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TOOLS FOR TEACHING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
 

TOOLS FOR TEACHING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY

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  • good info even to get my 8th graders thinking how to use vocab and really learn it
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  • Before we get started, rate yourself on the following scale. Allow all participants to place a blank post-it along the scale. Reflect and note that we hope to add to each other’s knowledge base. Perhaps have them to visit the scale again at the end of the training.
  • Divide participants into small groups and list their responses on chart paper. Be prepared to share, noting similarities and differences. Post on the wall. Ask: What do you hope to gain from this training to help you with vocabulary instruction.
  • In this module, it is important to remember that vocabulary instruction goes well recognizing words and knowing the definitions.
  • Students must be allowed to demonstrate their knowledge of vocabulary learned. Many of the strategies shared in this module (once modeled and taught) can be use to assess knowledge of concepts. Refer to the after reading summarizing strategies in particular.
  • Don’t hesitate to read a book more than once. There can be a different focus each time; OR students can enjoy it more than once. The second element in comprehensive vocabulary instruction is the importance of reading aloud to students. In this slide however, (bullet 2) the focus is for specifically emphasizing certain vocabulary when reading aloud to learners of all ages.
  • 1. Limit the number of words to 3-5 and be sure that they are key to the main ideas in the text. 2. The context should reflect the particular meaning of the word in the text 3. Students are more likely to remember words linked to other concepts and to words they already know. 4. Students do not master new words after one presentation. Words have to be used in a variety of situations, including speaking and writing, before students “own” them.
  • Now that you have decided upon which words to teach, the next step is to determine which exemplary strategies to use with learners.
  • Some of these you might have seen but we are going to review some research based strategies and how to use them.
  • A primary purpose of before reading strategies is to build or determine background knowledge. Choose from the 5 strategies listed in the before-reading section. Select according to grade level appropriateness.
  • As demonstrated in the previous examples, background knowledge is critical to word (vocabulary knowledge.
  • All learners benefit from developing their background knowledge, however, research shows this is especially important for ELL and children from low SES backgrounds. It is important for us to bridge the gap between personal knowledge and academic knowledge in all subject areas. Let’s now take a look at what’s important is vocabulary instruction for all learners!
  • Weather Activity: Brain compatible learning will help students chunk information. This activity will be a lead in to thinking about the relationship that words can have in creating categories.
  • The purpose of word sorts is to help students develop an understanding of relationships among words or concepts. Provide participants with word cards and allow them to sort THREE different ways. Allow them to explain their reasons for sorting the words. Ask teachers: How can this strategy help as an activating (/before reading) strategy? Weather
  • The purpose of word sorts is to help students develop an understanding of relationships among words or concepts. Provide participants with word cards and allow them to sort THREE different ways. Allow them to explain their reasons for sorting the words. Ask teachers: How can this strategy help as an activating (/before reading) strategy? Weather
  • Put one word in each circle section and students add a word and how the words in the circle form a concept. Page 13 Inside Words Students can select four of the words and then write about what they have learned about the topic. These can be teacher or student generated lists of words. Students can be asked to shade the words that go together or the word that doesn’t belong with the others. They can then write about the word or attribute s that caused a word to be included or excluded.
  • Basic level: Students can categorize words and justify the connections between and among the words. Students write about the connections they see between the words and phrases. Why are these words in the Concept Circle together? HOW WOULD YOU USE THIS? Assessment!
  • Weather Activity: Brain compatible learning will help students chunk information. This activity will be a lead in to thinking about the relationship that words can have in creating categories.
  • If the concept map is used as a before reading strategy, it should be modeled and completed WITH students. That is, the teacher provides the first 2-3 examples and students add the final example(s). Likewise, the teacher provides the first 2-3 characteristic(s) and students provide the final characteristics). If it is used as an after reading strategy, students may work in pairs or small groups to complete after the text is read. Be sure to respond to or check students’ responses for accuracy/appropriateness.
  • This is a word map, copy it on chart paper. Start with bottom left box, ASK: What is an example of scaffold? Now move to top right box, ASK: What is a scaffold like? After all of the boxes have been completed you should be able to think of a definition for Scaffold. Allow about 10 minutes for this.
  • Participants will be divided into two groups: One will do Culture and one will do disease
  • Choose a book or text that is appropriate for your grade/students’ level.. Which words would you pause to explain? Why? Would the text or explanation vary for ELL or struggling learners? Discuss. Share in small group. How many words did you choose?
  • If used as before reading strategy, teacher models and completes with students using a word or concept from the lesson. If this graphic organizer is used as an after reading strategy, students may work in pairs or small group with teacher response if misunderstandings occur.
  • If used as before reading strategy, teacher models and completes with students using a word or concept from the lesson. If this graphic organizer is used as an after reading strategy, students may work in pairs or small group with teacher response if misunderstandings occur.
  • Choose a book or text that is appropriate for your grade/students’ level.. Which words would you pause to explain? Why? Would the text or explanation vary for ELL or struggling learners? Discuss. Share in small group. How many words did you choose?
  • Teacher selects words that will be upcoming in reading but are unfamiliar to students. These are presented in isolation with the rest of the sentence missing. Students make predictions about possible meanings for the word based on their background knowledge and knowledge of word parts. Students are then provided with the context for each of the words to determine context clues that are helpful for confirming or determining meanings for the target words. As students use context clues that are helpful they will list what helped them use the context clues.
  • As students read about the various people, concepts, topics, etc. They can complete the grid as the information is taught. This can also be used to summarize at the end of the chapter, unit or topic.
  • Reference to page 91.
  • Choose a book or text that is appropriate for your grade/students’ level.. Which words would you pause to explain? Why? Would the text or explanation vary for ELL or struggling learners? Discuss. Share in small group. How many words did you choose?
  • (E) After the unit on weather, the teacher selects several terms for review and students work alone or with partners to demonstrate an understanding of the terminology.
  • Help students reflect on word/concept knowledge by to review learning
  • A great way to summary and show connections among vocabulary related to a specific concept. Ask: Which word does not belong? Why?
  • A great way to summary and show connections among vocabulary related to a specific concept. Ask: Which word does not belong? Why? Hawaii does not belong. It is an island state, while the others are island countries. Another variation is to list three related concepts and the student must complete the fourth section by showing how they are related.
  • Sometimes you give them the concept and let them come up with descriptors
  • Sometimes you give them the descriptors and let them come up with the concept
  • Have participants complete the chart by putting a check under the appropriate category to show their knowledge of each word. This should provide the notion that word knowledge is multifaceted. People who have large vocabularies tend to be intrigued with words. However, vocabulary instruction tends to be dull rather than the sort that might instigate student’s interest and awareness of words. Ask them how it felt and what might be some implications for our students.
  • For this summarizing activity ask participants to: Generate fours words that capture the most important aspects of the topic/concept for TPR. Share with a partner. What words do you have in common. What two words capture the most important aspects of today’s learning. Determine the 1 word or big idea that best represents TPR. Share the one big idea among the entire group.

TOOLS FOR TEACHING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY TOOLS FOR TEACHING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Presentation Transcript

  • TOOLS FOR TEACHING ACADEMIC VOCABULARY from “Inside Words” by Janet Allen Forest Park Middle School January 9, 2008
  • How confident do you feel about your vocabulary instruction?
    • On a scale of 1 – 9, how confident are you about your vocabulary instruction?
    • Place a post-it on the scale on the wall– 1 is the lowest & 9 is the highest.
    Adapted from Dale, Rasband, Ross, Gardner, & Cunningham, 2004 1 9 5
    • Discuss your response to this question within your group.
    • Choose a group leader and record your responses on an index card.
    • Group leader should be prepared to share with everyone.
    How do you teach vocabulary?
  • Essential Questions:
    • Why is vocabulary instruction so important?
    • What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction?
    • Word knowledge is much more than word identification or even definitional knowledge–
    • “ It takes more than definitional knowledge to know a word, and we have to know words in order to identify them in multiple reading and listening contexts and use them in our speaking and writing.” (Allen, 1999)
    • Finding definitions and writing those words in sentences have had little apparent impact on their word knowledge and language use.
    Janet Allen, 1999
  • Dictionary Use!
    • When students have been provided dictionary definitions and asked to create sentences or answer brief questions about the words, research has shown:
        • 63 percent of the students’ sentences were judged to be “odd” (Miller & Gildea, 1985)
        • 60 percent of students’ responses were unacceptable (McKeown, 1991; 1993)
  • When the horse you are riding dies, Dismount ! Some dead horses for vocabulary instruction……
    • Do not give students isolated words of weekly spelling words to look up in the dictionary and write sentences. This is a deadly useless activity that is boring, not good instruction, and only teaches student how boring it is to learn new words.
    • Do not use the dictionary as punishment.
    • Move away from fill in the blank, or matching word definitions in isolation .
  • Reading Aloud
    • Students retain more vocabulary when the teacher explains critical vocabulary terms in context during the reading.
    • Reading a book several times leads to more word learning than reading several books once each.
  • Reading Aloud
    • " The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual success in reading is reading aloud to children."
    • (Becoming a Nation of Readers, 1985)
  • Vocabulary Instruction
    • Direct teaching of vocabulary can help improve comprehension when we follow these guidelines (Cooper, 1993):
    • A few critical words are taught.
    • The words are taught in a meaningful context. (including nonlinguistic representations)
    • Students relate the new words to their background knowledge.
    • Students are exposed to the words multiple times.
  • What are exemplary strategies for vocabulary instruction?
  • TAKE A LOOK Vocabulary Strategies
  • Before Reading Strategies
  • Background Knowledge
    • The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and background knowledge is explicit in research.
    • (Nagy & Herman, 1984; Marzano, 2004; Hart & Risley, 1995)
    • “ Our inner-city student might have little background knowledge related to camping trips but a lot related to getting around the city on the subway. Consequently, he would have difficulty learning and integrating new information about camping trips but would find it easy to learn new information about transportation via subway systems”.
    • (Marzano, 2004)
  • Organizing Words Into Categories
  • Word Sorts cold front meteorologist temperature barometer hurricanes
  • Word Sorts
    • Provide students with a set of vocabulary word cards (related to a specific concept or topic).
    • Work in groups to sort the words into categories.
    • Encourage students to find more than one category for the vocabulary words.
    • Students then discuss with teacher & peers their rationale for categorizing words.
    cold front meteorologist temperature barometer hurricanes
  • Concept Circles Assessment: Westward Movement hardship trail wagon food hunting learning Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of the concept circles. Traveling west had many hardships. One of the many hardships were diseases that the people had without medical help. Wagons would need to hold many delicacies. For instance, food you’d need to eat and live on were carried in them. The trails could have bad terrain , or could be all flat. Hunting was important and learning how to hunt for buffalo, elk, deer, and birds was learned while on the trail and served as good food for all. terrain disease
  • Concept Circles Assessment: Circulatory System Veins Large intestines Heart Arteries Salivary Glands Blood carbon dioxide Oxygen Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of the concept circles. (Which word does NOT belong?) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  • Concept Maps
  • migrate Schwartz & Raphael, 1985 To move regularly from one region to another people working for seasonal jobs birds Nomads traveling relocating moving around What are some examples? What is it like? What is it?
  • Word Map What is it? Fence What are some examples? What is it like?
  • Word Map What is it? Culture What are some examples? What is it like?
  • Word Map What is it? Disease What are some examples? What is it like?
  • Your Turn
  • Frayer Diagram 1 Definition Characteristics Examples Non-Examples First, last week of school. Sitting on the porch reading Unexpected guests for dinner Bubble bath Four projects due Lounging by the pool Stress, anxiety, tension, hostility, Tears, physical symptoms An extreme state of agitation. SWIVET
  • Frayer Diagram Definition Characteristics Examples Non-Examples What is a Noun?
  • Fryer Model Term Visual Representation Definition Personal Association sphere A round 3-D shape My ball is the shape of a sphere. sphere
  • Definition Characteristics Non-Examples Examples Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969) Content for this example taken from Baron & Heideima, (2002) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas (Supplement), McRel. herd
    • Group
    • Like animals
    • Clustered
    a congregation of wild animals
  • Definition Characteristics Non-Examples Examples Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969) Content for this example taken from Baron & Heideima, (2002) Teaching Reading in the Content Areas (Supplement), McRel. Prime 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, . . . 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10. . .
    • 2 is the only even prime number
    • 0 and 1 are not prime
          • Every whole number can be written as a product of primes
    A whole number with exactly two divisors (factors)
  • Your Turn
  • Contextual Redefinition
    • Work with a group to make predictions for definitions of each of the following words. The words included here are found in Notes on the Space We Take. Remember that some words which look familiar will probably have new meanings in this context.
    WORD Predicted Definition Definition Based on Context Context Clues Used hiss exoskeleton Vulnerability
  • During Reading Strategies
  • Semantic Feature Analysis FDR JFK Nixon Reagan Clinton Democrat + + - - + War time President + - + - - Congress (same party) Re-elected Served in Congress Won majority of popular vote
  • Semantic Feature Analysis Convex Equilateral Equiangular 4 sided Opposite sides parallel square x x x x x rectangle x x x x triangle x quadrilateral x Regular polygon x x x rhombus x x x x trapezoid x x
  • Your Turn
  • After Reading Strategies
  • VVWA (Verbal & Visual Word Association) Readence, Bean, & Baldwin, 2001 Term Visual Representation Definition a degree of wetness especially of the atmosphere Personal Association humidity
  • Vocabulary Notebooks
    • Students keep a log or journal to record what they are learning
    • Teacher provides a concept or word.
    • Students write quickly & spontaneously (free write/quick write) everything they know about the word.
    • Peer and/or teacher response.
  • Concept Circles Why? ___________________________________________________ Which word does not belong? Cone Rectangle Trapezoid Hexagon
  • Concept Circles Why? ___________________________________________________ Which word does not belong? England Cuba Japan Hawaii
  • racism stereotyping Church bombing violence Concept: Civil Rights Movement
  • Migrant Dust Bowl Hobo Hoovervilles Concept: The Depression
  • What Are Your Thoughts?
  • Word Know it well, can explain it, use it Know some-thing about it, can relate it to a situation Have seen or heard the word Do not know the word tyranny serendipity grapnel purport sensitive dubious
  • 4-2-1 summarizer (TPR) Four Two One Rogers, et.al (1999). Motivation and Learning. . .
  • Collaborative Pairs!
    • Reflect on the strategies used today.
    • With which strategies would dictionary use seem most appropriate and inappropriate?
    • Justify your response!