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Carlos santos proposal
Carlos santos proposal
Carlos santos proposal
Carlos santos proposal
Carlos santos proposal
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Carlos santos proposal

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  • 1. University of Puerto Rico-Cayey<br />RISE Program<br />Cayey P.R. 00736<br />Carlos Santos Pérez<br />Efficiency of Plant Extracts that contains melatonin in Parkinson Disease Rats<br />Introduction<br />First in this introduction we will discuss all the variables to be seen: Parkinson’s disease, Achillea millefolium (melatonin extract) and Melatonin. <br />Parkinson Disease is one of the most dangerous neurodegenerative diseases that affect the population in the United States of America. This year we have approximately 50,000 of North American people that suffer this disease. This disease belongs to the group of conditions that are called motor system disorders. Motor System Disorders are caused by the absence of the production of Dopamine in the brain. This produces a series of reactions in the body that includes: temblors tremors of the extremities, stiffness and slowness of the movements and poor balance and coordination. If the symptoms get worse, it can cause that people would not be able to walk anymore, and will have problem talking and doing simple tasks of the life. These patients may also have problems like depression, sleep problems or trouble chewing and swallowing. Parkinson’s usually start at the age of 60 and it’s more common in men than woman. Parkinson Disease, in this proposal, will be the disease that we have to control. (from where you got this inf. add the reference if you have it.<br />Achillea millefolium is a plant that is commonly called Achillea. It contains 45.4g/ng of melatonin in its flowers. Achillea is a plant that has high concentration of melatonin compared to other plants. Melatonin is the hormone that we will be using use to try to control Parkinson Disease. It is a hormone produced in the brain by the pineal gland, from the amino acid tryptophan. Synthesis and release of melatonin is stimulated by darkness and suppressed by light, suggesting the involvement of melatonin in circadian rhythm and regulation of diverse body functions. Levels of melatonin in the blood are highest prior to bedtime. <br />Problem<br />Can we control the Parkinson Disease using plant extracts that contain high concentration of melatonin?<br />Hypothesis<br />The hypothesis to be tested is: If we apply different concentrations of melatonin extract of Achillea plant in rats with Parkinson Disease then we should see less involuntarily movement in the rats at higher concentrations of extract. <br />Objectives<br />The objectives of this proposal are: To determine if the extract of Achillea help patients with Parkinson Disease to control their involuntarily movements (prove that melatonin is a diverse remedial hormone that can be used to treat Parkinson Disease Symptoms including the lack of sleeping symptom). <br />Goals<br />The Goals of this research is to determine if the involuntarily movements of Parkinson Disease patients can be controlled with the presence of melatonin and have an alternative treatment for the Disease. <br />Substitution to Human<br />In this research we will be using rats because their neurological system is one of the most common to humans. The rat’s species will be: Rattus norvegicus. <br />Methodology<br />First the researcher has to prepare the melatonin extract from the Achillea millefolium. The technique that the researcher must use is tincture. That it’s because the melatonin it’s not soluble in water. The method is: Achillea millefolium will be in a jar and a spirit of 40% (in case of 60% of concentration of melatonin) or 90%(in case of 10% of concentration of melatonin) of pure ethanol that will be added. The jar is left 2–3 weeks and it has to be shaken occasionally. The ethanol extract have to be placed in a rotatory evaporator to eliminate the solvent, obtaining an extract, which will be weighed and stored dry in dissector.<br />Then the researcher will induce Parkinson Disease’s to rats. This will be possible thanks to the Rotenone molecule. The Rotenone Molecule is a mithocondrial inhibitor that has been used to induce dopaminergic neuronal death. Its function it’s to inhibit the pathway of dopamine production. That’s why it causes Parkinson’s disease. Rotenone at 3 mg/kg/day will induce degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. This will be injected to the rats subcutaneously (Caboni, 2004).<br />The research will use 150 rats. There will be 50 rats in the experimental group for two different concentration of melatonin extract and the 100 rats in the control groups. The control group will be divided into four groups each one with 25 rats:<br />Healthy Rats- rats that will be healthy and will not receive the application of the subcutaneous extract of Melatonin. <br />Rats with Alcohol- rats that will only receive alcohol. At least 3mg/day subcutaneously. This will be because we can see if the alcohol, that is the melatonin solvent, is having an effect in the rats. <br />Rats with conventional treatment- This rats will receive 5mg/day subcutaneously. Levodopa (conventional treatment of Parkinson Disease Patients)<br />Rats with Parkinson Disease- This rat will not receive anything. They only will have PD. <br />The experimental Group will be divided into two groups:<br />Rats receiving a 60% melatonin extract. Rats will receive daily 5mg of this extract subcutaneously.<br />Rats receiving a 10% melatonin extract. Rats will receive daily 5mg of this extract subcutaneously. <br />There is not standardized test to evaluate if the rats have an improvement in their condition. That’s why the researcher has to observe daily the behavior of the rats. The next table will be accessible to the researcher to compare with other behaviors that have common symptoms with PD. <br />FeatureParkinson’sCerebellar TremorsEssential TremorsPresent at restYESNOYESIncreased ToneYESNONODecreased ToneNOYESNOPostural AbnormalityYESYESNOHead InvolvementsYESYESYESIntentional ComponentsNOYESYESIncoordination NOYESNO<br />The data will be collected and will be presented to the boards and journals. The type of data of this experiment is qualitative because there’s not a standardized test to quantify the level of dopamine in the brain. <br />Identification of the variables<br />Independent Variables- Concentrations and doses of the extracts may vary.<br />Dependent Variable- the temblors and involuntary movements of the rats. <br />Expected Results & Future Studies<br />If my hypothesis is confirmed I will proceed to use different plants to do the extracts and compare results. As a second phase project I will expand my research work to primates.<br />References:<br />Ferri, Fred F. Practical guide to the care of the medical patient. – 7th ed. Pages: 776-777<br /> Marsden CD. Problems with long-term levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1994;Page 17<br />Marioni F. A straightforward procedure to biosynthesise melatonin using freshly chopped Achillea millefolium L. as reagent Phytochemistry Letters, Volume 1, Issue 2, 21 August 2008, Pages 107-110<br />German DC, Manaye K, Smith WK, Woodward DJ, Saper CB. Midbrain dopaminergic cell loss in Parkinson's disease: Computer visualization. Ann Neurol. 1989; 26:507–514.<br />http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18289173 Last visit- 7/25/2010<br />http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18289173 Last visit- 7/25/2010<br />http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15540952 Last visit- 7/25/2010<br />http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15540952 Last visit- 7/25/2010<br />

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