1. Ms. Eileen Rodriguez Seminar We should know that the physiology, morphology and anatomy have an intimatelyrelationship between them and in that same way the neurology and the healthy functions ofthe human body depend of each other. An example of the quote established previously isthe relationship that we found between the relaxation and contraction of the muscles andsphincters of the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the production of Nitric Oxide. NitricOxide (NO) is a very simple compound that is found like a gas in the human body and itfunctions like a mediator of diverse functions of the organisms. These functions mayinclude: secondary intracellular messenger and intracellular messenger. These introductionsof this expositive essay have the objective to provide to the audience facts (that had beenlearns by the author of this same essay) that are very important to understand the Seminar:From the Gut to Graduate School provided by Ms. Eileen Rodriguez. First we should know statistics about the GI problems that affect the population ofthe United States of America: 41% of the population suffer of GI problems and of that41%, 25% are caused by motility disorders like: a. Diabetic Gastroparesis- a disease which cause that the stomach takes too long to empty. b. Achalasia- consists of the incapacity of fiber to relax c. Dyspepsia- impaired of digestion d. Chronic Constipation e. Bowel Incontinence f. Irritable Bowel Syndrome g. Chaga’s Diseases- caused by a parasite h. Hirshprung’s Disease i. Infantile Hypertophic Stenosis j. Gatroesophagic Reflux Peristalsis, contractions that are like rhythmic wave that move the food along the GI,is regulated by the nerve system that it’s found in the GI tissues of the organ’s wallsspecifically in the myenteric plexus. The myenteric plexus is like a concentration of nervethat may function like a nucleus for the productions of neurotransmitters. In this myentericplexus we found the NANC (Non Adrenergic and non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves thatfunctions with adrenaline) and the actuation of these nerves relax the smooth muscles alongthe GI tract. There are four neurotransmitters that can mediate the action of inhibition andthey are: a. Nitric Oxide b. ATP c. Carbon Monoxide d. Vasoactive Intestinal peptide The Nitric Oxide is the one that Ms Eileen Rodriguez chose because it was the moresuspect neurotransmitter agent that cause the peristalsis (relaxation of the musclespecifically) On the other hand she expressed that ATP may also be a good one suspect butprevious studies have shown that Nitric Oxide have more relation with the peristalsisreaction. NO is synthesize by the Nitric Oxide Neuronal Synthetase in the myenteric plexus anit is produce by demand of the GI tract (that may have reference to metabolic pathwayinhibitors and activators) This NO can’t be stored in the secretory vesicles. That is the
2. reason of why it has to be constantly produce. It’s important to mention that NO synthetaseis regulated by the R type Calcium Channels that are controlled by a specific type ofCalcium. With this information we can establish that Calcium is the activator and thatantagonist factor of NOS. But the problem is that this information is inconclusive because we have to knowhow the process is. To solve that problem Ms Eileen Rodriguez established the nextquestion for her research: Do activation of R type Calcium Channels lead to activation offinhibitory nerves and relaxation of the intestines? Then she conceives this hypothesis:Calcium Channel was activated, that activation initiates the NOS to produce NO and thatcause the relaxation of the muscle. After that she created a procedure that consist in the useof 10 centimeters of the Guinea Pig intestine (that is functional for the experiment at least 6hours) and put the intestine in a Pexiglas Organ Bath with Krebs Solution in a temperatureof 37 Celsius Grades and then measure the relaxation or contraction of the muscle with anisometric force transducer. Also the researcher must apply the drugs to the solution. In thiscase Eileen used the next drugs: histamine, Nickel Chloride and Nitrite L Argenine. Theresults was that the histamine cause an increase of tension, the Nickel Chloride block theR type Calcium Channels and for that reason the synthesis of NO and the Nitrite LArgenine cause the inhibition of the NOS. We can conclude of this research that theCalcium Channels are essential to the NO synthesis. If we don’t have Calcium Channelsworking properly then we will have an instability in our peristalsis activity because theabsent of NO (that cause that the muscle contractile) As an answer to that research results, Ms Eileen Rodriguez, that is candidate for aPhD in the Michigan State University, did a research of: What is the effect of NickelChloride, Nitrite L Argenine and Apamin on the contractile response of the intestine? Theresults were that if use the three at the same time may cause a higher potassium levels in theGI tract and will cause the muscle to contractile for a longer type. She said that in this way: a. NiCl- cause a significant contractile act b. NiCl+ Nitrite L Argenine- Cause a non significant change in comparison wwith NiCl c. NiCl+ Nitrite L Argenine+ Apamin- cause a significant contractile activity Some additional data that she provides was that: Sumatriptan is an activator of NOneurons and that Amyl Nitrate is a donor of NO. These researches were important because the scientist may use it to understand in abetter way all of this motility disorders and create better treatments. In 2007 the FDA shutdown the production of the antispasmodic call Tegasered because this medicine causesseveral secondary reactions that affect the patients liver and kidneys.