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Powerful Literacy Practices

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  • Need to add notes. Need to get lesson plans on Lorax etc, printed and story fromCisneros 11 copies. Need to get Lynn’s cards on graphic organizers.

Powerful Literacy Practices Powerful Literacy Practices Presentation Transcript

  • Powerful Literacy Practices
    balbed@bellsouth.net
  • Define Academic Literacy
    listening, speaking, reading, writing
  • Essential Questions
    What are some challenges English language learners experience
    in academic language learning and literacy?
    How can we support English language learners'
    academic language proficiency?
  • Academic Literacy
    • Is the reading proficiency required to construct the meaning of content-area texts and literature encountered in school
    • Encompasses the kind of reading proficiencies typically assessed on state-level accountability measures, such as the ability to
    - make inferences from text
    - learn new vocabulary from context
    - link ideas across texts
    - identify and summarize the most
    important ideas or content within a text
    (Torgesen et al., 2007)
    Francis, Center on Instruction
  • What is the Role of Vocabulary in Academic Development?
    • Academic vocabulary is critical to learning higher-level content and to performing well on achievement tests.
    • Academic language: explains, informs, justifies, compares, describes, classifies, proves, debates, persuades, evaluates.
    David J. Francis
  • “Of the many compelling reasons for providing students with instruction to build vocabulary, none is more important than the contribution of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension. Indeed, one of the most enduring findings in reading research is the extent to which students’ vocabulary knowledge relates to their reading comprehension.”
    Anderson & Freebody, 1981; Baumann, Kame’enui, & Ash, 2003; Becker, 1977; Davis, 1942; Whipple, 1925)
    Why Focus on Vocabulary Instruction?
  • Reading & Writing Task
    Read the following and put in your own words
    (paraphrase)
    The difficulty of your set could be increased if
    you do a jam followed by a peach.
  • The difficulty of your set could be increased if you do a jam followed by a peach.
    The point values you can earn on your gymnastics routine can be bigger if you include, in sequence, two particular skills on the uneven parallel bars: the “jam,” which leaves the gymnast sitting on the high bar; and the “peach,” where the gymnast moves from the high bar to the low bar.
    cited from: www. readingquest.org/bkgd
    means
  • The difficulty of your set could be increased if you do a jamfollowed by a peach.
    SO...
    Why Didn't You Use Context Clues?
    Multiple word meanings
    Lack of background knowledge
    Technical vocabulary
    Culture of gymnastics
    But you knew the components of academic language: word meanings, language functions, and grammatical structures.....right?
  • Sentence Starter
    Complete the Sentence Starter
    What this tells me about using context clues to infer meaning for unfamiliar vocabulary is that
    ________________________________
    _______________________________
  • Tell Me Again Why I Should Care About Bloom’s Taxonomy…
  • Remember Understand Apply Analyze Evaluate Create
    Less Demanding LanguageMore Demanding Language
    The degree to which a task is context-embedded depends on the number of channels of information available to the student. The more context embedded, the more manageable.
    Bloom’s Taxonomy offers a way of determining whether a task is demanding or undemanding
  • Read and Remark
    The research suggests that the disparity between word-level skills (decoding, word recognition, spelling) and text level skills (reading comprehension and writing) among language minority students is oral English proficiency.  
    Word Level oral English proficiency Text Level
    What this tells me about academic language practice is that.................
    “A Focus on Vocabulary” www.prel.org
    Diane August and Timothy Shanahan: (2006)
  • Planning for Purposeful Talk Academic Dialoging
    • Collaborative tasks
    • Multiple opportunities for students to talk, question , discuss,
    • clarify, and create new understandings
    • Meaningful student interactions
    • Explicitly teach the academic language students need to be able to use in academic discourse
  • Examining Vocabulary Practices
    1. Asking students, “Does anyone know what
    The following page lists "unreliable practices" and "research based practices"
    • Work with your elbow partner to determine which belong in the unreliable group and which represent the research based group.
    • Please be prepared to discuss the rationale for your choices
    • Teacher directed, explicit instruction
    • Provide opportunities to practice using words
    • Teach word meanings explicitly and systematically
    • Teach independent word learning strategies (i.e., contextual strategies & morphemic analysis
    Represent Research Based Best Practices for Vocabulary Instruction
    Did You Say?
  • Vocabulary Practices – What’s unreliable and what is research-based?
    • Asking students, “Does anyone know what _____ means?”
    • Numerous independent activities without guidance or immediate feedback
    • Directing students to “look it up” then use it in a sentence
    • Relying on context based guessing as a primary strategy
    • Teacher directed, explicit instruction
    • Provide opportunities to practice using words
    • Teach word meanings explicitly and systematically
    • Teach independent word learning strategies (i.e., contextual strategies & morphemic analysis
    Vocabulary Instruction for Upper Elementary and Middle Grades: Strategies for Success
  • "Learning to write well, especially for academic purposes, is difficult in a first language. For English learners, the process is even more complex."
    Hadaway and Young, Negotiating Meaning Through Writing
  • Thoughts about Writing
    Writing involves transferring thoughts from mind to paper
    Can be...but when you write you often generate and create new ideas
    as you write
    Writing is to communicate with others
    Can be...but the first reader of writing is the writer himself or herself
    Learning to write precedes writing
    Both reading and writing can only be learned in the course of reading and writing
  • Writing is learned from instruction
    Not even skills such as spelling, punctuation or captitalization can be learned solely from lectures or reading about how to do it
    You must have something to say in order to write
    -You often have to write in order to have something to say
    -Thought comes with writing
    Writing should be right the first time
    Something all experienced writers know is that writing usually requires many drafts and revision
    Writing is a solitary activity
    Writing generally requires other people to stimulate ideas, to listen to choice phrases, to help with word selection and spelling, etc.
    From: Writing and Writing Strategies, Lynda Stack
  • Planning to Write with English Language Learners
    Beginning with the End in Mind
  • What is it?
    -A Framework for Planning Instruction
    How do I use it?
    Understanding by Design
    Answers the Question
    -What enduring understandings do my students need to develop?
    - To determinehow students demonstrate their understanding
    when the lesson is completed
    -To determine how I will ensure that students have the skills and
    understand the concepts required on the summative assessment
  • How Do I Plan Learning Experiences
    Using Backward Design?
    What knowledge and skills will be needed for success?
    • Knowledge and skills needed
    • Teaching and learning experiences
    • Demonstration of targeted understandings
    Which learning experiences will help to promote these skills and understandings?
    How will students demonstrate proficiency?
  • Comparing and Contrasting
    How are Ritz crackers and Oreo cookies
    alike and different?
  • Venn Diagram
    It is frequently used as a prewriting activity to enable students to organize thoughts or textual quotations prior to writing a compare/contrast essay. This activity enables students to organize similarities and differences visually .
  • Using a Graphic Organizer to Generate Adjectives
    Using the graphic
    organizer to write
    descriptors
    The Venn Diagram
    can serve as a brainstorming
    activity
    This graphic organizer
    can also serve as the prewrite
  • VOCABULARY TOOLKIT ADJECTIVES – SAMPLE list
    COLOR TASTE TEXTURE NUMBER SMELL SHAPE
    golden tasty crisp bunch sweet round
    brown delicious rough few fragrant curved
    dark bitter chewy plenty spicy oval
    dim creamy crusty several stale thin
    shiny luscious dry two fresh thick
    dull salty hard enough smoky wide
    Provide adjective lists as a resource to increase vocabulary
    and encourage the use of descriptors in writing
  • Vocabulary Tool Kit
    Signal words for Compare/Contrast Text Structure
    Students use the signal word toolkit as a resource
    for reading and writing to identify author's
    purpose...
  • Model Compare/Contrast Paragraphs
    You already know that there are major differences between a house and a nest. In contrast to a house, a nest is small and only has one room. Another difference is that a house is typically for humans while a nest is for birds.
    However, you might be surprised to find out that nests and houses have some things that are the same. For instance, both nests and houses provide shelter. Another similarity is that both use trees in their construction. Birds use sticks and twigs while humans use lumber from trees. Lastly, they are alike because they both take up space, although a house usually takes up more space than a nest. Does it surprise you that
    they share so much in common?
    Downloaded from www.readwritethink.org
  • Model Compare/Contrast Paragraphs
    You already know that there are major differences between a house and a nest. In contrast to a house, a nest is small and only has one room. Another difference is that a house is typically for humans while a nest is for birds.
    However, you might be surprised to find out that nests and houses have some things that are the same. For instance, both nests and houses provide shelter. Another similarity is that both use trees in their construction. Birds use sticks and twigs while humans use lumber from trees. Lastly, they are alike because they both take up space, although a house usually takes up more space than a nest. Does it surprise you that they share so much in common?
    Use the model text to read aloud to students; they can listen for the signal words and say them as you read. Model text elements by putting on overhead or power point and model locating and underlining the signal words as well as the transition words, if appropriate at this time.
    Additionally, students can read text to each other in pairs and call out the signal words to each other. These are some ways this text could be used as a listening and/or speaking objective for the standard..
  • Sentence Frames for a Compare/Contrast Paragraph
    Paragraph Frames for Scaffolding Comparing
    _____________________ and ___________________
    are similar in several ways. They both___________________
    _______________________________________________ .
    In addition, they are also _________________________. These
    similarities_______________________________________.
    From Developing Academic Skills, Jeff Zwiers
  • However, ____________and________________ also differ in some
    ways. First, _______________________, whereas______________
    ___________________. Furthermore, they are unalike because
    _______________. These differences between___________________
    and ______________________________________________________
    help us to see ____________.
    From Developing Academic Skills, Jeff Zwiers
  • Chant Frame for Comparison
    Excuuuuuuuuuse me, I was wondering something
    Can you help me compare the following things?
    One is __________________________________you see
    And the other is___________________I believe
    Tell me, what are the characteristics they share?
    It's time to break them down and compare
    They both _________________________________________________
    And they____________________________________
    Furthermore they________________________________________________
    And they share___________________________________________________
    Tell me, how can I distinguish one from the other?
    Like the contrast of two different brothers?
    Well, the ___________________________________________________________________
    While the _________________________________________________________________
    From Developing Academic Skills, Jeff Zwiers
  • The Myth of Age or Grade Level Vocabulary
    Students do not learn vocabulary words based on their age or their grade.
    They learn words based on their experiences.
    (Beck, et al, 2002)
  • Reading Comprehension is an Interactive Process
    Today’s Session
    RAND Model, 2002
  • What Strategies Do You Use?
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Inferring
    Using background knowledge to hypothesize, interpret, or draw conclusion from the events, information or clues in the text.
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Predicting
    Anticipating what will happen next in the story or what will be described next in the informational text based on knowledge of genre, character type, or familiar sequence.
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Questioning
    Asking questions to clarify meaning, wonder what will happen, or speculate about the author’s intent, style, content or format.
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Making connections
    Connecting information or events to personal experience
    Text-to-self
    Text-to-text
    Text-to-world
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Visualizing
    Creating mental pictures of what is happening in the text.
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Self-monitoring
    Recognizing when you understand what is going on and when you are confused.
    Recognizing when you have stopped paying close attention to the text and therefore need to re-read
  • Reading Comprehension Strategies
    Inferring
    Predicting
    Questioning
    Making connections
    Visualizing
    Self-monitoring
  • Last Thoughts On…
    Strategies are a means to an end
    Potential pitfall
    Strategy as scaffold for comprehension.
    Recall notes
  • Gradual Release of Responsibility
    Journal
    Active listening/creating a metaphor
  • “I read it, but I don’t get it.”
    This is really an invitation…
    More often a pitfall:
    “Just read it again.”
    “Pay better attention.”
    “Find the main ideas.”
    “Try harder.”
  • Framework as Mental Model
    We must anticipate this comment
    Set Big Goals to address it
    Plan Purposefully to explicitly teach it
    Execute Effectively to empower our students to read it and get it.
  • Gradual Release of Responsibility
    Explicitly
    Taught
    Shared
    Guided
    Modeled
    Independent
  • Gradual Release: Explicitly Taught
    • Naming and explaining the strategy gives students knowledge of the strategy.
  • Gradual Release: Modeling
    Modeling explicitly gives students comprehension of what the strategy looks like.
    Think Aloud
  • Gradual Release: Shared
    Shared reading gives the students the opportunity to do part of the work of using the strategy with support from teachers and peers.
  • Gradual Release: Guided
    Guided reading gives students the chance to do more of the work of using the strategy with teacher feedback.
    Alone or in small groups.
  • Gradual Release: Independent
    Independent reading gives students the chance to practice it by themselves with new text.
  • Gradual Release of Responsibility
    Explicitly
    Taught
    Shared
    Guided
    Modeled
    Independent
  • I Do, We Do, You Do
    With a partner, model a strategy
    The tool: Think Aloud
    Our conversations:
    How explicit the think-aloud was
    How student-friendly the think-aloud was
    Whether there might be more to say in thinking-aloud with this strategy
  • Review of Mindset
    Just as students will rise or sink to meet our expectations in other ways, students will respond to the purposes and goals for reading that we set for them.
    If we expect our students to read like Scientists, Historians, Engineers, Mathematicians, Writers and Literary Critics – and if we teach them the strategies to do it – they will be able to reach those goals.
  • What have you added to your toolkit?