Individual assessment of the learning. Each participant will be able to choose an organizer.
Let’s look at this definition that is very encompassing, highlight or underline the key words that are most meaningful to you in this definition.
What are your expectations. Post expectations on the board.
Discuss in detail
Code formative (F) and summative (S)
Participants will read the Wisdom of Formative Assessment findings and respond to the question. If we put all our resources around summative assessing then we miss critical opportunities to positively affect learning.
Go over the MI Sheet in your groups.
Our focus is on process and product. This is the how of teaching using the instructional strategies
You can differentiate
RAFT is an acronym for Role, Audience, Format, and Topic. In a RAFT, students take on a particular role, develop a product for a specified audience in a particular format and on a topic that gets right at the heart of what matters most in a particular segment of study. At some points, a teacher may want to assign students particular RAFTs and at other points may want the student to make the choice. RAFT assignments are typically of fairly short duration and can be completed at school or at home.
You can use this strategy to design classroom writing topics for ANY classroom (language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, etc) so students have lots of mental elbow room to connect what they know and are learning to different genres of writing. RAFT writing allows students to personalize their responses to learning
EXAMPLE IN SCIENCE
EXAMPLE IN SCIENCE
EXAMPLE IN SCIENCE
EXAMPLE IN SCIENCE
EXAMPLE IN SCIENCE
Sample choice board around a theme of study.
Record on an index card in your groups.
PUTTING DIFFERENTIATION INTO PRACTICE WHAT IS DIFFERENTIATION? WHO ARE YOUR STUDENTS? WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED?
Welcome! On one side of your name tent using a marker, write your first name in large letters. Donnella Donnella
QUOTE SELECTION Read over the quotes listed and choose the one that best reflects your thinking. At your table read and discuss each selected quote. In your group, decide on a commonly agreed upon quote and select a person from your group to share with the entire group.
PUTTING DIFFERENTIATION INTO PRACTICE WHAT IS DIFFERENTIATION? WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED?
Traditional Classroom Student differences are masked or acted upon when problematic Assessment is most common at the end of learning to see “who gets it” A relatively narrow sense of intelligence prevails A single definition of excellence exists Student interest is infrequently tapped Relatively few learning profile options are taken into account Whole-class instruction dominates Coverage of texts and curriculum guides derives instruction Mastery of facts and skills out-of-context are the focus of learning. Single option assignments are the norm Time is relatively inflexible A single text prevails Single interpretations of ideas and events may be sought The teacher solves problems The teacher provides whole-class standards for grading A single form of assessment is often used. Differentiated Classroom Student differences are studied as a basis for planning Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic to understand how to make instruction more responsive to learner needs Focus on multiple forms of intelligence is evident Excellence is defined in large measure by individual growth from a starting point Students are frequently guided in making interest-based learning choices. Many learning profile options are provided for Many instructional arrangements are used Student readiness, interest, and learning profile shape instruction. Use of essential skills to make sense of and understand key concepts and principles is the focus of learning Multi-option assignments are frequently used Time is used flexibly in accordance with student need Multiple materials are provided Multiple perspectives on ideas and events are routinely sought The teacher facilitates students’ skills at becoming more self-reliant learners Students help other students and the teacher solve problems Students work with the teacher to establish both whole-class and individual learning goals Students are assessed in multiple ways
Traditional vs. Differentiated RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROOM In your groups, read through the characteristics of a traditional classroom and illustrate what you visualize a Traditional classroom would look like. LEFT SIDE OF THE ROOM In your groups, read through the characteristics of a differentiated classroom and illustrate what you visualize a DI classroom would look like. You have 10-15 minutes for this activity.
Assessing the Learning Choose a graphic organizer for comparing and contrasting to indicate how the teachers are similar and different. Chart your information. Write a summary statement below your graphic organizer.
Compare and Contrast Diagram How Different? With Regard To: ALIKE DIFFERENT Assessments Instruction Students SUMMARY
Discuss your definition with an energizing partner.
What is Differentiation? Differentiating instruction means changing the pace, level, or kind of instruction you provide in response to individual learners’ needs, styles, or interests. -- Diane Heacox, Ed.D. “Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom”
Snapshot of A Differentiated Classroom Carol Ann Tomlinson (1999) Differentiated Classroom… one in which the teacher responds to the unique needs of students. Content … Process…. Product are differentiated
Looking at DI in the Classroom ENVIRONMENT How should the environment of the classroom support learning? PRODUCT What gives evidence of understanding? DI BRAIN What brain- compatible practices keep students on task? PROCESS What are the instructional practices that support learning? CONTENT What resources and content are students expected to know?
It’s what our students learn after their time with us that matters In my experience, there are teachers who put 100 percent of the responsibility on the kids, teachers who share the responsibility, and teachers who take 100 percent of the responsibility. Teachers in that middle category seem to be the most successful at my school. The thing is, if I look at my end grades and saw a huge percentage of F’s, I’d be disturbed. I’d look for causes (missing work, low scores, etc.) and figure out what types of strategies to try with those students. I am the teacher, and so it is up to me to teach the kids I have, be they unprepared, irresponsible, etc… I’m not saying that’s easy, but if what we’re doing isn’t getting us the desired results, doing the same thing over and over and expecting something different is not only nonproductive, it creates stress and unhappiness in our lives.
Brainstorm Assessments Tools In your groups, brainstorm as many different methods of assessments that can be used in the classroom. CONDITIONS 2 minutes. Name first then write The more the better CODE F for formative S for summative
Connect with your Energizing Partner Explain the difference in formative and summative with your energizing partner.
Student Feedback “ The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback.” --John Hattie Read the research done by John Hattie and Marzano. HO
Based on research, where should teachers spend most of their time in assessment preparation?
KNOWING THE INTEREST, LEARNING STYLE AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Knowing the Interest of the Students Look at the interest inventory in your notebook and discuss how it can help with differentiating instruction. Refer to the T-shirt activity. How can that be used as an interest inventory?
Logical Mathematical Naturalist Body Kinesthetic Musical Rhythmic Interpersonal Verbal Linguistic Intrapersonal Visual Spatial
Arrange yourselves in groups of eight (count off 1-8, 1-8, etc).
Come together and each person share their explanations.
Select a Topic A. With your partner select a content topic : Examples: Language Arts … Speaking, Listening, Reading, Writing Science … Experiments, Observations, Physical Science, Earth Science, Environmental Science Math … Geometry, Number Sense, Algebra, Probability Social Studies … World History, American History, Geography, Economics, Civics Create three different ways to teach your topic around the Multiple Intelligences. Chart your ideas using a graphic organizer.
PUTTING DIFFERENTIATION INTO PRACTICE WHAT IS DIFFERENTIATION? WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED?
PROCESS Process.. the way it is delivered and taught. Ways to differentiate process:
Possible Products for Students Map Diagram Sculpture Discussion Demonstration Poem Profile Chart Play Dance Campaign Cassette Quiz Show Banner Brochure Debate Flow Chart Puppet Show Tour Lecture Editorial Painting Costume Placement Blueprint Catalogue Dialogue Newspaper Scrapbook Lecture Questionnaire Flag Scrapbook Graph Debate Museum Learning Station Advertisement Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Learning Log Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention
(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY At your table review the six higher order thinking questions from Bloom’s Taxonomy and give examples of how you have applied the levels of questions in your instruction.
DIFFERENTIATED ACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY QUESTION STARTERS POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES Level I: KNOWLEDGE (Recall) What is the definition for ….? What happened after…? Recall the facts. What were the characteristics of ..? Which is true or false? How many…? Who was the…? Tell in your own words. Describe the … Make a time line of events. Make a facts chart. Write a list of …steps in…facts about… List all the people in the story. Make a chart showing… Make an acrostic. Recite a poem. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.) Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Corwin Press. 2007 pg. 122 HO
DIFFERENTIATED ACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY QUESTION STARTERS POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES Level II: COMPREHENSION Why are these ideas similar? In your own words retell the story of… What do you think could happen? How are these ideas different? Explain what happened after. What are some examples? Can you provide a definition of…? Who was the key character? Cut out or draw pictures to show an event. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of … Write and perform a play based on the … Compare this _____ with _______. Construct a model of … Write a news report. Prepare a flow chart to show the sequence…. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.) Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Corwin Press. 2007 HO
DIFFERENTIATED ACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY QUESTION STARTERS POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES Level III: APPLICATION (applying without understanding is not effective ) What is another instance of ..? Demonstrate the way to … Which one is most like ..? What questions would you ask? Which factor would you change? Could this have happened in.. Why or why not? How would you organize these ideas? Construct a model to demonstrate using it. Make a display to illustrate one event. Make a collection about … Design a relief map to include relevant information about an event. Scan a collection of photographs to illustrate a particular aspect of the study.. Create a mural to depict… Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.) Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Corwin Press. 2007 HO
DIFFERENTIATED ACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY QUESTION STARTERS POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES Level IV: ANALYSIS What are the component parts of ..? What steps are important in the process of … If … then … What other conclusions can you reach about … that have not been mentioned? The difference between the fact and the hypothesis is…. 6. The solution would be to … 7. What is the relationship between.. and …? Design a questionnaire about… 2. Conduct an investigation to produce…. 3. Make a flow chart to show … 4. Construct a graph to show…. 5. Put on a play about.... Review … in terms of identified criteria. Prepare a report about the area of study. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.) Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Corwin Press. 2007 HO
DIFFERENTIATED ACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY QUESTION STARTERS POTENTIALACTIVITIES Level V: SYNTHESIS Can you design a…..? Why not compose a song about …? Why don’t you devise your own way to ….? Can you create new and unusual uses for ….? Can you develop a proposal for ….? 6. How would you deal with …? 7. Invent a scheme that would… Create a model that shows your new ideas. 2. Devise an original plan or experiment for… 3. Finish the incomplete… 4. Make an hypothesis about…. 5. Change … so that it will …. Propose a method to …. Give the book a new title. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.) Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Corwin Press. 2007 HO
DIFFERENTIATED ACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY QUESTION STARTERS POTENTIAL ACTIVITIES Level VI: EVALUATION In your opinion… Appraise the chances for … Grade or rank the ….. What do you think should be the outcome? What solution do you favor and why? 6. Which systems are best? Worst? Rate the relative value of these ideas to … 8. Which is the better bargain? Prepare a list of criteria you would use to judge a … Indicate priority ratings you would give. 2. Conduct a debate about an issue. 3. Prepare an annotated bibliography.. 4. Form a discussion panel on the topic of … 5. Prepare a case to present your opinions about… List some common assumptions about …. Rationalize your reactions. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All (2nd ed.) Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman. Corwin Press. 2007 HO
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Which month marked the most significant events leading to the Revolutionary War? COMPREHENSION
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY What does each of the figures in the political cartoon about the Revolutionary War represent? ANALYSIS
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Using the mapping techniques we learned yesterday, how would you show someone how to get from Boston to Philadelphia? APPLICATION
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY From our study of cities during Colonial times, what things do you think were the most important ideas to consider in building a new city during that time period in history? SYNTHESIS
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY What do you think might have happened if the British won the Revolutionary War? EVALUATION
DIFFERENTIATEDACCORDING TO BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Who was our first president? KNOWLEDGE
As a team, create six questions around a topic content you teach that reflects the different levels Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning.
You have six squares to create six levels of questions based on Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Use the H.O.T.S. Cards as a model and the Higher Order Thinking Skill .
CUBING Cubing gives students a chance to look at a concept from a series of different perspectives. Cubing with its many sides, allows students to look at an issue or topic from a variety of angles and develop a multidimensional perspective rather than a single one. Cubing allows the teacher to differentiate for readiness in a very un-obvious way. Since all students are working with cubes, students are not aware that their neighborsmight be doing something a little different.
CUBING FRACTIONS Side One:Locate It In two minutes, make a list of all of the places in which we find fractions in every day life. Have your partner time you. Side Two: Define It What is a fraction? How would you explain what a fraction is to a first grader? Side Three:Solve It Complete fraction problems 1-10 on page 65. Have your partner check your work. Side Four:Analyze It What are the parts of a fraction? Define each part and describe their relationships to one another. Side Five:Think About It When dividing fractions, why do we have to “invert and multiply”? Show your thinking on paper. Side Six:Illustrate It Create a children’s picture book about fractions. Use “Give Me Half!” as an example.
CUBINGThe Stages of Matter Side One: Namethree states of matter. Side Two: Compare the phase changes that occurs when a substance changes state. Side Three: Illustrate the molecules arrangement in each state of matter. Side Four: Create an Experimentthat demonstrates how temperature changes the state of matter. Side Five: Prescribe a way where a solid changes directly into a gas without going through the liquid state. Side Six: List a misconception that students might have about changes in states of matter. OR How is understanding states of matter applied to understanding the water cycle.
Cubing List Explain Design Discuss Propose Debate Tell what happened in this chapter/story/article, etc.
Review the Think Dot Samples Distribute & Discuss
A RAFT is… • an engaging, high level strategy that encourages writing across the curriculum • a way to encourage students to… ‒ …assume a role ‒ …consider their audience, ‒ …examine a topic from a relevant perspective, ‒ …write in a particular format • All of the above can serve as motivators by giving students choice, appealing to their interests and learning profiles, and adapting to student readiness levels.
How Would Using R.A.F.T.S. Provide Useful Assessment? Writing R.A.F.T.S. demonstrates student understanding of a concept or topic of study. It can be used to apply knowledge learned to clarify thinking and allow the teacher to peek inside a student’s head and check their understanding. It also can be the way to bring together students' understanding of main ideas, organization, elaboration, and coherence...in other words, the criteria by which compositions are most commonly judged.
3/4/2010 A Different Perspective R.A.F.T.S. Role of the writer-helps the writer decide on point of view and voice. Audience for the piece of writing-reminds the writer that he/she must communicate ideas to someone else; helps the writer determine content and style Format of the material-helps the writer organize ideas and employ format conventions for letters, interviews, story problems, and other kinds of writing. Topic or subject for the piece of writing-helps the writer to zero in on main ideas and narrow the focus of the writing. Strong verbs- directs the writer to the writing purpose, for example to persuade, analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, or evaluate.
3/4/2010 R.A.F.T. in Science/Health Role- Kidney Audience- Your host/body Format- Letter Topic- What you need to stay healthy; why your host would be better off. Strong Verb-Explaining You are a kidney in the human body. Write a letter to your host to explain what you need to stay healthy and why the host will be better off if you ARE in tip-top condition.
R.A.F.T. in Math Role- Square Root Audience- Whole Number Format- Love Letter Topic- Explain the relationship that you have with each other Strong Verb-Explaining You are a Square Root in a problem. Write a loveletter to your significant Whole Number to explain the special love you have for the way he/she fulfills all your dreams in finding solutions to the problem.
R.A.F.T. in Social Studies Role- Oprah Audience- Your Television Public Format- Talk Show Topic- Why women should be given women’s suffrage in the early 20th century Strong Verb-Persuading You are Oprah, the modern day famous talk show host. Prepare questions to interview a woman suffragist onyour show who will explain why women should be given the right to vote as it relates to the life style of the early 20th century in the United States. Add the response from your guest women’s suffragist that can be posted on your web for those who missed the show that day.
R.A.F.T. in Science Role- Single drop of ocean water Audience- Yourself Format- Trip Log Topic- Trip taken through the water cycle Strong Verb-Record You are a single drop of ocean water that is beginning a trip through the water cycle . Write an imaginative trip log to record your progress as you evaporate from the ocean, travel through the air, rain down on the land, and flow back to the ocean.
R.A.F.T. in Language Arts Role-Car in a junk yard Audience-Teen who destroyed the car Format- Farewell Letter Topic- Take care of your car Strong Verb- Scolding Dear Claude, I’ve been forced to sit in this junk yard for the past year. Every day I’ve had to face the loss of more and more body parts until there is almost nothing left of me. But tomorrow, my time is up; I’m scheduled to be compacted, so I have to write this letter now. It is hard for me to say this, but I think you need to know you are a real jerk! I gave you the best years of my life, and how did you treat me? You refused to change my oil on a regular basis. (I get cranky when I have a dirty crankcase!). You always fed me the cheapest fuel, never letting me have any fuel containing detergents to help keep my parts clean. You constantly slammed on the brakes, wearing the treads from my tires. You never checked my tire pressure. I had to work extra hard to move with such low pressure in my tires. Do you know how much gas money you wasted over the years by driving on underinflated tires? You never gave me a lube job even though I constantly screamed for one. I tried so hard to do my best, but you did not lift a finger to help. On, no! Here it comes, the big crunch! I’ve reached the end of my road….CRUNCH!
Think-Tac-Toe Directions: Select and complete one activity going across, from each horizontal row to help you and others think about the Periodic Table. Remember to make your work thoughtful, original, accurate, and detailed. HO