; the word has no meaning to them until they have interacted with an individual or group who communicates through gestures the meaning of angry. When a child learns what a word means, the child then has the idea of the word. As the children mature, they learn the names of objects in the environment. According to Mead there are three stages in the development of the self: The preparatory stage, the play stage and the game stage. Preparatory Stage Infants with limited social experience respond to others only in terms of imitation. That is, they mimic behavior without understanding underlying intentions. Mead concluded that there is yet no self. Play Stage Play involves assuming the roles modeled on significant others- people who gives care and love to children. Playing mommy or daddy for instance help children imagines the world and themselves from one of their parents’ point of view. Further social experience teaches children to take the role of several others simultaneously. Game Stage Children assume several roles simultaneously and finally are able to take the role or attitude of what Mead called “generalized other”, the attitude of the entire community or organized social group. In the game stage the child begins to understand his or her position in terms of the organized community or society as a whole. The “generalized others”, in addition to providing guideline for behavior in a variety of social settings, provides the individual with a frame of reference for developing his or her self concept. George Mead: SELF DEVELOPMENT STAGES
  4. 4. 4 Sigmund Freud: The ID, EGO, AND SUPER EGO Another important contributor to the theories of the development of self and personality was Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud, like Cooley and Mead, believed that the self is largely the product of social experience. However unlike Cooley and Mead, he portrayed the self as frustrated and repressive rather than creative and somewhat harmonious. He divided the self into three parts: id, ego, and superego and emphasized their conflict. Freud believed that at birth, we are dominated by the id. The id has no sense of time, order, or morality. It constantly seeks pleasure and consists of impulses and primitive drives. Throughout life; the id remains unconscious and highly charged with energy. The ego is that segment of the self that is conscious and rational. It develops as the child begins to realize that he or she is separate from other individuals and objects in the environment. The ego acts as a mediator between the unconscious impulses of the id and the restrictions and morality of superego. The superego or conscience is the part of the self to emerge. As the children interact with others, they are subject to external parental authority. While growing, they begin to identify with the parental image (the son with the father, the daughter with the mother) and thus incorporate it into their own personalities. Freud believed that the major work of society is carried on by the superego in that it molds the individuals’ personality according to society’s dictates. FREUD: Psychosexual Stage Freud viewed personality development as a progression in the satisfaction of basic human needs. He stressed the significance of basic biological drives, child-parent relationship, and the unconscious thoughts and drives. His theory involves five stages. Freud called these stages psychosexual stages because he believed that they were sexual in nature and that they progressed from impulses of the id to a successively more mature self, or ego. 1. The Oral stage - During the first year of life, the infant seeks satisfaction through stimulation to the mouth, by sucking, biting and chewing. If the need for oral gratification is not met, the individual, by adulthood would have developed an oral fixation, characterized by smoking habit, talkativeness, dependence, and a general need for oral gratification. 2. The Anal Stage- Between ages 1 and 3, the period of toilet training, the infant achieves satisfaction from the withholding or expelling of feces. Much of the child’s activity is anal centered during this period. Satisfaction of basic impulses from the id is achieved by the child when he or she has learned top control bowel movements with pride. Freud believed that if anal satisfaction is unfulfilled at this stage, the individual may develop anal fixation, characterized by excessive neatness, excessive punctuality, and possessiveness.
  5. 5. 5 3. The Phallic Stage- By age 4 or 5, the child seeks satisfaction through exploration of the genitals. According to Freud, a male child is attracted to, and seeks satisfaction from his mother. A female child seeks affection from her father. In the case of the male, this is termed the “Oedipal” stage; in the case of the female, it is termed the” Electra” stage. The male child resolves his Oedipus complex by sublimating his sexual desire for his mother and identifying with his father; the female child identifies with her mother. By identifying with parental figures, children internalize the standards of their culture, and their superego emerges. Failure to resolve the Oedipus or Electra complex may lead to later personality problems, such as inability to function in an adult sexual role. 4. The Latency stage - Between age 5 and the beginning of adolescence, the attention of the individual is focused on the surrounding world, when the person is dominated by his or her intellectual as well as social development. Sexual urgings become dormant, and no dynamic conflicts or basic personality changes occur. 5. The Genital Stage- Occurring at puberty, this stage marks the beginning of adult sexual desires and behavior. The genital stage is dominated by the emotional patterns that have been developed in infancy and childhood. From this point on, the individual must integrate the variety of demands within him or herself. True maturity requires the taming of aggressive and sexual urges, allowing their release in only a socially acceptable manner. The self must be adequately mature before it can surrender itself to another and achieve true intimacy. Agents of Socialization 1. Family 2. Schooling 3. Peer Groups 4. Mass Media Lectured by: Mrs Ace Ordonez Samaniego Filename: Socialization lecture

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