Virtual Reality & Inmersivness for Education


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Virtual Reality & Inmersivness for Education

  1. 1. Experiential learning with Virtual Reality VREs VREs by its immersive levels Educational Objectives Knowledge Acquisition Process Experiential learning Case Study Immersion and Presence Immersion and Transfer of Knowledge Immersion & Presence for Educational Design Learning Environments and VREs
  2. 2. Working definitions: VR <ul><li>A computer generated simulation of the real or imagined environment or world – Gaddis 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>A monolithic icon for a complex network of ideas – Laurel 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>A presence simulation to user as an interface metaphor to a synthesised world - Gobetti and Scateni - 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>As a communication interface and as a communication medium </li></ul><ul><li>Riva 2001 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Virtual Reality Categories <ul><li>Fully-immersive </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-immersive </li></ul><ul><li>Non-immersive </li></ul>Desktop Projected Multisensory special interfaces HMD Provides multisensory, 3D learning experiences with real time feedback. Levels of ownership are increased. Information could be presented in different metaphors. For the “closed loop” to be educational it needs an educational framework
  4. 4. Immersiveness and Presence Presence As the illusion of no mediation Lombard&Ditton By a context in which social actors may cooperate and communicate. Riva Molinari Vincelli Immediate feedback Fidelity Community interaction More intuitive modes of high interaction Naturalistic interface Judgement of similarity focus Immersion tendencies involvement Interface expertise VR User/s
  5. 5. Working definitions II Experiential Learning An active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience – O’ Neill – 1998 As a constructive process in which the learner is building an internal representation of knowledge, a personal interpretation of experience –Bednar 1991 A multisensory approach to learning that happens nearly all the time, strongly related to communication and social interactions. A socially mediated process which implies the active construction of meaning - Gaskin Elliot 1999
  6. 6. Educational Objectives <ul><li>Cognitive developments </li></ul><ul><li>Psychomotor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><li>Identity construction </li></ul><ul><li>Personal developments </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional developments </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Writing, Reading,Mathematical skills,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts and generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual frames </li></ul><ul><li>Schemes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Knowledge acquisition Process Apprehending phase Acquisition phase Storage Phase Retrieval phase Transfer of knowledge Engendered with communication and Social interaction in a contextual framework. Gagne 1970 Connection process with the mental Network of ideas Cognitive Strategies Cognitive Styles Metacognitive Strategies ACTIVE PARTICIPATION Effective Immersion ?
  8. 8. Immersive Tendencies and Transfer Physical World Knowledge acquisition process Transfer of knowledge User/s Immersive tendencies Knowledge acquisition process VREs Transfer of knowledge <ul><li>Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Interface expertise </li></ul>Presence as a “given” Presence as a complex event <ul><li>On experiential basis </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced by an educational </li></ul><ul><li>frames </li></ul><ul><li>As a permanent “default” of experiencing </li></ul><ul><li>Socially and institutionally mediated </li></ul>
  9. 9. Case Study Incidences of subjective immersive tendencies in educational process mediated by VREs. 1 st .ITQ 2 nd. Gaming Session 3 rd .Educational Activities 8 participants 4M 4F University students (21 – 33) ITQ ( Witmer) The Sims ( Simulation Game) Educational Activity Method Materials Participants Subject
  10. 10. Case Study Analysis ITQ scores Gaming session behaviours ( video data analised) Knowledge and reflections from the educational activities. Immersive subjective tendencies Metacommets / indexical terms Discourse of educational value 2d non immersive VRE Simulation  Open Ended Free Will Avatars  Identity construction Ethical Dilemmas  Decision Making Networked reality  Virtual conversation The Sims ® by Electronic Art
  11. 11. Case Study: Dilemmatic Conflicts & Metacomments <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for money  “I had to buy everything.” M,21 </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for money:  “This game is the consuming mania.” M, 25 </li></ul><ul><li>( Incomes ) “Go a find a job, lazy woman.” F, 23 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Find a job.” F, 27 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Relationship  “ I thought they were married.” M, 21 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Oh, no more visitors…” M, 24 </li></ul><ul><li>” So, they don’t know each other?” F, 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial dilemmas  “Where is the living-room ? ” M, 33 </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s too small” F, 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and skills  “I do need a computer, but I don’t have space” F, 20 </li></ul><ul><li>“ They need books” F, 29 </li></ul><ul><li>Private Property  “They are inside in my room, my house, my home.” M, 21 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I hate when they go into the house like this, it ‘s impolite.” M, 25 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12.     Immersive tendencies Interface Expertise Fidelity of the VREs Meaning Constructions Enhance the feeling of presence Identity Construction Authorship Social Interactions Condition for the experiential quality in learning process Condition to effective transference of knowledge Case Study: Educational discourse
  13. 13. Learning Environments and VREs <ul><li>Should provide multiple versions </li></ul><ul><li>of reality, thereby representing the </li></ul><ul><li>Natural complexity of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>VREs can provide multiple versions </li></ul><ul><li>of reality, also add different sensorial </li></ul><ul><li>Or conditional settings in those realities </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g.. Low gravity condition., etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Should focus on knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>construction rather than reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>LEs should present authentic task </li></ul><ul><li>VREs allows for authorship </li></ul><ul><li>in the representations that the user </li></ul><ul><li>Creates with interaction with the Env. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be see as tool to create a </li></ul><ul><li>representation coded by interactions </li></ul><ul><li>VREs can provide authentic task </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge developments as a tool </li></ul><ul><li>For teleoperations and as simulators </li></ul><ul><li>LEs should provide real world, </li></ul><ul><li>case based learning </li></ul><ul><li>VREs can provides fully immersive </li></ul><ul><li>environments and in doing so it promote </li></ul><ul><li>to arise the sense of presence. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Learning Environments and VREs <ul><li>LEs should focus on reflective </li></ul><ul><li>practice </li></ul><ul><li>VREs can provide in association with </li></ul><ul><li>AI an educational framework to generates </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative models about problem </li></ul><ul><li>solving methods </li></ul><ul><li>LEs should facilitate context and </li></ul><ul><li>content dependent knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>construction </li></ul><ul><li>LEs should support collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>construction of knowledge, rather </li></ul><ul><li>Than encourage competition among </li></ul><ul><li>Learners for recognition </li></ul><ul><li>The needs of “creating community” is </li></ul><ul><li>a priority in VREs and it is improved by framing the VREs as a CMC </li></ul><ul><li>VREs as CMC is developed in order to </li></ul><ul><li>allow user interactions and utterances to </li></ul><ul><li>be presence enough to reach the goal of </li></ul><ul><li>learning, and an educational framework </li></ul><ul><li>deliver by a tutor ( human or AI ) could </li></ul><ul><li>direct users participation to the target </li></ul><ul><li>of generating discourse of educational </li></ul><ul><li>value. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Case Study: Immersion & Presence for Educational Design Immersive Subjective Tendencies <ul><li>Individual Tendencies </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnection from external distractors </li></ul><ul><li>Previous immersive situations </li></ul>Witmer and Singer, 1996 Effective Immersion Cronin, 1997 <ul><li>As a required ability </li></ul><ul><li>Control attention and focus </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusion of interferences from the outside world. </li></ul>Presence as sensory exp. Presence as a result of psychosocial interactions Riva, 2001 As a crucial theory frame to design VREs with educational aims
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