Informe Seguridad Privada en Europa 2011
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Informe de la Confederation of European Security Services sobre servicios de seguridad privada en Europa en 2011.

Informe de la Confederation of European Security Services sobre servicios de seguridad privada en Europa en 2011.

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  • 1. PrivateSecurityServices in EuropeCoESS Facts & Figures 2011
  • 2. CoESSConfederation of European Security ServicesJan Bogemansstraat | Rue Jan Bogemans 249B-1780 Wemmel, BelgiumT +32 2 462 07 73 | F +32 2 460 14 31E-mail: apeg-bvbo@i-b-s.be | Web: www.coess.euResponsible publisherCoESS General Secretariat:Hilde De Clerck (Secretary-General of CoESS)Jan Bogemansstraat | Rue Jan Bogemans 249B-1780 Wemmel, BelgiumT +32 2 462 07 73 | F +32 2 460 14 31E-mail: apeg-bvbo@i-b-s.be | Web: www.coess.euCopyright disclaimerUnless stated to the contrary, all materials and information (studies, position papers, white papers, surveys and theirfuture results) are copyrighted materials owned by CoESS (Confederation of European Security Services). All rights are re-served. Duplication or sale of all or any part of it is not permitted. Electronic or print copies may not be offered, whetherfor sale or otherwise, to any third party. Permission for any other use must be obtained from CoESS. Any unauthoriseduse of any materials may violate copyright laws, trademark laws, the laws of privacy and publicity, and communicationsregulations and statutes.Concept & Lay-out: www.excellent-vormgeving.bePrivateSecurityServices in EuropeCoESS Facts & Figures 2011 3
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  • 4. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 7FACTS & FIGURES 2011 11AUSTRIA 11BELGIUM 15BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA 21BULGARIA 25CROATIA 29CYPRUS 32CZECH REPUBLIC 35DENMARK 37ESTONIA 40FINLAND 44FRANCE 48GERMANY 52GREECE 56HUNGARY 60IRELAND 63ITALY 66LATVIA 70LITHUANIA 74LUXEMBOURG 77MACEDONIA 81MALTA 84NORWAY 86POLAND 90PORTUGAL 95ROMANIA 99SERBIA 103SLOVAKIA 107SLOVENIA 110SPAIN 113SWEDEN 118SWITZERLAND 122THE NETHERLANDS 126TURKEY 129UNITED KINGDOM 134STATISTICS 139CONCLUSIONS 143EU LEGISLATIVE MAPPING 149 5
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  • 6. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011INTRODUCTIONThe present report of the Confederation of European Security Services (CoESS) entitled ‘PrivateSecurity Services in Europe – CoESS Facts & Figures 2011’ is an update of its 2008 analysis. Itprovides a comprehensive overview of the European private security services landscape andtargets a wide geographical area of 34 countries, i.e. the 27 EU Member States and sevenadditional European countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia,Switzerland and Turkey.The report allows for an updated and accurate outline of the private security services industryin each country focusing on the following aspects:• Economic aspects: Private security market, private security contracts, private security com- panies, private security guards• Legal aspects: Private security legislation, controls and sanctions, collective labour agree- ments, entrance requirements and restrictions, specific requirements, powers and compe- tences, weapons, K9 (dogs), horses, training and related provisionsThe 2011 report is the result of an intensive consultation process predominantly amongCoESS’ member federations at national level and other national private security organisationsand European countries.Collected information was incorporated into individual country fiches consisting of taggedinformation, which facilitates the consultation of facts and figures for each country and theidentification of similarities and differences between the 34 targeted countries.MethodologyThe information reflected in the individual country fiches was mainly supplied by CoESS’member federations at national level and other national private security organisations andEuropean countries. CoESS hereby warmly thanks all organisations involved for their contri-butions and the time and effort invested in order to achieve this successful outcome. Theircontinued support helps create a comprehensive and realistic representation of the Europeanprivate security services industry today.Additional pertinent information was gathered through desk research and the assistance of(local) authorities, international organisations, diplomatic and academic bodies and otherrelevant organisations. CoESS hereby expresses its sincere gratitude for their invaluable input.Prior to their participation in the report, CoESS’ member federations at national level andother national private security organisations and European countries received a detailed out-line detailing the expected data. This outline is mirrored in the individual country fiches.The country fiches follow a uniform structure, however, as it was decided to include all avail-able data and given the wide variety of detailed information provided, some fiches compriseadditional or more elaborate information. Where no information was received or could becollected, tags were omitted from the individual country fiches. 7
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  • 8. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Structure of the reportThe present report contains 34 country fiches in alphabetical order, each one representing asingle country. All country fiches consist of three main sections:• General information: Population, Gross National Income (GNI), ratio security force versus population, ratio police force versus population• Economic aspects: Private security market, private security contracts, private security com- panies, private security guards• Legal aspects: Private security legislation, controls and sanctions, collective labour agree- ments, entrance requirements and restrictions, specific requirements, powers and compe- tences, weapons, K9 (dogs), horses, training and related provisionsThe country fiches are followed by a statistical overview reflecting which questions within theFacts & Figures 2011 questionnaire were not or less frequently answered and which were morefrequently answered. The statistical overview provides information as to why this is the case.The conclusions section provides a consolidated overview of the facts and figures available forthe 34 targeted countries.The last part of the report, the EU legislative mapping, reflects the level of strictness of nation-al-level private security legislations across Europe and provides an analysis of the responsesto the questions within the legal aspects section of the Facts & Figures 2011 questionnaire.For further information regarding the present report, please do not hesitate to contact theCoESS General Secretariat:Confederation of European Security Services (CoESS)Jan Bogemansstraat 249 Rue Jan BogemansB-1780 WemmelBelgiumT +32 2 462 07 73F +32 2 460 14 31E-mail: apeg-bvbo@i-b-s.beWeb: www.coess.eu 9
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  • 10. Private Security Services in EuropeFACTS & FIGURES 2011 CoESS Facts & Figures 2011AUSTRIA • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not provided for in the legislation governing the private secu- rity industryGeneral information –– Other activities performed by private security companies: Cash-In-Transit (CIT), private investigation services, air-Population: 8,374,872 port security, private fire brigadeGross National Income (GNI): € 274.3 billion –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesRatio security force/population: 1/523 (only carrying out private security activities): 95%Ratio police force/population: 1/380 –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 5%Economic aspects Private security guardsPrivate security market • Licensing for private security guards is not required by law• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • Total number of private security guards (2010): 9,000- € 350 million 10,000• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- yearly turnover) ons (2010): 600 –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 22.46% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 11% industry –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 7% –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 4% -- A maximum of 13 hours per day –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 12% -- A maximum of 60 hours per week –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 3% -- Overtime: 40 hours depending on the task, region and –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 3% field of activity• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- -- Weekend and nights: No difference between this and curity companies (market concentration): 45% regular salary• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security -- Stand-by: This type of flexibility does not exist industry segment • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking ter): € 281 million into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– Airport security: € 35 million other allowances) –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 30 million –– Gross: € 1,600 per month –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 4 million –– Net2: € 1,540 per month• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- vate security industry: 35-40 tions: 270-300 • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industryPrivate security companies –– Men: 80% –– Women: 20%• Licensing for private security companies is required by law • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private• Total number of private security companies (2010): ± 200 security industry –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: ± 100 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. 11
  • 11. –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: Collective labour agreements Regulated by paragraph 1 of the Federal Administrative Law, Article 7 (Abs 1 B-VG Art 7) • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree-• Annual staff turnover rate3 in the private security industry: 80% ments in place for the private security industry Entrance requirements and restrictionsLegal aspects • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the privatePrivate security legislation security industry –– Entrance requirements only exist at the level of the indi-• The private security industry is not regulated by sector- vidual guard. There is a special approval procedure for specific legislation, but by general commercial law staff without tertiary education. Criminal records check –– General commercial law regulating the private security and reliability/conduct check are required for all staff. industry: ‘Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act’ Proficiency in the national language and minimum train- (Gewerbeordnung § 129), enacted in 1994 ing are also needed. –– Online information can be found here: http://www.ris. • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=Bundesnormen –– On the background of owners of private security compa- &Gesetzesnummer=10007517 nies: No specific restrictions –– The law regulating the private security industry does not –– On the background of private security personnel: Criminal allow armed private security services unless a special li- records check, reliability/conduct check, proficiency in na- cence has been granted tional language and minimum training• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to amending legislation regulating the private security enter the private security profession industry: Trade and commerce authority (Gewerbebe- • Managers: 18 hörde) • Operational staff: 18• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically covered by the legislation regulating the private security Specific requirements industry –– Airport security • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel: Permission of the Ministry ofControls and sanctions Economics is needed. Uniforms must not bear any resem- blance with the uniforms worn by the police, military or• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- fire brigade. spections for the private security industry: Trade and com- • There are no specific requirements related to the identifi- merce authority (Gewerbebehörde) cation card (ID card) of private security personnel• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the below sanctions for the private security industry Powers and competences –– Administrative sanctions: Trade and commerce authority (Gewerbebehörde) • Private security guards have the following powers and –– Penal sanctions: Trade and commerce authority (Gewer- competences: ‘Jedermannsrecht’ or the right to stop a bebehörde) person, the right to self-defense, the right to provide assis-• One of the possible sanctions can result in the with- tance and help in need; all these rights apply to any citizen drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard in such circumstances licence • Guards are allowed to perform a search and seizure –– Search and seizure is allowed in the following circum- stances: Rights connected with the so-called ‘Hausrecht’,3 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a which means that during the course of an event a search set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 12
  • 12. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 and seizure can be carried out, but only if the response • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- (search and seizure) is proportionate to the action/danger vate security industry being faced –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– This constitutes a limited right to search and seizure (lim- –– In-house manned security ited to a ‘proportional’ response) –– Critical infrastructure protection • Private security guards are not required to follow special-Weapons ised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesCompany level Horses• A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services • Horses can be used for the provision of private security –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police services authority –– A special licence is not required for private security com- –– The licence is renewable panies using horses for the provision of private security• A special licence is required for private security companies services owning weapons • Private security guards are not required to follow special- –– The licence is renewable ised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able• There are no legal requirements for storing weapons after to use horses for the provision of private security services hours• There is a legal obligation for a private security company Training and related provisions providing armed private security services to keep a de- tailed weapons register • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of basic guard training weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Maximum –– This training programme is mandatory by law of two handguns per person –– Number of training hours: 7.5 –– The training is provided by the Security Academy of thePersonal level Ministry of the Interior and the industry/employers asso- ciation, VSÖ• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- –– The training is financed by the company viding armed private security services –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police nies whose employees are following basic training authority –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private –– The licence is renewable security guards are not issued with a certificate of com-Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- petencetory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) forweapons private security managers, i.e. operational managerial –– This training comprises: Theory, target practice and a psy- staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) chological test • Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised in lineK9 (dogs) with procedures pertaining to individual companies –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security law services • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– A special licence is not required for private security com- private security activities panies using dogs for the provision of private security –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 7.5 hours services –– Beat patrol – duration: 7.5 hours 13
  • 13. –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: 7.5 hours –– In-house manned security – duration: 7.5 hours –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 2 hours –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- ing) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 7.5 hours –– Aviation security – duration: 100 hours –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- menting the police etc.) – duration: 7.5 hours –– Critical infrastructure protection – duration: 7.5 hours –– Fire prevention and protection services – duration: 7.5 hours –– Receptionist/concierge services – duration: 7.5 hours –– These specialised trainings are provided by the Security Training Institute• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- This is required for guards carrying weapons –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal offence, no conviction, good conduct 14
  • 14. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011BELGIUMGeneral information the private market: 10 months –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri-Population: 10,839,905 vate market: 89%Gross National Income (GNI): € 373.29 billion –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forRatio security force/population: 1/703 the private market: 3 yearsRatio police force/population: 1/266 • Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers): 23% • Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for theEconomic aspects public market: 8% • Average duration of short-term commercial contracts forPrivate security market the public market: 10 months • Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pub-• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: lic market: 92% € 640 million • Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for• Market growth of the private security industry (based on the public market: 3 years yearly turnover) –– Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 1.66% sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 3.12% year in the private security industry: 19,900,000 hours, –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 4.75% which represent 11,200 man years1 –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 6.51% –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 6.29% Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 1.18% –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: -3.10% • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Total number of private security companies (2010): 220 curity companies (market concentration): 89.71% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security rying out private security services: 187 industry segment • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- embodied in the legislation governing the private security ter): € 420 million industry –– Airport security: € 62 million –– Percentage of single-service private security companies –– Maritime security: € 11.8 million (only carrying out private security activities): 100% –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 110 million –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 22 million (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Other segments: € 11.2 million security activities): 0%• Number of armoured cars (2010) in use in the private secu- rity industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations: 412 Private security guardsPrivate security contracts • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law • Total number of private security guards (2010): 15,411• Number of commercial contracts for the private market (private customers): 77% 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the vate market: 11% number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 15
  • 15. –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 15,411 vate security industry: 35 –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- private security activities (2010): 15,261 rity industry –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Men: 85.2% ons (2010): 150 –– Women: 14.8% –– The licence fee is financed by the company in nearly all • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private cases security industry –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: EU ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 86% and national legislation• Maximum number of working hours in the private security • Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 21.3% industry –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or –– According to the collective labour agreement other considerations -- A maximum of 12 hours per day -- A maximum of 48 hours per week -- Overtime: 65 hours per quarter Legal aspects -- Weekend and nights: As on regular days -- Stand-by: Not regulated at sectoral level at present; Private security legislation specific systems in place at company level in certain companies • The private security industry is regulated by law –– According to national legislation –– Law regulating the private security industry: ‘Wet op de -- A maximum of 9 hours per day (exceptions up to 12 Private en Bijzondere Veiligheid’ (Law on Private and Spe- hours are allowed) cial Security), enacted in 1990 -- A maximum of 56 hours per week –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since can be -- Overtime: 65 hours per quarter found on the Vigilis website (www.vigilis.be) -- Weekend and nights: In principle, this is not allowed –– Online information can be found here: www.vigilis.be unless otherwise regulated in sector legislation or collec- (available in French and Dutch) tive agreement. The maximum uninterrupted work pe- –– The law regulating the private security industry allows riod must not exceed 6 consecutive days. The minimum armed private security services, namely for Cash-In- rest period after a period of 6 working days or after 60 Transit (CIT) operations and if requested by the client due hours is 48 hours. to the specific nature of the assignment (NATO, military -- Stand-by: Not regulated bases, embassies etc.). In these cases, a special licence is• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed needed, issued by the Ministry of the Interior (both for the private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking company and for the guard). In addition, specific training into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or and legislation – general national legislation – apply. other allowances) • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and –– Gross: € 2,064 amending legislation regulating the private security indus- –– Net3: € 1,541 try: The Ministry of the Interior proposes legislation. The• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- Parliament formally introduces and votes legislation. Legis- es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- lation is executed (executive acts and regulations) by Royal cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other Decree (the King, de facto the Ministry of the Interior), by allowances) special Royal Decree (the King, de facto the Council of Minis- –– Gross: € 2,207 ters) or by Ministerial Decree (Minister of the Interior). –– Net4: € 1,632 • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- covered by the legislation regulating the private security industry3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after 5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a taxes and other (legal) deductions. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 16
  • 16. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– At company level –– Airport security -- Licence to be obtained from the Ministry of the Interior –– Maritime security -- Positive advice from the Minister of Justice (information –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) collected by State Security and judicial authorities) –– Monitoring and remote surveillance -- Insurance requirements –– Other segments -- At least one manager must have followed compulsory -- Bodyguarding training for managers and at least one person must -- Mobile guarding have followed compulsory training for the activity for -- Control of persons which the licence is requested -- Accompanying of secured special transports -- Necessary infrastructure and material required for the activity for which the licence is requestedControls and sanctions –– At personal level -- Licence to be obtained from the Ministry of the Interior• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- -- No criminal background spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the -- Positive medical examination Interior in cooperation with the police -- Positive psychotechnical examination• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the -- Successfully completed compulsory training below sanctions for the private security industry -- Agreement with the conduction of a security check –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior (background screening) –– Penal sanctions: Penal tribunals • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– On the background of owners of private security compa- sentence that can be imposed: € 25,000 nies: Please refer to the section ‘Entrance requirements’.• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal Additional information can be found on the Vigilis web- of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence site (www.vigilis.be). –– On the background of private security personnel: PleaseCollective labour agreements refer to the section ‘Entrance requirements’. Additional information can be found on the Vigilis website (www.• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agreements vigilis.be). in place for the private security industry. Sectoral collective -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to agreements are concluded and applied at company level. The enter the private security profession agreements are very wide-ranging covering job classification, • Managers: 21 minimum wages, premiums, working hours (weekly, over- • Operational staff: 18 time and holidays), flexitime, special schedules (nights, teams, weekends), workload restrictions, job security, contracts, period Specific requirements of notice in case of dismissal, staff takeover scheme when a contractor changes at a site, end-of-career management, vo- • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of cational training, health and safety at work, social fund, trade private security personnel union rights and worker representation. Upon signature by the –– Over 90% of private security activities are carried out by recognised representative social partners, the sectoral collec- uniformed private security guards tive agreement binds the signatory parties. Nearly all sectoral –– Uniforms are not compulsory, but if they are being collective agreements become generally binding afterwards – used, they must be clearly distinguishable from those by Royal Decree – and are thus applicable to the whole sector. worn by the police, military and other public security officersEntrance requirements and restrictions –– Moreover, every visible piece of the upper-body part of the uniform must have the emblem ‘Vigilis’ stitched onto it• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- security industry tion card (ID card) of private security personnel 17
  • 17. –– To obtain an ID card (proof of the granted individual • A special licence is required for private security companies licence), the private security guard must owning weapons -- Pass the medical examinations and the psychotechni- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry cal tests of the Interior -- Pass the training and related examinations –– Duration of the licence: 5 years -- Meet the security requirements (security investigation by –– The licence is renewable the Ministry of the Interior) • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after -- Have the nationality of one of the EU Member States hours: Weapons are to be stored in a safe room in the pri- -- Have attained the age of 21 vate security company or the in-house guarding department –– To obtain an ID card (proof of the granted individual li- • There is a legal obligation for a private security company cence), the private security manager must providing armed private security services to keep a de- -- Have not been sentenced for any crime or misdemeanour tailed weapons register involving a fine, community service or imprisonment • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of weap- -- Meet the training requirements ons used and/or to the ammunition used: Only a revolver or -- Have the nationality of one of the EU Member States pistol are allowed with a calibre lower than 10 mm. Weap- -- Refrain from certain incompatible activities ons used are never the personal property of the private se- -- Satisfy the condition regarding prohibition of passage curity guard, but remain the property of the private security -- Comply with security conditions and have committed company or the in-house guarding department. no act that was contrary to professional ethics -- Have attained the age of 21 Personal levelPowers and competences • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- viding armed private security services• Private security guards have the following powers and –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: The Pro- competences: In general, private security guards have no vincial Governor or the Minister of Justice if the private police powers. They have the same rights as any other citi- security guard does not reside in Belgium. It concerns a zen. Exceptions relate to stopping an individual who is car- personal licence to carry a weapon. rying out a crime and controlling transport tickets. The use –– Duration of the licence: 5 years of force, however, is not allowed. In some cases, weapons –– The licence is renewable can be used, but only for self-defense purposes. • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga-• They are allowed to perform a search and seizure tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Pri- weapons vate security guards are only allowed to carry out a very –– This training comprises superficial body search. A full body search can only be car- -- 12 hours of theory (concerning legislation about the use ried out by the police. of weapons, legal self-defense, private security legisla- –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure tion regarding armed activities) -- 6 hours of specific knowledge about weaponsWeapons -- 12 hours of practical exercises (loading, unloading, simple dismantling of a weapon, carrying and use of aCompany level weapon on a shooting range, commanding the pin and target direction)• A special licence is required for private security companies -- 12 hours of actual shooting exercises plus shooting ex- providing armed private security services ercises every 6 months (50 bullets to be shot, 80% of –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry target accuracy to be obtained) of the Interior –– Number of training hours: 42 –– Duration of the licence: 5 years –– The training is provided by certified training institutes, –– The licence is renewable which are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior 18
  • 18. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011K9 (dogs) –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies whose employees are following basic training: In the major-• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services ity of cases, the private security guard in question is already –– A special licence is required for private security companies employed by the company and thus receives a salary using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Min- security guards are issued with a certificate of basic com- istry of the Interior petence -- Duration of the licence: 5 years • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private -- The licence is renewable security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ-• The use of dogs is strictly regulated by law (only certain dog encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) races can be used, only in certain places etc.) –– Number of training hours: For lower level management,• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- the same training applies as for guard supervisors. For vate security industry middle management, the training comprises 52 hours. For –– Beat patrol higher supervisors, the training comprises 100 hours. –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services • Follow-up or refresher training exists –– In-house manned security –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by –– Aviation security law and organised every 5 years; however, the train- –– Maritime security ing only covers legal matters. This training comprises –– Critical infrastructure protection 8 hours. A refresher training composed of non-legal• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- modules is mandatory by sectoral collective agreement ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for and organised every 5 years. First aid training and a the provision of private security services refresher course are mandatory by labour law and or- ganised each year.Horses • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities• Horses can be used for the provision of private security –– Beat patrol – duration: 40 hours services –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: –– A special licence is required for private security companies 40 hours using horses for the provision of private security services –– In-house manned security – duration: 132 hours -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Min- –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 32 hours istry of the Interior –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 51 hours -- Duration of the licence: 5 years –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- -- The licence is renewable ing) – duration: 68 hours• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 70 hours ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses –– Aviation security – duration: 80 hours for the provision of private security services –– Maritime security – duration: 16 hours –– Private investigation – duration: 250 hoursTraining and related provisions –– Private security training – duration: Depends on the pri- vate security guard’s existing qualifications, seniority and• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow experience and the post he/she is recruited for basic guard training –– Other area/segment, namely: –– This training programme is mandatory by law -- Store detective (retail) – duration: 20 hours –– Number of training hours: 127 -- Ascertain material facts – duration: 24 hours –– The training is provided by certified training institutes, -- Traffic guard with security objective – duration: 20 hours which are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior -- Accompanying of secured special transports – duration: –– In 99% of cases, the training is financed by the private 72 hours security company -- Museum guard – duration: 72 hours 19
  • 19. –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified train- ing institutes, which are licensed by the Ministry of the Interior• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the Ministry of Justice, the judicial authorities and the Ministry of the Interior -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Background and criminal records check 20
  • 20. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: 57% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forGeneral information the private market: 3 years • Number of commercial contracts for the public marketPopulation: 3,844,046 (public customers): 10%Gross National Income (GNI): € 13.53 billion –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for theRatio security force/population: 1/2,295 public market: 20%Ratio police force/population: 1/217 –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: 3 days –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for theEconomic aspects public market: 80% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forPrivate security market the public market: 1 year • Number of in-house contracts: 15%• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: –– Percentage of short-term in-house contracts: 20% € 28.8 million –– Average duration of short-term in-house contracts: 1 month• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Percentage of long-term in-house contracts: 80% yearly turnover) –– Average duration of in-house contracts: 1 year –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 170% • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 176% sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 186% year in the private security industry: 600,000 hours, which –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 135% represent 3,300 man years1 –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 118% –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 109% Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 98%• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law curity companies (market concentration): 67% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 94• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not industry segment embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- industry ter): € 14.3 million –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 4 million Private security guards –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 3.5 million –– Other segments: € 7 million • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the • Total number of private security guards (2010): 4,207 private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 4,207 tions: ± 120 –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out private security activities (2010): 3,576Private security contracts –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- ons (2010): 1,075• Number of commercial contracts for the private market –– The licence fee is financed by the company (private customers): 75% –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of vate market: 18% hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially the private market: 6 months recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 21
  • 21. –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- • Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 5% ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 95% –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or• Maximum number of working hours in the private security other considerations industry –– According to the collective labour agreement -- A maximum of 12 hours per day Legal aspects -- A maximum of 40 hours per week -- Overtime: 40 hours per month Private security legislation -- Weekend and nights: Only as defined by law -- Stand-by: This form of work does not exist • The private security industry is regulated by law –– According to national legislation –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on Agen- -- A maximum of 12 hours per day cies of Protection of People and Property, Article 4, Official -- A maximum of 40 hours per week Gazette, Year IX, No. 50, October 14, 2002, enacted in 2002 -- Overtime: In case of unforeseeable circumstances (fire, –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Law on earthquake, flood) or sudden increase in the volume of Agencies and Interior Services for Security of People and work, as well as in other similar cases, an employee, at Property, Official Gazette, No. 78/08, December 10, 2008, the request of the employer, is obliged to work longer enacted in 2008 hours than his/her contracted hours (overtime work), up –– Online information can be found here: to a maximum of 10 hours weekly. In case there is a -- http://www.privatesecurityregulation.net/files/Federa- need for longer overtime working hours, the employee tionPrivateSecurityCompaniesLaw.pdf may give his/her consent for another 10 hours per week. -- http://www.fmup.gov.ba/bs/text.php?id=80• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed -- http://www.mup.vladars.net/zakoni/rs_lat/ZAKON%20 private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking O%20AGENCIJAMA%20ZA%20OBEZBJEDjENJE%20 into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or LICA%20I%20IMOVINE%20I%20PRIVATNOJ%20DETEK- other allowances) TIVSKOJ%20DJELATNOSTI%20(Sluzbeni%20glasnik%20 –– Gross: € 480 RS,%20broj:%2050.02).pdf –– Net3: € 280 –– The law regulating the private security industry allows• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- armed private security services es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other amending legislation regulating the private security indus- allowances) try: Ministry of the Interior –– Gross: € 500 • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– Net4: € 350 covered by the legislation regulating the private security• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- industry vate security industry: 25 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter)• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) rity industry –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– Men: 98% –– Other segments, i.e. sport events –– Women: 2%• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private Controls and sanctions security industry in line with general equality legislation –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- Law on Gender Equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina spections for the private security industry: Regional police authorities • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives 5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a after taxes and other (legal) deductions. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 22
  • 22. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 below sanctions for the private security industry • Are under criminal investigation –– Administrative sanctions: Regional police authorities • Are convicted criminals –– Penal sanctions: Regional police authorities • Are medically unfit• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum • Have been prevented from joining the police force sentence that can be imposed: € 2,556-25,500 by the IPTF Commissioner• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal • Have been discharged from military service of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security professionCollective labour agreements • Managers: 22 • Operational staff: 18• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industry Specific requirementsEntrance requirements and restrictions • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- security industry tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– At company level -- Be a legal domestic company or a Bosnian national Powers and competences -- Those applying to establish a private security company must meet several requirements, such as • Private security guards have the following powers and • Employment of a minimum of five guards possess- competences ing valid licences to perform security services –– The use of lethal force or firearms is permitted only under • Possess suitable technical knowledge and equipment the following circumstances • Possess a business premises suitable for security work -- To protect life –– At personal level -- For reasons of self-defense -- Be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina -- To protect the person or property, which the guard is -- Have a licence to perform security services protecting from attack -- Be physically and mentally fit to carry out security duties -- To prevent the escape of a person performing a criminal -- Have attained at least secondary education (persons act against a property, which the guard is protecting working on technical protection must have an appro- -- In case the guard is put in a critical life-threatening priate technical education) situation -- Have no criminal record or proceedings in progress -- The guard must warn before using (deadly) force -- Have never been disqualified by the International Po- • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure lice Task Force (IPTF) Commissioner -- Have been discharged from military service Weapons• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies Company level -- Owners and managers are barred from the sector if they • Are under criminal investigation • A special licence is required for private security companies • Are convicted criminals providing armed private security services: A private securi- • Are medically unfit ty company that provides physical protection may possess • Have been prevented from joining the police force for this purpose short-barrel firearms for not more than by the IPTF Commissioner one fifth of its employees • Have been discharged from military service –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– On the background of private security personnel of the Interior -- Employees are barred from the sector if they –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended 23
  • 23. • A special licence is required for private security companies Horses owning weapons –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security of the Interior services –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended• There are legal requirements for storing weapons af- Training and related provisions ter hours: When not in use, firearms should be stored securely in fireproof safes on the company’s premises. • There is an obligation for private security guards to fol- Prior to each withdrawal or return of a weapon, the low basic guard training. Mandatory training for person- employee is required to sign it in or out of a company nel includes: Training in the application of ‘minimal use register. of force’ as regulated by the Training Programme for Ac-• There is a legal obligation for a private security company quiring a Certificate for Physical or Technical Protection of providing armed private security services to keep a de- People or Property tailed weapons register –– This training programme is mandatory by law• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of –– Number of training hours: 50 (40 hours of theory and 10 weapons used and/or to the ammunition used hours of practice) –– Shotgun (one per Cash-In-Transit vehicle) –– The training is provided by the Federal and Regional Min- –– The number of weapons used must be half of the number istries of the Interior of guards deployed (e.g. two guards deployed means one –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- weapon in use) nies whose employees are following basic training – – 9 mm weapons (use of an automatic weapon is pro- –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private hibited) security guards are issued with a certificate of competence –– Firearms must have a barrel no longer than 20 cm • Mandatory specialised training exists for private security –– Non-lethal weapons such as batons, shock guns and gas managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing sprays are not permitted operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– To carry a concealed firearm is prohibited –– Number of training hours: 50 • Follow-up or refresher training existsPersonal level –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of viding armed private security services, i.e. a certificate for private security activities performing security (protection) operations –– Beat patrol – duration: 10 hours –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 10 hours of the Interior –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- –– Duration of the licence: Same duration as the guarding licence ing) – duration: 10 hours –– The licence is renewable –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 10 hours• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Private security training – duration: 10 hours tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– These specialised trainings are provided by the company weapons • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– This training comprehends: Theory and target practice cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- –– Number of training hours: 50 tion to undergo –– The training is provided by the police academy –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out byK9 (dogs) the Ministry of the Interior -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass• Dogs cannot be used for the provision of private security this check are: No past criminal offence, no ongoing services criminal investigation 24
  • 24. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011BULGARIA public market: ± 90% –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: 12 monthsGeneral information –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: ± 10%Population: 7,563,710 –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forGross National Income (GNI): € 35.12 billion the public market: 2 yearsRatio security force/population: 1/132 • Number of operational guarding hours (commercialRatio police force/population: 1/155 hours sold and thus paid for by the customer) per- formed each year in the private security industry: A maximum of 2,230 hours (per guard). Given the totalEconomic aspects number of 57,146 guards, the total maximum number of operational guarding hours amounts to 127,435,580Private security market hours.• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: € Private security companies 311.22 million• Market growth of the private security industry (based on • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by yearly turnover) law –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 16.2% –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 29.9% and the Ministry of the Interior –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 11.9% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,200 –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 42.2% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 19.1% rying out private security services: ± 800 –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: - 13.8% • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 15.6% embodied in the legislation governing the private security• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- industry curity companies (market concentration): ± 11% –– Other activities performed by private security companies• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the next to private security activities: All activities are allowed private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- by law, with the exception of financial and insurance ser- tions: ± 700 vices –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesPrivate security contracts (only carrying out private security activities): ± 90% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies• Number of commercial contracts for the private market (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private (private customers) security activities): ± 10% –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: ± 40% Private security guards –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the private market: 12 months • Licensing for private security guards is not mandatory by –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- law vate market: ± 60% • Total number of private security guards (2010): 57,146 –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- the private market: 3 years ons (2010): 37%• Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers) 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 25
  • 25. –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi- –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on pri- vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: vate guarding activities, enacted in 2004 ± 80% –– Online information can be found here: http://naftso.org/• Maximum number of working hours in the private security language/en/uploads/files/documents__0/document__73 industry 92fcf695b3f65ed88b258ea6a92f12.pdf –– According to national legislation –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- A maximum of 12 hours per day armed private security services -- A maximum of 40 hours per week • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- Overtime: A maximum of 150 hours per year amending legislation regulating the private security indus-• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed try: Ministry of the Interior private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or covered by the legislation regulating the private security other allowances) industry –– Gross: € 178.95 –– General guarding (excluding the segment listed hereafter) –– Net2: € 140.10 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT)• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- –– Legislation allows armed private security services without es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- any restrictions cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) Controls and sanctions –– Gross: € 255.63 –– Net3: € 200.92 • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in-• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the vate security industry: 45 Interior• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the rity industry below sanctions for the private security industry –– Men: 87.7% –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior, Nation- –– Women: 12.3% al Revenue Agency and Labour Inspections• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private –– Penal sanctions: Competent courts security industry • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: sentence that can be imposed: € 51,152 Constitution, Labour Code, Law on the Prevention of Dis- • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal crimination of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence• Annual staff turnover rate4 in the private security industry: ± 75% Collective labour agreements –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or other considerations • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industryLegal aspects Entrance requirements and restrictionsPrivate security legislation • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law –– At company level: Registration in the commercial register, absence of liabilities to the state, absence of liabilities to2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. social and health insurance funds3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives –– At personal level: No criminal record or penal and pre- after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a trial proceedings, mental fitness set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 26
  • 26. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry hours: Law on the control of firearms –– On the background of owners of private security compa- • There is a legal obligation for a private security company nies: No criminal record or penal and pre-trial proceed- providing armed private security services to keep a de- ings, mental fitness tailed weapons register –– On the background of private security personnel: No • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of criminal record or penal and pre-trial proceedings, men- weapons used and/or to the ammunition used tal fitness -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to Personal level enter the private security profession • Managers: 18 • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Operational staff: 18 viding armed private security services –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: MinistrySpecific requirements of the Interior –– Duration of the licence: 5 years• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– The licence is renewable private security personnel • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga-• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use tion card (ID card) of private security personnel weapons –– This training comprises: Theory and practicePowers and competences –– Number of training hours: Minimum of 36 hours –– The training is provided by certified companies and train-• Private security guards have the following powers and ing centres competences: The right to use physical force and auxiliary devices (handcuffs, rubber and plastic truncheons) in cases K9 (dogs) where it is impossible to fulfil their official duties in any other way, taking into account the concrete situation, the • Dogs cannot be used for the provision of private security nature of the breach of peace and the nature of the of- services fender• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure HorsesWeapons • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security servicesCompany level Training and related provisions• A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry basic guard training of the Interior –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Duration of the licence: 5 years –– Number of training hours: 40 –– The licence is renewable –– The training is provided by the company, training schools• A special licence is required for private security companies and certified training centres owning weapons –– The training is financed by the company –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- of the Interior nies whose employees are following basic training –– Duration of the licence: 5 years –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private –– The licence is renewable security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after • Mandatory specialised training exists for private security 27
  • 27. managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– Number of training hours: 960• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– Follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law, but in practice refresher training is provided every year• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Commercial manned guarding –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– Event security (crowd control) –– Bodyguarding (close protection) –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/processing) –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring –– Critical infrastructure protection –– Fire prevention and protection services –– These specialised trainings are provided by the company, training schools, universities and professional education centres• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police authorities -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal record, no penal and pre- trial proceedings pending 28
  • 28. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011CROATIA –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 40 hours per week -- Overtime: Within a 40-hour working week, 8 hours ofGeneral information overtime are allowed. It is possible to extend this over- time period for a short time (e.g. tourist season) throughPopulation: 4,425,747 an agreement with the employee.Gross National Income (GNI): € 46.46 billion • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armedRatio security force/population: 1/276 private security guard performing basic tasks (not takingRatio police force/population: 1/216 into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) –– Gross: ± € 505Economic aspects –– Net1: ± € 420 • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri-Private security market vate security industry: 35 (male) and 40 (female) • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu-• Yearly turnover (2007) of the private security industry: rity industry € 160 million –– Men: 88%• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Women: 12% yearly turnover) in recent years: 16% • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private security industryPrivate security companies –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: General labour legislation• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law • Annual staff turnover rate2 in the private security industry:• Total number of private security companies (2010): ± 246 ± 15-20%Private security guards Legal aspectsLicensing for private security guards is mandatory by law.A professional Security Agent Identity Card is delivered. Private security legislation• The requirements for obtaining the licence are as follows • The private security industry is regulated by law –– Criminal records check –– Laws regulating the private security industry –– Mental and physical fitness -- Private Protection Act of April 22, 2003 replacing the Pro- –– Training (100 hours) tection of Persons and Property Act of October 8, 1996 –– The Ministry of the Interior holds examinations and issues -- Minimal protection measures in operations involving certificates. The licence is issued when the guard starts em- cash and valuables (Cash and Valuables Act of October ployment/working. 31, 2003, revised in 2005)• Total number of private security guards (2010): ± 16,000 -- Firearms Act, revised on June 6, 2007• Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Online information can be found here: http://www.hcz. industry hr/default.aspx?catId=38 –– According to the collective labour agreement –– The law regulating the private security industry allows armed -- A maximum of 12 hours per day private security services (Firearms Act of June 6, 2007) -- A maximum of 50 hours per week • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- Overtime: 10 hours per week amending legislation regulating the private security industry: -- Weekend and nights: Yes, possible (night and shift work premiums apply) 1 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. -- Stand-by: Depends on company policy 2 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 29
  • 29. Ministry of the Interior, Private Protective Sector Inspectorate -- No criminal record• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically cov- -- No offence in the last three years before employment ered by the legislation regulating the private security industry -- Equivalent work experience in the country of origin or –– General guarding (excluding the segment listed hereafter) residence –– Monitoring and remote surveillance • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security compa-Controls and sanctions nies: No criminal record, not under criminal investigation, not having been sentenced for petty offences in the last• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- three years spections for the private security industry: Police authority –– On the background of private security personnel: No crim-• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the inal record, not under criminal investigation, not having below sanctions for the private security industry been sentenced for petty offences in the last three years –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior or com- -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to petent police authority enter the private security profession –– Penal sanctions: Ministry of the Interior or competent po- • Managers: 18 lice authority • Operational staff: 18• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum sentence that can be imposed: € 13,331 Specific requirements• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel: Uniforms are mandatoryCollective labour agreements • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel• There is a sector-specific binding collective labour agree- –– Criminal records check ment in place for the private security industry: A branch –– Physical fitness collective agreement was signed by the employers associa- –– Training (100 hours) tion, CSA, and four unions (September 30, 2008) Powers and competencesEntrance requirements and restrictions • Private security guards have the following powers and• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private competences: Powers of temporary arrest resulting from security industry protection duties. Arrests must be reported to the police –– At company level immediately and must be carried out according to police -- Criminal records check procedures. -- Minimum age of 18 • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure -- Physical fitness –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Search -- Proficiency in Croatian and Latin script of persons, vehicles and objects entering the premises -- Minimum educational standard –– This search and seizure is limited to clothing and footwear -- Between 40-100 hours of industry training (depending on the nature of the task(s) and previous experience and Weapons education) –– At personal level Company level -- Permanent address or residence permit in the Republic of Croatia • A special licence is required for private security companies -- Minimum age of 18 providing armed private security services -- Physical fitness –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry -- Proficiency in Croatian and Latin script of the Interior 30
  • 30. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Duration of the licence: 2 years –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– The licence is renewable –– Number of training hours: 40• A special licence is required for private security companies –– The training is provided solely by accredited training in- owning weapons stitutes, regulated by the Education, Training and Profes- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry sional Examination of Private Security Agents and Guards of the Interior Regulation (July 26, 2004)• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after –– The training is financed by the training institute hours: Arms Law (III, Manner of Handling Arms and Am- –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private munition) security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• There is a legal obligation for a private security company • Mandatory specialised training exists for private security providing armed private security services to keep a de- managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing tailed weapons register operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of • Follow-up or refresher training exists at company level weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Only side • When applying for an individual private security guard li- arms (semi-automatic) can be used cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergoPersonal level –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination• A special licence is required for private security guards –– A background check/security check providing armed private security services; this concerns a -- This background check/security check is carried out by personal firearms permit the local police –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass of the Interior this check are: No criminal record or current proceedings• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use weaponsK9 (dogs)• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security ser- vices. They are viewed as a weapon. The use of dogs is regulated by law. –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- nies using dogs for the provision of private security services• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training 31
  • 31. CYPRUS –– Net1: Depends on level, salary and other commitments • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industryGeneral information –– Men: ± 75% –– Women: ± 25%Population: 803,147 • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the privateGross National Income (GNI): € 22.56 billion security industry in line with EU and national equal op-Ratio security force/population: 1/472 portunities legislationRatio police force/population: 1/156 Legal aspectsEconomic aspects Private security legislationPrivate security market • The private security industry is regulated by law• Yearly turnover (2007) of the private security industry: –– Law regulating the private security industry: Private Of- ± € 25 million fices Security Law, enacted in 2003 –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Law No.Private security companies 125 (I) of 2007 and Law 101 (I) of 2011 –– Online information can be found here: http://www.police.• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by gov.cy/police/police.nsf/All/22DA1813AEAFEDE9C22578E law: The company must be licensed by the Chief of Police 00036784F/$file/nomos2011.pdf (Greek only)• Total number of private security companies (2010): > 60 –– The law regulating the private security industry allows armed private security servicesPrivate security guards • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and amending legislation regulating the private security indus-• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law: try: Cyprus House of Representatives A professional licence is required since 2009 for all guards, • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically Cash-In-Transit personnel and technicians according to covered by the legislation regulating the private security Legislation No. 125 (I) of 2007 – amended industry• Total number of private security guards (2010): ± 1,700 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): ± 1,700 –– Airport security –– The licence fee is financed by the individual or the company –– Maritime security• Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Monitoring and remote surveillance industry –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Other segments, i.e. any other service that the Minister -- A maximum of 60 hours per week may determine by Decree published in the Official Gazette –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 12 hours per day Controls and sanctions -- A maximum of 48 hours per week• Starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into ac- spections for the private security industry: Office for Han- count overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other al- dling Matters related to the Private Security Industry of the lowances) Police Headquarters –– Gross: € 4.08 per hour • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the 1 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. 32
  • 32. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 below sanctions for the private security industry –– Application submitted with all supporting documentation –– Administrative sanctions: Chief of Police (identity card, passport, army certificate, alien registra- –– Penal sanctions: Courts of Justice tion certificate for non-Cypriots, 3 photos)• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Application fee (€ 50) sentence that can be imposed: The maximum sentence –– Clear Criminal Record Certificate from Cyprus. If not Cyp- that can be imposed is 5 years while the maximum amount riot then the applicant must provide a translated police of a financial sanction is € 50,0002 clearance certificate from his/her country of origin.• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal –– Medical certificates from a public hospital (both physical of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence and mental health) –– Issue fee for a 5-year licence (€ 350)Collective labour agreements –– Issue fee for a professional guard identity card (€ 20) –– Renewal fees (€ 200)• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- ments in place for the private security industry Powers and competencesEntrance requirements and restrictions • Private security guards have the following powers and competences: Same powers as any citizen• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure security industry –– At company level: Every person who wishes to operate a Weapons security company must submit an application to obtain a licence to the Chief of Police Company level –– At personal level: Every person who wishes to perform guarding activities must submit an application to obtain • A special licence is not required for private security compa- a licence to the Chief of Police nies providing armed private security services -- Clean criminal record • A special licence is not required for private security compa- -- For non-Cypriots, a period of six months’ residence in nies owning weapons Cyprus is a prerequisite • There are no legal requirements for storing weapons after -- Proficiency in the national language is required hours• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of –– On the background of owners of private security compa- weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Only cat- nies: Clean criminal record egory D weapons –– On the background of private security personnel: Clean criminal record Personal level -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security profession • It is prohibited for private security guards to hold or carry a • Operational staff: 18 pistol, revolver, explosive substances or ammunition with- out a licence issued under the Firearms ActSpecific requirements • Any training required is not specifically regulated by the reg- ulation pertaining to private security services but by the Law• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of on Obtaining, Owning, Carrying and Importing Shot Guns private security personnel: Uniforms are mandatory• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- K9 (dogs) tion card (ID card) of private security personnel. The re- quirements are the following: • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security ser- vices, provided that they move within an enclosed space that is being guarded and that adequate warning is given2 Law 101 (I) of 2011 33
  • 33. regarding the presence of dogs, through appropriate signs –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- nies using dogs for the provision of private security services• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- vate security industry –– Within guarded buildings or enclosed spaces provided that sufficient notice has been given by placing a prominent warning sign• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is no obligation for private security guards to fol- low basic guard training, but the Chief of Police may ask candidates for a licence to undergo specialised training, in order to be able to obtain a licence (depending on their previous experience) –– This training programme is not mandatory by law –– The training is provided by any training institute which has had the content of the training course agreed upon in advance with the Chief of Police• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Clean criminal record 34
  • 34. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011CZECH REPUBLIC Legal aspects Private security legislationGeneral information • The private security industry falls under the scope of gen-Population: 10,506,813 eral commercial law, there is no specific legislation for theGross National Income (GNI): € 135.13 billion industryRatio security force/population: 1/203Ratio police force/population: 1/238 Controls and sanctions • Competent national authority in charge of controls andEconomic aspects inspections for the private security industry: Ministry of Finance/CommercePrivate security market • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the below sanctions for the private security industry• Yearly turnover (2008) of the private security industry: –– Administrative sanctions: Commercial Courts € 692.31 million Collective labour agreementsPrivate security companies • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law agreements in place for the private security industry• Total number of private security companies (2010): 5,629 –– Private security companies can conclude agreements on• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not em- an individual and independent basis bodied in the legislation governing the private security industry Entrance requirements and restrictionsPrivate security guards • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private• A professional licence is not required for guards, however, security industry state security screening can be required in some cases –– At company level• Total number of private security guards (2010): 51,542 -- Compliance with trade regulations (e.g. establishing a –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- business) ons (2010): Carrying of weapons is allowed, but depends -- Owners must be over 18 years of age on the nature of the contract, so the number varies –– At personal level• Maximum number of working hours in the private security -- A criminal records check is required industry -- Individuals must have undergone state security screen- –– According to national legislation ing (the basic requirement of this check is integrity) -- A maximum of 12 hours per day -- Proficiency in the national language is required -- A maximum of 37.5 hours per week -- Awarding authorities: Ministry of Justice and the -- Overtime: 150 hours per year police• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking –– On the background of owners of private security compa- into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or nies: No criminal record other allowances) -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to –– Gross: € 350 enter the private security profession • Managers: 18 • Operational staff: 181 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 35
  • 35. Specific requirements –– This training programme is mandatory by commercial law –– This training is provided and financed by companies• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of • When applying for an individual private security guard li- private security personnel cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques-• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion to undergo tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination (if carrying weapons)Powers and competences –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by• Private security guards have the following powers and the police authorities competences: Same powers as any citizen -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass• They are allowed to perform a search and seizure (limited) this check are: Integrity and clean criminal recordWeaponsThe carrying and use of weapons is regulated by general gunlaw. Guns require a mandatory permit (issued to the individ-ual) and basic theoretical and practical training. Guns mustbe registered and stored at home or on site. Their use is de-termined by the requirements of individual contracts.Company level• A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services• A special licence is required for private security companies owning weapons• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours• There is a legal obligation for a private security company providing armed private security services to keep a de- tailed weapons register• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: HandgunsPersonal level• A personal firearms permit is required for private security guards providing armed private security services• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use weaponsTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to com- plete a required period of training 36
  • 36. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011DENMARK • Total number of private security companies (2010): 470 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: 400General information • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not embodied in the legislation governing the private securityPopulation: 5,534,738 industryGross National Income (GNI): € 245.67 billion –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesRatio security force/population: 1/1,106 (only carrying out private security activities): 50%Ratio police force/population: 1/503 –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 50%Economic aspects Private security guardsPrivate security market • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • Total number of private security guards (2010): 5,000 € 430 million –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 5,000• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out curity companies (market concentration): 80% private security activities (2010): 4,000• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- industry segment ons (2010): None –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter): –– The licence fee is financed by the guard € 134 million –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 26.9 million ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 80% –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 215 million • Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Other segments: € 54.1 million industry• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the pri- –– According to the collective labour agreement vate security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations: 150 -- A maximum of 154 2/3 hours per month -- Weekend and nights: 140 2/3 hours per monthPrivate security contracts –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 35.5 hours per week• Number of commercial contracts for the private market • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed (private customers): 80% private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or vate market: 100% other allowances) –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for –– Gross: € 2,773 the private market: 1 year • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu-• Number of commercial contracts for the public market rity industry (public customers): 20% –– Men: 80% –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the –– Women: 20% public market: 100% • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is not in place in the –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for private security industry beyond the general provisions of the public market: 3 years equal opportunities legislation in DenmarkPrivate security companies 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 37
  • 37. Legal aspects Entrance requirements and restrictionsPrivate security legislation • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law –– At company level –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on pri- -- Fee and authorisation vate security (Lov nr. 266 af 22. maj 1986 om vagtvirk- -- Employer must not have had previous convictions for somhed), enacted in 1986 criminal offences in the past 10 years –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: –– At personal level ‘Lovbekendtgørelse’ nr. 227 af 3. marts 2010, ‘Lovbekend- -- Authorisation tgørelse’ nr. 149 af 16. marts 1999, with amendments in -- Must not have had previous convictions for criminal of- § 21 (Lov nr. 538 af 8. juni 2006) and § 2 (Lov nr. 498 af fences in the past 10 years 12. juni 2009) -- The police authority performs the check –– Online information can be found here: https://www.ret- • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry sinformation.dk –– On the background of owners of private security compa- –– The law regulating the private security industry does not nies: Authorisation allow armed private security services –– On the background of private security personnel: Authori-• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and sation and the required education amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to try: Ministry of Justice enter the private security profession• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically • Managers: 25 covered by the legislation regulating the private security • Operational staff: 18 industry –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) Specific requirements –– Airport security –– Maritime security • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) private security personnel –– Monitoring and remote surveillance • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnelControls and sanctions Powers and competences• Competent national authority in charge of controls and inspections for the private security industry: National • Private security guards have no special powers and competences police • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the below sanctions for the private security industry K9 (dogs) –– Administrative sanctions: National police –– Penal sanctions: National police • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal –– A special licence is required for private security companies of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence using dogs for the provision of private security services -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Na-Collective labour agreements tional Police -- The licence is renewable• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- agreements in place for the private security industry; only vate security industry the maximum work week and minimum wage are set –– Commercial manned guarding down in collective agreements –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services 38
  • 38. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– In-house manned security –– Event security (crowd control) –– Door supervision (bouncing) –– Critical infrastructure protection• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 100 –– The basic training includes training for general guarding and for specialised guarding such as Cash-In-Transit and cash handling –– The training is provided by the technical school –– The training is financed by the applicant guard –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• No specific specialised training is foreseen other than the one included in the basic training• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the national police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal offence• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical/psychological examination 39
  • 39. ESTONIA –– Percentage of single-service private security companies (only carrying out private security activities): 81% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companiesGeneral information (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 19%Population: 1,340,127Gross National Income (GNI): € 13.94 billion Private security guardsRatio security force/population: 1/289Ratio police force/population: 1/412 • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law • Total number of private security guards (2010): 4,627 –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 4,627Economic aspects –– The licence fee is financed by the guard • Maximum number of working hours in the private securityPrivate security market industry –– According to national legislation• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: -- A maximum of 8 hours per day € 128 million -- A maximum of 40 hours per week• Market growth of the private security industry (based on -- Overtime: 5 hours yearly turnover) • Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: - 0.6% es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 16.2% cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 8.8% allowances) –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 27.4% –– Gross: € 473 –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 9.2% –– Net2: € 390 –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: - 17% • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: - 6.3% vate security industry: 40• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- curity companies (market concentration): 65% rity industry• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security –– Men: 80% industry segment –– Women: 20% –– General guarding (excluding the segment listed hereafter): • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private € 57 million security industry –– Other segments: € 71 million • Annual staff turnover rate3 in the private security industry: 35% –– This percentage does not include transfers of contractsPrivate security companies and/or other considerations• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law Legal aspects• Total number of private security companies (2010): 252 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- Private security legislation rying out private security services: 252• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not • The private security industry is regulated by law embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– Law regulating the private security industry: Private secu- industry rity law, enacted on May 1, 2004 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially after taxes and other (legal) deductions. recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 3 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 40
  • 40. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Online information can be found here: https://www.riig- -- Optimal physical and health condition iteataja.ee/akt/106122010010 -- Reputable –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Criminal records check is required armed private security services -- Awarding authority: Police and Border Guard Board• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- If the private security guard performs event security ser- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- vices in public places, bodyguarding services or Cash- try: Ministry of the Interior In-Transit (CIT) services, he/she must pass the security• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically guard training and be 21 years of age or over covered by the legislation regulating the private security • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry industry –– On the background of owners of private security com- –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) panies: Owners must not be involved or convicted of the –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) following: –– Monitoring and remote surveillance -- Preparing or selling explosives, weapons, a significant –– Other segments part of firearm, ammunition or a laser beam -- Manufacturing of gunsControls and sanctions -- Provision of detective services -- Performing functions relating to the defense of the• Competent national authority in charge of controls and country or in the police force, unless authorised by inspections for the private security industry: Police and other laws Border Guard Board –– On the background of private security personnel:• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the -- Must not have been attested of being of limited le- below sanctions for the private security industry gal capacity or serve a sentence for a criminal offence –– Administrative sanctions: Police and Border Guard or a crime which is not yet deleted from the criminal Board register –– Penal sanctions: Police and Border Guard Board -- Private security guarding duty is not compatible with• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum the work of a private detective sentence that can be imposed: € 640 -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to• One of the possible sanctions can result in the with- enter the private security profession drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard • Managers: 21 licence • Operational staff: 19 (or 21 see ‘Entrance require- ments at personal level’)Collective labour agreements Specific requirements• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- ments in place for the private security industry • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel: Uniforms must be easily distin-Entrance requirements and restrictions guishable from those of the police force, fire and rescue service, customs officials or prison guards. Bodyguards are• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private not required to wear a uniform. Any uniform must bear security industry the logo of the respective security company and the words –– At company level: Security service licence ‘security guard’ or ‘rescue worker’ as well as the guard’s –– At personal level first and last name. The design of the uniforms must be -- Estonian citizen or permanent resident reported to the Police and Border Guard Board. -- 19 years of age or over • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- -- Completed basic education tion card (ID card) of private security personnel: The ID -- Qualified security guard card must bear a photo and the employee’s personal secu- -- Proficiency in Estonian rity code and company name 41
  • 41. Powers and competences ing weapons are permitted: flat iron machine gun, rifled gun, pistol, revolver, gas gun and baton• Private security guards have the following powers and competences: A security guard has the right to: Personal level –– Prevent access to the guarded object to any person who tries to enter without authorisation or any other legal • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- grounds viding armed private security services –– Detain a person in the guarded object suspected of an –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police offence and Border Guard Board –– Apprehend the person who enters or has penetrated the –– Duration of the licence: 5 years guarded object without authorisation –– The licence is renewable –– Detained persons should be immediately handed over to • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- the police. A guard has the right to search for and confis- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and cate any hazardous items the intruder may have brought use weapons along, which may endanger the guard or others. Confis- cated items and substances must immediately be handed K9 (dogs) over to the police.• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– A special licence is not required for private security com-Weapons panies or private security guards using dogs for the provi- sion of private security servicesCompany level • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for• A special licence is required for private security companies the provision of private security services providing armed private security services –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police Horses and Border Guard Board –– Duration of the licence: 5 years • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security –– The licence is renewable services• A special licence is required for private security companies owning weapons Training and related provisions –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police and Border Guard Board • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow –– Duration of the licence: 5 years basic guard training –– The licence is renewable –– This training programme is mandatory by law• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after –– Number of training hours: 16 hours of basic training and hours: Weapons and ammunition may be stored in a per- at least 50 hours of initial training son’s home who has a weapons permit or licence. Weapons –– The training is provided by certified security training centres and ammunition must be kept in conditions which ensure –– The training is financed by the guard or the employing their preservation and safety, and prevent unauthorised company access. Firearms may only be discharged under regulated –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- circumstances. nies whose employees are following basic training• There is a legal obligation for a private security company –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private providing armed private security services to keep a de- security guards are issued with a certificate of competence tailed weapons register • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: The follow- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) 42
  • 42. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Number of training hours: 80• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination –– A psychotechnical/psychological examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the private security company -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal offence 43
  • 43. FINLAND –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 12,500 –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out private security activities (2010): 7,000-7,500General information –– The licence fee is financed by the company • Maximum number of working hours in the private securityPopulation: 5,399,090 industryGross National Income (GNI): € 180.3 billion –– According to the collective labour agreement (applicableRatio security force/population: 1/899 to the guarding segment)Ratio police force/population: 1/701 -- A maximum of 16 hours per day -- A maximum of 48 hours per week • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armedEconomic aspects private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/orPrivate security market other allowances) –– Gross: € 1,600• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- € 400 million rity industry• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– Men: 75% curity companies (market concentration): 65% –– Women: 25%• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private industry segment security industry in line with national equal opportunities –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter): legislation € 240 million • Annual staff turnover rate2 in the private security industry: –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 55 million 25-30% –– Other segments: € 105 million –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or other considerations such as seasonal workersPrivate security contracts• Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours Legal aspects sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each year in the private security industry: 10.5 million hours, Private security legislation which represent 6,000 man years1 • The private security industry is regulated by lawPrivate security companies –– Law regulating the private security industry: Private Secu- rity Act, enacted in 2002• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– Public Order Act, enacted in 2003• Total number of private security companies (2010): 250 -- Under the Public Order Act and with the permission –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- of the police, security stewards may also be appointed rying out private security services: 60-100 to assist the police in maintaining order and security at shopping centres, on public transport or in publicPrivate security guards transport facilities. However, such assignments can be performed only by individuals who are employed by• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law guarding services suppliers and have valid certification• Total number of private security guards (2010): 12,500 to act both as a security steward and guard. –– Security Stewards Act, enacted in 19991 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the 2 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a number of weeks worked in a year). set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 44
  • 44. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- The duty of security stewards is to maintain order and Collective labour agreements security and to prevent crime and accidents at the event or site for which they have been appointed as security • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- stewards. Security stewards may be employed, for ex- ments in place for the private security industry (applicable ample, at public meetings or events organised under to the guarding segment) the Assembly Act, at hotels or restaurants under the Act on Accommodation and Food Service Operations, Entrance requirements and restrictions on campsites under the Outdoor Recreation Act and on passenger ships under the Seamen’s Act. • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private –– Online information can be found here security industry -- Guarding services suppliers and guards: http://www. –– At company level poliisi.fi/poliisi/home.nsf/pages/AC62307EFAD84020C2 -- No criminal convictions amongst management staff 256BBA003D4039?opendocument -- Financial viability check -- Security steward certification: http://www.poliisi.fi/ –– At personal level poliisi/home.nsf/pages/2B7D75C14A897094C225734B -- A health check must be passed 002989E1?opendocument -- Basic training (minimum of 40 hours introductory course) –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Criminal records check is required armed private security services in limited circumstances -- The basic requirement is to not have criminal convictions• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- The police undertake the check before issuing the man- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- datory licence try: National Parliament -- Proficiency in the national language is required to work• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically in the sector covered by the legislation regulating the private security • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry industry –– On the background of owners of private security compa- –– General guarding (excluding the segment listed hereafter) nies: No criminal record –– Other segments, i.e. public order and crowd control –– On the background of private security personnel -- No criminal recordControls and sanctions -- Basic training -- Good medical condition• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to spections for the private security industry: Security Sector enter the private security profession Supervision Unit of the National Police Board • Managers: 18 –– The provision of private security services is subject to au- • Operational staff: 18 thorisation. Licences are issued by the Security Sector Su- pervision Unit of the National Police Board, which is also Specific requirements responsible for general supervision and guidance concern- ing guarding services. The Security Sector Supervision Unit • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of and police departments are responsible for supervising the private security personnel operations of private security services, managers, guards –– Uniforms are optional, no prior approval by the authori- and security officers within their area of jurisdiction. ties is needed• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the –– The choice of uniform is made by the manager in function below sanctions for the private security industry of the assignment or contract –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior –– Each uniform must display the name of the company• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a –– Uniforms must be the same on one site company licence and/or an individual guard licence: Withdraw- –– Uniforms need to be clean and presentable al by the local police of a guarding service licence, a manager –– Uniforms need to be kept with care to prevent theft or certification and/or a guard and security officer certification unauthorised use 45
  • 45. –– They must be distinct from the uniforms of public police providing armed private security services to keep a de- or any other public authority tailed weapons register• There are specific requirements related to the identification • There are no limitations as to the type and/or number of card (ID card) of private security personnel: A person certi- weapons used and/or to the ammunition used. The Private fied as a guard, security officer or order supervision officer is Security Services Act does state, however, that “decisions issued with a plastic ID card by the licensing authority concerning the carrying of firearms and gas sprays are made by managers separately for each contract”.Powers and competences Personal level• Private security guards have the following powers and competences • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- –– Private security guards and attendants may operate on viding armed private security services3 private property and on property where special restric- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police tions apply authorities –– Guards have extra powers for the removal of unauthorised –– Duration of the licence: 6 months persons from guarded areas and the right to security check –– The licence is renewable apprehension situations • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– They are allowed to perform a search and seizure tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use• Security stewards have the following powers and competences weapons –– Entry prevention –– This training comprises: Theory, target practice and an an- –– Temporary custody (excluding Public Order Act stewards) nual test of proficiency –– They are allowed to perform a seizure –– The training is provided once a year by the companyWeapons K9 (dogs)Firearms may be carried only for personal guarding assign- • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security servicesments, during security transport and when guarding a person –– A special licence is required for private security companiesor object that is significant in terms of public interest and using dogs for the provision of private security services:the circumstances of the assignment render it necessary to Dog handlers and dogs need to be licensed and have man-carry firearms datory training according to a special decreeCompany level Training and related provisions• A special licence is required for private security companies • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow providing armed private security services basic guard training –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– This training programme is mandatory by law: Law on authorities private security providers –– Duration of the licence: 5 years –– Number of training hours: 100 (excluding special forcible –– The licence is renewable means training)• A special licence is required for private security companies -- Basic training: 40 hours (required for a 4-month tem- owning weapons porary licence) –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police -- For a permanent licence, a further 60 hours of training –– Duration of the licence: 5 years are required –– The licence is renewable –– The training is provided by specialist schools/colleges• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after –– The training is partly financed by the company and partly hours• There is a legal obligation for a private security company 3 Finnish police website: http://www.poliisi.fi/poliisi/home.nsf/pages/3BBB04E1F6672AB8C 2256C450037D7C5?opendocument 46
  • 46. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 by the state through its financial support to schools –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of compe- tence: Certification prior to active employment• There is also an obligation for security stewards to follow basic training –– Number of training hours: 32 or at least four days –– Security steward certification is granted for a maximum of five years by the local police department. To renew their certification, security stewards must complete an 8-hour refresher training meeting the requirements approved by the Ministry of the Interior. –– In addition to basic and refresher training, security stew- ards may be required to undergo further special forcible means training -- General section: Minimum 40 lessons -- Special section relating to firearms, gas sprays and tel- escopic batons: Minimum 80 lessons –– The training is provided by the local police, certain vo- cational training institutes or certified security steward trainers (www.poliisi.fi/tavy) –– Participation in the basic and additional training requires that the person has passed a written test and the neces- sary skills tests to demonstrate professional competence in practice• Specialised training is foreseen for different types of pri- vate security activities –– Guard training is provided by specialist technical schools/ colleges –– Firearms trainers training is provided by police academies• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical/psychological examination –– Such an examination might take place depending on the requirements set forth by customers 47
  • 47. FRANCE Private security companies • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by lawGeneral information • Total number of private security companies (2010): 9,425 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-Population: 64,714,074 rying out private security services: 3,859 companies em-Gross National Income (GNI): € 2,101.96 billion ploying at least one employeeRatio security force/population: 1/437 • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 isRatio police force/population: 1/271 embodied in the legislation governing the private security industry –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesEconomic aspects (only carrying out private security activities): 100% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companiesPrivate security market (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 0%• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: € 5.29 billion Private security guards• Market growth of the private security industry (based on yearly turnover) • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: ± 6% –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Depart- –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: ± 5.5% ment prefecture on behalf of the Ministry of the Interior –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: ± 4% • Total number of private security guards (2010): 147,800 –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: ± 2.5% –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- private security activities (2010): 131,542 curity companies (market concentration): 86% of turnover –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- is achieved by 11.5% of private security companies ons (2010): Carrying of weapons is only permitted for the• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security transport of valuables industry segment –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi- –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: ter): € 3.67 billion 86% of contracts are full-time and 54% are open-ended –– Airport security: € 365 million • Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 5 million industry –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: ± € 590 million –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Other segments -- A maximum of 12 hours per day -- Bodyguarding: € 50 million -- A maximum of 35 hours per week -- Security training: € 40 million –– According to national legislation• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the -- A maximum of 12 hours per day private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- -- A maximum of 48 hours per week tions: 2,096 (4 CIT companies) -- Overtime: 180 hours per year • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armedPrivate security contracts private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or• Number of commercial contracts for the private market other allowances) (private customers): 78% –– Gross: € 1,200.51• Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers): 22% 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 48
  • 48. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and vate security industry: 37.5 amending legislation regulating the private security indus-• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- try: Parliament and Senate rity industry • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– Men: 84% covered by the legislation regulating the private security –– Women: 16% industry• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) security industry in line with general national equal op- –– Airport security portunities legislation –– Maritime security –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) Company policy –– Monitoring and remote surveillance• Annual staff turnover rate2 in the private security industry –– Hiring rate: 42% Controls and sanctions –– Departure rate: 43% • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- spections for the private security industry: Ministry of theLegal aspects Interior • Competent national authority in charge of imposing thePrivate security legislation below sanctions for the private security industry –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior• The private security industry is regulated by law –– Penal sanctions: Ministry of the Interior –– Law regulating the private security industry • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum sen- -- Law on in-house security and the protection of people tence that can be imposed: Act 2003-239 of March 18, 2003 and goods, enacted in 1983 • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal -- Act of July 12, 1983 supplemented by Act number 2003- of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence 239 of March 18, 2003 –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Collective labour agreements -- Act 2003-239 amending the 1983 legislation -- Law 95-73 of January 1995 concerning the nature and • There is a sector-specific binding collective labour agree- the direction of security ment in place for the private security industry: National -- Decree 86-1058 of September 26, 1986 concerning the collective agreement administrative authorisation and the recruitment of personnel for private security companies Entrance requirements and restrictions -- Decree 86-1099 of October 10, 1986 concerning the use of equipment, documents, uniforms and badges by sur- • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private veillance and guarding companies, CIT companies and security industry for the protection of persons –– At company level: Exclusion from all other activities -- Decree 2002-539 of April 17, 2002 concerning distant –– At personal level surveillance activities -- No criminal record -- Law concerning the prevention of crime of March 7, -- Successfully completed mandatory training 2007 (establishing the professional card, Art. 75-78) -- No criminal convictions leading to legal sanctions or a –– Online information can be found here: www.legifrance.gouv.fr term of imprisonment –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Offences against commercial law can also be taken into armed private security services only for the transport of account valuables -- The law states that refusal of licence can result from criminal actions even if they have not led to legal2 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a sanctions set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 49
  • 49. -- Criminal background checks are carried out by the po- Personal level lice authorities; no consent is required -- Individuals applying for operative duty in a private se- • A special permission is required and can only be granted curity company can be refused access to the profession for duties relating to the transport of valuables if they have been convicted of any crime • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga-• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– On the background of owners of private security compa- weapons nies: Exclusion from all other activities, i.e. private inves- tigation K9 (dogs) –– On the background of private security personnel -- No criminal record • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security -- Successfully completed mandatory training services -- Criminal background investigation carried out by the –– A special licence is required for private security companies police authorities without prior consent of the indi- using dogs for the provision of private security services: vidual Dogs must be licensed and handlers must be qualified -- Not have been a member of the police force for at least 5 years Horses -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security profession • Horses can be used for the provision of private security • Managers: 18 services • Operational staff: 18 –– A special licence is not required for private security com- panies using horses for the provision of private securitySpecific requirements services • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob-• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses private security personnel for the provision of private security services –– The uniform is mandatory and must include at least two distinctive identifying features such as the company name Training and related provisions and logo –– It must be clearly distinct from the uniform worn by the • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow police force basic guard training• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- –– This training programme is mandatory by law tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– Number of training hours: 70 –– The ID card is mandatory for private security guards –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private –– It must include a photo and registration number, name security guards are issued with a certificate of compe- and date of birth tence: Certification of professional qualification following –– It must be renewed every 5 years a written examination certified by the regional Prefecture • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) forPowers and competences private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Private security guards are not allowed to perform a search • Follow-up or refresher training does not exist and seizure • When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques-Weapons tion to undergo –– A background check/security checkThe use of weapons is only permitted for the transport of -- This background check/security check is carried out byvaluables the police authorities 50
  • 50. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are • No criminal record • Successfully completed mandatory training• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination 51
  • 51. GERMANY (public customers): 24% • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed eachGeneral information year in the private security industry: ± 320,000,000 hours, which represent 2,600 man years1Population: 81,802,257Gross National Income (GNI): € 2,655.8 billion Private security companiesRatio security force/population: 1/484Ratio police force/population: 1/326 • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law • Total number of private security companies (2009): 3,700Economic aspects –– Number of private security companies (2009) actively car- rying out private security services: 3,700Private security market • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not embodied in the legislation governing the private security• Yearly turnover (2009) of the private security industry: industry € 4.39 billion –– Other activities performed by private security companies• Market growth of the private security industry (based on next to private security activities: Cleaning, facilities man- yearly turnover) agement, receptionist services, catering –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: -3.2% –– Percentage of single-service private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 5.09% (only carrying out private security activities): 15% –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 0.97% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 2.88% (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 4.43% security activities): 85% –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: -2.01% –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 3.7% Private security guards• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- curity companies (market concentration): 21% • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security • Total number of private security guards (2010): 168,000 industry segment –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- 168,000 ter): € 2.85 billion –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out –– Airport security: € 219 million private security activities (2010): 168,000 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 439 million –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 219 million ons (2010): 15,000 –– Other segment –– Who finances the licence fee depends on the nature of the -- Guarding of military units, safety of track construction: service being provided and the customer € 239 million –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi-• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- 60% tions: 2,500 • Maximum number of working hours in the private security industryPrivate security contracts 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of• Number of commercial contracts for the private market hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the (private customers): 76% number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially• Number of commercial contracts for the public market recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 52
  • 52. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– According to the collective labour agreement Legal aspects -- A maximum of 12 hours per day -- A maximum of 72 hours per week Private security legislation -- Weekend and nights: Unlimited –– According to national legislation • The private security industry is regulated by law -- A maximum of 12 hours per day –– Law regulating the private security industry -- A maximum of 72 hours per week -- Law of February 7, 1927 amended by Law of June 16, -- Weekend and nights: Unlimited 1998 on professional activities• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed -- Law of December 14, 1995 on private security enter- private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking prises amended by Law of July 23, 2002 on private se- into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or curity enterprises other allowances) –– Online information can be found here –– Gross: € 1,500-2,600 -- http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de –– Net3: € 1,000-1,600 -- http://www.berlin.de/imperia/md/content/balichten-• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- berghohenschoenhausen/gesetze-vorschriften/bewa- es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- chungsvo.pdf?start&ts=1299099362&file=bewachung cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other svo.pdf allowances) –– The law regulating the private security industry allows –– Gross: € 1,800 armed private security services: Their use depends on the –– Net4: € 1,400 activity and is e.g. allowed for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) ser- –– Germany has introduced minimum wages in the private vices and bodyguarding security industry applicable in all German ‘Länder’ as of • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and June 1, 2011. Different minimum wage levels apply, rang- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- ing from € 6.53 in eastern Germany to € 8.60 in western try: Department of Commerce Germany. The objective is to introduce wage scales accord- • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically ing to training levels and other criteria over the next two covered by the legislation regulating the private security years and to increase the minimum wage to € 7.50. industry• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed here- vate security industry: 45 after)• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Airport security rity industry –– Maritime security –– Men: 80% –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– Women: 20%• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private Controls and sanctions security industry –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: • Competent national authority in charge of controls and Law of August 14, 2006 on equal treatment inspections for the private security industry: Department• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: of Commerce 30% • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the –– This percentage does not include transfers of contracts below sanctions for the private security industry and/or other considerations –– Administrative sanctions: Department of Commerce –– Penal sanctions: Department of Commerce • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum sentence that can be imposed: € 5,0003 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. • One of the possible sanctions can result in the with-4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard after taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a licence set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 53
  • 53. Collective labour agreements Powers and competences• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- • Private security guards have the following powers and ments in place for the private security industry competences: Same powers as any citizen • They are allowed to perform a search and seizureEntrance requirements and restrictions –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: When catching a perpetrator red-handed• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure security industry –– At company level Weapons -- Reliability (background screening) -- 80 hours of training (certified by the Chamber of Commerce) Company level -- Evidence of solvency is required -- Membership of a professional body is required for • A special licence is required for private security companies companies providing armed private security services –– At personal level –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Local -- Reliability (background screening) authority -- 40 hours of training (certified by the Chamber of Commerce) –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended -- A special examination is required for guarding in public –– The licence is renewable areas (‘Sachkundeprüfung’) –– There are three types of licences• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry -- To buy a weapon (limited to one year) –– On the background of owners of private security companies -- To own a weapon (open-ended) -- Reliability (background screening) -- To carry a weapon (limited to specific weapons and to -- 80 hours of training (certified by the Chamber of Commerce) three years, can be renewed twice for another three years) -- Evidence of solvency is required • A special licence is required for private security companies –– On the background of private security personnel owning weapons -- Reliability (background screening) –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Local -- 40 hours of training (certified by the Chamber of Commerce) authority -- A special examination is required for guarding in public • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after areas (‘Sachkundeprüfung’) hours: The company stores weapons after hours according -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to to the corresponding laws enter the private security profession • There is a legal obligation for a private security company • Managers: 18 providing armed private security services to keep a de- • Operational staff: 18 tailed weapons register • There are no limitations as to the type and/or number ofSpecific requirements weapons used and/or to the ammunition used• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of Personal level private security personnel: They must not create confusion with uniforms of armed or police forces • A special licence is required for private security guards pro-• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- viding armed private security services tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Local –– Operational staff have to carry an ID card containing the authority company name and a photo • Private security guards must follow specialised and obligatory –– Staff working on public sector accounts must carry an training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use weapons identification logo mentioning the company name in a –– The training is provided by companies, specialised train- visible place ing providers, technical schools, etc. 54
  • 54. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011K9 (dogs) –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security ser- the local authorities vices -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- this check are: Clean criminal record vate security industry • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– Commercial manned guarding cence, the law does not require the private security guard –– Beat patrol in question to undergo• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– A medical examination tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the –– A psychotechnical/psychological examination provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses can be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 40 –– The training is provided by the Chamber of Commerce –– The training is financed by the guard or the company –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies whose employees are following basic training: Training time is paid for like working time –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– Number of training hours: 80• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• Specialised training is foreseen for specific types of private security activities –– All security activities require 40 hours of training –– Specialised training is only required for aviation security (by law) –– Specialised training is provided by the company or a secu- rity training institute• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo 55
  • 55. GREECE This figure has fluctuated in recent years, but is ± 65% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security industry2General information –– According to the collective labour agreement -- A maximum of 8 hours per day (5 days) or 6 hours andPopulation: 11,305,118 40 minutes (6 days)Gross National Income (GNI): € 242 billion -- A maximum of 40 hours per weekRatio security force/population: 1/376 -- OvertimeRatio police force/population: 1/428 • 41st-43rd hour is called specific overtime • 3 hours per week • The employee has to stay on when asked and is paidEconomic aspects 25% extra • From the 44th hour onwards, overtime is reim-Private security market bursed at +50% of basic pay -- Weekend and nights• Yearly turnover (2007) of the private security industry: • Between 00h00 and 06h00 am, the employee is ± € 275 million paid at an additional 25%• Due to the difficult economic situation of recent years, • Sunday and official holidays are paid at +75% of more up-to-date turnover figures are hard to determine. basic pay However, reports indicate an increase in demand from pri- –– According to national legislation vate clients in 2010-2011. -- A maximum of 9 hours per day -- A maximum of 43 hours per weekPrivate security companies • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or• Total number of private security companies (2010): ± 1,200 other allowances)• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not –– Gross: ± € 700 embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– Net3: ± € 620 industry • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- vate security industry: 25Private security guards • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industry4• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– Men: 80% –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Minis- –– Women: 20% try of Public Order (Ministry of the Interior) and police • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private authorities security industry in line with general equal opportunities• Total number of private security guards (2010): ± 30,000 legislation –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): • Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: ± 30,000 ± 40% –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or ons (2010): The use of weapons is prohibited except in spe- other considerations cial circumstances such as Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi- vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 2 Ibid., 2008 3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially 4 Ibid., 2008 recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 56
  • 56. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Legal aspects –– Up to 3 years imprisonment –– A company can be fined anything from € 20,000 to €Private security legislation 200,000 • One of the possible sanctions can result in the with-• The private security industry is regulated by law drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law no. licence 2518/1997, enacted in 1997 –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Law no. Collective labour agreements 3707/2008, enacted in 2008 –– The law regulating the private security industry does not • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- allow armed private security services, except in special cir- ments in place for the private security industry cumstances (e.g. Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations)• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and Entrance requirements and restrictions amending legislation regulating the private security indus- try: Ministry of the Interior • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically security industry covered by the legislation regulating the private security –– At company level industry -- Greek or EU citizen –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) -- Must hold a diploma –– Airport security -- Must not be involved in trading weapons –– Maritime security -- Must have sound mental and physical health –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) -- No drug or alcohol addictions –– Monitoring and remote surveillance - - Employees in the sector must not have criminal –– Other segments convictions leading to imprisonment for more than -- Bodyguarding 6 months -- Convoys –– At personal level -- Security advice -- A criminal records check is required -- Security design - - Employees in the sector must not have criminal convictions leading to imprisonment for more thanControls and sanctions 6 months -- Greek or EU nationals must have completed military• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- service spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the -- Have attained 18 years of age or over Interior • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the – – On the background of owners of private security below sanctions for the private security industry companies –– Administrative sanctions -- Clean criminal record -- Ministry for the Development of Competitiveness and -- Must be of legal age the Maritime Sector -- Ministerial decree qualification -- Withdrawal or suspension of licence (20 days-2 months, –– On the background of private security personnel 2-6 months or permanently) -- Clean criminal record –– Penal sanctions -- Must be of legal age -- Ministry of the Interior -- Ministerial decree qualification -- Imprisonment and fines for non-compliance with -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to the law enter the private security profession• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum • Managers: 18 sentence that can be imposed • Operational staff: 18 57
  • 57. Specific requirements –– The licence is renewable • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga-• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use private security personnel weapons –– Uniforms are mandatory –– This training comprises: Theory and target practice –– They must be approved by the Department of Defense –– Number of training hours: Not regulated –– They must be distinctive from police uniforms –– The training is provided by certified security training in-• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- stitutes tion card (ID card) of private security personnel K9 (dogs)Powers and competences • Dogs cannot be used for the provision of private security• Private security guards have the following powers and services competences: Observation and reporting to the police• They are allowed to perform a search and seizure Horses –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Only in airports • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure servicesWeapons Training and related provisionsCompany level • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training• A special licence is required for private security companies –– This training programme is mandatory by law: Ministerial providing armed private security services Decree of 2009 –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Number of training hours: 2 semesters; diploma from the of the Interior certified security training institute –– Duration of the licence: For the duration of the activity –– The training is provided by the company or a certified se-• A special licence is required for private security companies curity training institute owning weapons –– The training is financed by the company –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- of the Interior nies whose employees are following basic training –– The licence is renewable –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• There is a legal obligation for a private security company • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private providing armed private security services to keep a de- security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- tailed weapons register encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of –– Number of training hours: 4 semesters; diploma from the weapons used and/or to the ammunition used certified security training institute • Follow-up or refresher training is not regulated by lawPersonal level • Specialised training is foreseen for certain types of private security activities• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- –– These specialised trainings are provided by the company viding armed private security services or a certified security training institute –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry • When applying for an individual private security guard li- of the Interior cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- –– Duration of the licence: 5 years tion to undergo 58
  • 58. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011–– A medical examination–– A psychotechnical /psychological examination–– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by Ministry of the Interior and the police authorities -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal convictions leading to im- prisonment for more than 6 months 59
  • 59. HUNGARY • Maximum number of working hours in the private security industry –– According to national legislationGeneral information -- A maximum of 12 hours per day -- A maximum of 60 hours per weekPopulation: 10,014,324 -- Overtime: Maximum 12 hours a month, 144 hoursGross National Income (GNI): € 97.6 billion a yearRatio security force/population: 1/125 • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armedRatio police force/population: 1/380 private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances)Economic aspects –– Net2: € 250 • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu-Private security market rity industry –– Men: ± 85%• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: –– Women: ± 15% ± € 550 million • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security security industry industry segment –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- General national equal opportunities legislation ter): ± € 220 million • Annual staff turnover rate3 in the private security industry: –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): ± € 82.5 million ± 30% –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: ± € 192.5 million –– Other segments: ± 55 million• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the Legal aspects private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- tions: 350 Private security legislationPrivate security companies • The private security industry is regulated by law –– Law regulating the private security industry• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by -- ‘2005. évi CXXXIII. törvény’ (Act CXXXIII of 2005) law -- ‘22/2006. (IV. 25.) BM rendelet’ (Minister of the Inte- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police rior’s Order of 2006)• Total number of private security companies (2010): –– European Standard applicable to the private security in- ± 11,304 dustry• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not -- EN 15602:2008 – Security Services – Terminology embodied in the legislation governing the private security • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and industry amending legislation regulating the private security indus- try: Ministry of JusticePrivate security guards • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically covered by the legislation regulating the private security• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law industry –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT)• Total number of private security guards (2010): 80,000 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially after taxes and other (legal) deductions. recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 3 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 60
  • 60. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Other segments following requirements to obtain a guarding licence -- Protection of mobile/immobile goods -- Minimum age of 18 -- Bodyguarding -- Meet minimum health requirements (attested by an ex- -- Event security amination) -- Planning, installation, operation and maintenance of -- Be a citizen of the European Economic Area security systems -- Be resident in the European Economic Area -- Have obtained relevant qualificationsControls and sanctions -- Have a clean criminal record -- Have completed basic education (8 years)• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry spections for the private security industry: Police authorities –– On the background of owners of private security compa-• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the nies: Clean criminal record below sanctions for the private security industry –– On the background of private security personnel: Clean –– Administrative sanctions: Police authorities criminal record –– Penal sanctions: Police authorities -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum enter the private security profession sentence that can be imposed: € 3,844 • Operational staff: 18• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence Specific requirementsCollective labour agreements • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- –– Uniforms are optional ments in place for the private security industry –– They must not bear any resemblance with uniforms worn by the state policeEntrance requirements and restrictions –– Company logos must be displayed in a prominent place • There are specific requirements related to the identifica-• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private tion card (ID card) of private security personnel: ID cards security industry are mandatory –– At company level: Companies are established according to company law, but private security activities may only start Powers and competences after having obtained the mandatory licence (according to the ‘2005. évi CXXXIII. törvény’ (Act CXXXIII of 2005)) • Private security guards are allowed to perform a search -- Conditions/requirements and procedures and seizure • At least one of the members/partners of the com- –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure pany must have a guarding licence issued by the police Weapons • The company has to be registered with the profes- sional chamber Company level • The professional chamber verifies the general infor- mation pertaining to the company (e.g. the com- • A special licence is required for private security companies pany address etc.) and issues a certificate providing armed private security services • Mandatory liability insurance pertaining to private –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police security activities (the insurable value is not deter- authorities mined by the Act) –– The licence is renewable –– At personal level: According to the ‘2005. évi CXXXIII. • A special licence is required for private security companies törvény’ (Act CXXXIII of 2005), individuals must meet the owning weapons 61
  • 61. –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– This training programme is mandatory by law according to authorities the Order of the Minister of the Interior 16/2003 (IV. 18.) –– The licence is renewable –– Number of training hours: 320• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after –– The training is provided by specially licensed training in- hours: Safe storage of weapons is obligatory stitutes• There is a legal obligation for a private security company –– The training is financed by the worker providing armed private security services to keep a de- –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- tailed weapons register nies whose employees are following basic training• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of weap- –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private ons used and/or to the ammunition used: Handguns only security guards are issued with a certificate of competence • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) forPersonal level private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Follow-up or refresher training is only provided at the dis- viding armed private security services cretion of each company and is not provided for in law –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of authorities private security activities –– The licence is renewable –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 100 hours• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use ing) – duration: 100 hours weapons • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– This training comprises: Theory and target practice cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- –– Number of training hours: 100 tion to undergo –– The training is provided by specially licensed training institutes –– A medical examination (all guards) –– A psychotechnical /psychological examinationK9 (dogs) -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho-• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services logical examination –– A special licence is required for private security companies –– A background check/security check using dogs for the provision of private security services -- This background check/security check is carried out by -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police the police authorities authorities -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass -- The licence is renewable this check are: Clean criminal record• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security services and for all activities with dogs in public spaces –– The training is regulated by Order 15/2008 of the Minister of Justice and Law Enforcement (15/2008 – ‘IRM Rendelet’) –– Number of training hours: 400 –– The training is provided by dog training schools of the police authoritiesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training 62
  • 62. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011IRELAND –– The licence fee is financed by a mixture of both the com- pany and the guard –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ-General information ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 90% • Maximum number of working hours in the private securityPopulation: 4,467,854 industryGross National Income (GNI): € 147.3 billion –– According to the collective labour agreementRatio security force/population: 1/223 -- A maximum of 48 hours per weekRatio police force/population: 1/344 –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 8 hours per day -- A maximum of 48 hours per weekEconomic aspects • Starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into ac-Private security market count overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other al- lowances)• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: –– Gross: € 9.27 per hour € 1.2 billion –– Net2: Depends on the number of hours worked and wheth-• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- er above the threshold for individual tax-free allowance curity companies (market concentration): 40% • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industryPrivate security companies (manned guarding only) –– Men: 98% –– Women: 2%• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private• Total number of private security companies (2010): 280 security industry –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy rying out private security services: 280 -- Employment Equality Act of 1998• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not -- Equal Status Act of 2000 embodied in the legislation governing the private security • Annual staff turnover rate3 in the private security industry: industry Unknown, but accepted to be 20% –– Percentage of single-service private security companies –– This percentage does not include transfers of contracts (only carrying out private security activities): 80% (in and/or other considerations terms of turnover, rather than number of companies) –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private Legal aspects security activities): 20% (in terms of turnover, rather than number of companies) Private security legislationPrivate security guards • The private security industry is regulated by law –– Law regulating the private security industry: Private Secu-• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law rity Services Act, enacted in 2004• Total number of private security guards (2010): 20,000 –– Online information can be found here: http://www.oi- –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 20,000 reachtas.ie/documents/bills28/acts/2004/a1204.pdf –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– The law regulating the private security industry does not ons (2010): Weapons are prohibited allow armed private security services 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially after taxes and other (legal) deductions. recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 3 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 63
  • 63. • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- Each application will be decided according to the Au- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- thority’s guidelines and a person with (a) conviction(s) try: Private Security Authority will not always be prohibited from holding a licence• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically -- Awarding authority: Police authorities covered by the legislation regulating the private security • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) -- All company directors must have their background histo- –– Other segments ry cleared by An Garda Siochana (National Police Force) -- Alarm installation –– On the background of private security personnel -- Alarm Receiving Centres -- A criminal records check is required -- Door security personnel -- Applicants for a licence who have spent 6 months or -- Cash-In-Transit (CIT) more in another country are required to provide a crim- inal record certificate from that jurisdiction in additionControls and sanctions to completing a Garda (police) vetting form -- The Authority will exercise its discretion when deciding• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- whether to issue a licence to a person who has a crimi- spections for the private security industry: Private Security nal record Authority -- Each application will be decided according to the Au-• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the thority’s guidelines and a person with (a) conviction(s) below sanctions for the private security industry will not always be prohibited from holding a licence –– Administrative sanctions: Private Security Authority -- Awarding authority: Police authorities –– Penal sanctions: Private Security Authority -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum enter the private security profession sentence that can be imposed: € 3,000 • Managers: 18• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal • Operational staff: 18 of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence Specific requirementsCollective labour agreements • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- private security personnel: Uniforms are mandatory ments in place for the private security industry • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel: ID cardsEntrance requirements and restrictions must always be displayed• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private Powers and competences security industry –– At company level: Private Security Service Contractors li- • Private security guards have the following powers and cence required for areas covered by regulation competences: No additional powers –– At personal level • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure -- A criminal records check is required –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure -- Applicants for a licence who have spent 6 months or more in another country are required to provide a crim- K9 (dogs) inal record certificate from that jurisdiction in addition to completing a Garda (police) vetting form • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security ser- -- The Authority will exercise its discretion when deciding vices (in accordance with the Control of Dogs Act of 1998) whether to issue a licence to a person who has a crimi- • A special licence is not required for private security compa- nal record nies using dogs for the provision of private security services 64
  • 64. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Dogs are used in the following area/segment of the private ing whether to issue a licence to a person who has a security industry criminal record. Each application will be decided ac- –– Commercial manned guarding cording to the Authority’s guidelines. A person with (a)• Private security guards are not required to follow special- conviction(s) will not always be prohibited from holding ised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to a licence. use dogs for the provision of private security services • The law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo a medical or psychotechnical/psycho-Horses logical examination –– A private security guard over 65 years of age, however,• Horses can be used for the provision of private security ser- must undergo a medical examination vices, but it does not occur in practiceTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 28 –– The training is provided by the Security Institute of Ire- land and FAS (the Irish Employment and Training Author- ity) and other bodies –– The training is financed by the individual –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are not issued with a certificate of com- petence• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training does not exist by law (only as provided voluntarily by companies)• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 30 hours –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 21 hours –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified trainers• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police authority -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Must be a “fit and proper person” (crimi- nal record is no immediate bar to obtaining a licence) -- The Authority will exercise its discretion when decid- 65
  • 65. ITALY –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: 100% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forGeneral information the public market: 1-3 years • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hoursPopulation: 60,340,328 sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed eachGross National Income (GNI): € 1,569 billion year in the private security industry: 155,000,000 hours,Ratio security force/population: 1/1,260 which represent 74,602 man years1Ratio police force/population: 1/565 Private security companiesEconomic aspects • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law • Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,299Private security market –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: 913• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not em- € 2.7 billion bodied in the legislation governing the private security industry• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Percentage of single-service private security companies yearly turnover) (only carrying out private security activities): 15% –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 2% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 0% (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 0% security activities): 85%• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- curity companies (market concentration): 13% Private security guards• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security industry segment • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed here- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Minis- after): 50% try of the Interior; the administration is delegated to the –– Airport security: 15% municipal Prefects –– Maritime security: 5% • Total number of private security guards (2010): 47,858 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): 15% –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 47,858 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: 15% –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap-• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the private ons (2010): 47,858 (all guards) security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations: 1,450 –– The licence fee is financed by the company –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ-Private security contracts ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 95% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security• Commercial contracts for the private market (private cus- industry tomers) –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- -- A maximum of 7.15 hours per day vate market: 70% -- A maximum of 48 hours per week –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- -- Overtime: 250 hours per year vate market: 30%• Commercial contracts for the public market (public cus- 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of tomers) hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially public market: 0% recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 66
  • 66. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– According to national legislation • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- A maximum of 7.15 hours per day amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- A maximum of 48 hours per week try: Ministry of the Interior -- Overtime: 250 hours per year • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically cov-• Average monthly salary (not covering social security ered by the legislation regulating the private security industry charges paid by the employer) of all private security –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) guards (including overtime, weekend, evening, night –– Airport security and/or other allowances) –– Maritime security –– Gross: € 1,750 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– Net3: € 1,250 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- vate security industry: 42 Controls and sanctions• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industry • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- –– Men: 91% spections for the private security industry: Police authorities –– Women: 9% • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is not in place in the below sanctions for the private security industry private security industry –– Administrative sanctions: Administrative police• Annual staff turnover rate4 in the private security industry: –– Penal sanctions: Police 20% • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– This percentage does not include transfers of contracts sentence that can be imposed: € 154-3,098 or imprison- and/or other considerations ment up to 3 months • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licenceLegal aspects Collective labour agreementsPrivate security legislation • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree-• The private security industry is regulated by law ments in place for the private security industry –– Law regulating the private security industry: TULPS (Con- solidated Act of Public Safety Laws), enacted in 1931 Entrance requirements and restrictions –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Amending regulation for the execution of TULPS of August 4, 2008 • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private under supervision of the ‘Corte dei Conti’ security industry –– Online information can be found here –– At company level -- h t t p : / / w w w . s a n z i o n i a m m i n i s t r a t i v e . i t / -- Licence granted by the Prefecture collegamenti/I%20Codici/TULPS/TULPS.htm -- Criminal records check by the Ministry of Justice -- h t t p : / / w w w . s a n z i o n i a m m i n i s t r a t i v e . i t / –– At personal level collegamenti/I%20Codici/Reg_Tulps_2/Reg_Tulps%20 -- Licence granted by the Prefecture index.htm -- Criminal records check by the Ministry of Justice -- http://www.federsicurezza.it/public/documen - • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry ti/282201195412.pdf –– On the background of owners of private security compa- –– The law regulating the private security industry allows nies: No criminal convictions (checks are carried out by armed private security services the Provincial Prefect) –– On the background of private security personnel: No crim-3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives inal convictions (checks are carried out by the Provincial after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a Prefect) set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 67
  • 67. -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to Personal level enter the private security profession • Managers: 18 • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Operational staff: 18 viding armed private security services –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: PrefectureSpecific requirements –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga-• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use private security personnel weapons –– Uniforms must be distinguishable from those worn by the –– There are no national provisions on firearms training police force –– Every Prefecture requires specific training (‘Regolamento –– They must bear the initials GPG, the name and the logo del Questore’) of the company –– This training comprises: Theory and practice –– Uniforms must be approved by the Prefecture –– The training is provided by the national training institute• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- for the use of weapons tion card (ID card) of private security personnel K9 (dogs)Powers and competences • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services• Private security guards have the following powers and –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- competences nies using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Power to order that dangerous or suspicious persons stop • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- what they are doing vate security industry –– May also take from them their identity card within a –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services specified period and show it at the request of officers or –– Event security (crowd control) security officials –– Aviation security• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure –– Maritime security –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple-Weapons menting the police etc.) –– Critical infrastructure protectionCompany level • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for• A special licence is required for private security companies the provision of private security services providing armed private security services –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Prefecture Horses –– Duration of the licence: 5 years –– The licence is renewable • Horses can be used for the provision of private security• A special licence is not required for private security compa- services nies owning weapons –– A special licence is not required for private security com-• There are no legal requirements for storing weapons after panies using horses for the provision of private security hours services• There is no legal obligation for a private security company • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- providing armed private security services to keep a de- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses tailed weapons register for the provision of private security services• There are no limitations as to the type and/or number of weapons used and/or to the ammunition used Training and related provisions 68
  • 68. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: Decision is pending –– The training is provided by the company –– The training is financed by interprofessional funds, re- gions, companies –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised as required –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/processing) –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring –– Aviation security –– Maritime security –– Fire prevention and protection services –– These specialised trainings are provided by companies or technical schools• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the local Prefecture on behalf of the Ministry of Justice -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal record and no criminal of- fence 69
  • 69. LATVIA Private security companies • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by lawGeneral information –– There are two types of licences -- Licence to design, maintain and repair technical secu-Population: 2,248,374 rity guard systemsGross National Income (GNI): € 20.78 billion -- Licence to provide security guard servicesRatio security force/population: 1/105 • Total number of private security companies (2010): 500Ratio police force/population: 1/300 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: 450 • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is notEconomic aspects embodied in the legislation governing the private security industryPrivate security market –– Other activities performed by private security companies next to private security activities: Wholesale, construction• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: –– Percentage of single-service private security companies € 365.93 million (only carrying out private security activities): 80%• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies curity companies (market concentration): 6.6% (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 20%Private security contracts Private security guards• Commercial contracts for the private market (private customers) –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law vate market: 2% • Total number of private security guards (2010): 21,500 –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 21,500 the private market: < 1 week –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- private security activities (2010): 11,000 vate market: 98% –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for ons (2010): 1,098 the private market: Open-ended –– The licence fee is financed by the guard• Commercial contracts for the public market (public customers) –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 98% public market: 1% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for industry the public market: < 1 week –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the -- A maximum of 8 hours per day public market: 99% –– According to national legislation –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for -- A maximum of 8 hours per day the public market: 2 years -- A maximum of 40 hours per week• Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours -- Overtime: 16 hours per month sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each -- Weekend and nights: 56 hours per month year in the private security industry: 15,840,000 hours, • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed which represent 7615.34 man years1 private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security number of weeks worked in a year). services and not auxiliary or additional services. 70
  • 70. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically cov- other allowances) ered by the legislation regulating the private security industry –– Gross: € 286.68 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– Net3: € 207.84 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- –– Other segments, i.e. security consultancy es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other Controls and sanctions allowances) –– Gross: € 515.99 • Competent national authority in charge of controls –– Net4: € 358.33 and inspections for the private security industry: State• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- Police, State Revenue Service and State Labour Inspec- vate security industry: 35 torate• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the rity industry below sanctions for the private security industry –– Men: 80% –– Administrative sanctions: State Police and State Labour –– Women: 20% Inspectorate• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private –– Penal sanctions: Courts security industry • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 70% sentence that can be imposed: € 717 (person) and € 4,300 –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or (company) other considerations • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licenceLegal aspects Collective labour agreementsPrivate security legislation • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law –– Law regulating the private security industry Entrance requirements and restrictions -- Security Guards Activities Law, enacted on June 13, 2006 -- Law on Detective Activities • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private -- Law on the Handling of Weapons, in force since Janu- security industry ary 1, 2003 –– At company level –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: June 1, 2008 -- Latvian citizen –– Online information can be found here -- A foreign investor (other than a member of the EU) must -- http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=136109 not hold a controlling interest in the company -- http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=221384 -- Fluency in the official language as required by the Of- -- http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=26311 ficial Language Law –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- It is prohibited to issue a licence to companies in armed private security services which management positions are held by persons• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and about whom the State Police or State Security Insti- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- tutions have information that indicates belonging to try: State Police and Ministry of the Interior prohibited military or armed formations, to political parties or public political organisations, associations3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. or movements that are not registered in accordance4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives with the procedures prescribed by law as well as to after taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a organised criminal groups set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 71
  • 71. -- It is prohibited to issue a licence to companies that have Powers and competences been condemned for violations such as • Activities that are directed against the state and the • Private security guards have the following powers and lawful interest of the society or a person competences • Violations of or failure to comply with the require- – – The right to require that the person ceases the un- ments of this law lawful activities performed on the guarded site sub- • Provision of false information sequently expelling them from the site should they • Not systematically fulfilling tax obligations continue • Not commencing security guard activities within six –– Request that personal property be returned if it belongs to months from the day the licence was issued the guarded site or person • If sentence was determined by other laws or court • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure adjudication • Security activities are to be provided on the basis of Weapons a written contract • Losses caused by fault of the security guard are to Company level be reimbursed -- It is prohibited to utilise technical equipment and • A special licence is not required for private security compa- chemical substances that are hazardous to the health nies providing armed private security services or may threaten human life • A special licence is required for private security companies –– At personal level owning weapons -- Mandatory training of 160 hours –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police -- Certification after examination authorities -- Mandatory payment of a licence fee –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended -- Certificate is valid for 5 years • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after -- Security personnel is liable for their activities hours• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry • There is a legal obligation for a private security company –– On the background of owners of private security companies providing armed private security services to keep a de- -- No conviction of a criminal offence tailed weapons register -- No determination of mental illnesses, addiction to nar- • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of cotics, toxic substances or alcohol weapons used and/or to the ammunition used –– On the background of private security personnel –– Alarm activity – Category B, semi-automatic, repetitive or -- No conviction of a criminal offence single-shot short barrel firearms -- No determination of mental illnesses, addiction to nar- –– Security procedures – Category B cotics, toxic substances or alcohol -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to Personal level enter the private security profession • Managers: 18 • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Operational staff: 18 viding armed private security services –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: PoliceSpecific requirements authorities –– Duration of the licence: 5 years• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– The licence is renewable private security personnel: Uniforms are mandatory unless • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- otherwise required tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- weapons tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– This training comprises: Theory and practice 72
  • 72. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011K9 (dogs) staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) • Follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– They must only be used when the handler is present private security activities –– Dogs used in public places or places accessible to the pub- –– Aviation security – duration: 18 hours lic must always be on a leash –– Maritime security – duration: 9.5 hours –– Veterinary requirements must be observed –– Critical infrastructure protection – duration: 8 hours –– Clearly legible warnings must be put in visible places –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified train- when dogs are present in enclosed territory without their ing centres handler • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- nies using dogs for the provision of private security services tion to undergo• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- –– A background check/security check vate security industry -- This background check/security check is carried out by –– Commercial manned guarding the police authorities –– Beat patrol -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass –– In-house manned security this check are –– Maritime security • No determination of mental illnesses –– Critical infrastructure protection • No addiction to narcotics, toxic substances or alcohol• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- • No criminal record tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security services –– This training comprises: Theory and practice –– Number of training hours: Depends on weapons –– The training is provided by specialist centresHorses• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 160 –– The training is provided by certified training centres –– The training is financed by the guard –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies whose employees are following basic training: Some com- panies support their employees’ training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence (valid for 5 years)• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial 73
  • 73. LITHUANIA • Starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into ac- count overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other al-General information lowances) –– Gross: € 4.08 per hourPopulation: 3,244,601 –– Net2: ± € 3.60 per hourGross National Income (GNI): € 29.65 billion • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri-Ratio security force/population: 1/294 vate security industry: 30Ratio police force/population: 1/290 • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industry –– Men: 80%Economic aspects –– Women: 20% • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the privatePrivate security market security industry in line with general equal opportunities legislation• Yearly turnover (2007) of the private security industry: € 58 million Legal aspectsPrivate security companies Private security legislation• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Chief of police • The private security industry is regulated by law• Total number of private security companies (2010): 121 –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on pro-• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is viding personal and property services, enacted in 2004 embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– The law regulating the private security industry allows industry armed private security services –– Percentage of single-service private security companies • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and (only carrying out private security activities): 100% amending legislation regulating the private security in- –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies dustry: Ministry of the Interior; all legislation must be ap- (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private proved by the Lithuanian Parliament security activities): 0% • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and amending legislation regulating the private security indus-Private security guards try: Ministry of the Interior. All legislation must be adopted by the Lithuanian Parliament.• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry covered by the legislation regulating the private security of the Interior or the local police industry• Total number of private security guards (2010): 11,000 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 11,000 –– Airport security• Maximum number of working hours in the private security –– Maritime security industry –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 12 hours per day Controls and sanctions -- A maximum of 48 hours per week • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in-1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives services and not auxiliary or additional services. after taxes and other (legal) deductions. 74
  • 74. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the Powers and competences Interior• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the • Private security guards have the following powers and below sanctions for the private security industry competences: Same powers as any citizen –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure –– Penal sanctions: Courts• One of the possible sanctions can result in the with- Weapons drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence Company levelCollective labour agreements • A special licence is not required for private security compa- nies providing armed private security services• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour • A special licence is required for private security companies agreements in place for the private security industry: Col- owning weapons lective agreements are reached at company level, although –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry there have been efforts to reach a sectoral agreement of the Interior • There are legal requirements for storing weapons afterEntrance requirements and restrictions hours: They must be stored on a secure site• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private Personal level security industry –– At company level: Licence issued by the Ministry of the • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- Interior viding armed private security services –– At personal level –– Weapons can only be used to guard a client whose life is -- Lithuanian, EU or EEA citizenship threatened or a guarded object during an armed attack -- Minimum 18 years of age –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry -- Minimum health and training requirements must be of the Interior met and an examination must be passed to verify pro- • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- fessional proficiency tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use -- Clean criminal record (issued by the relevant police de- weapons partment) –– This training comprehends: Theory and target practice -- Proficiency in the national language is required –– The training is provided by certified training institutes• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security compa- K9 (dogs) nies: Clean criminal record –– On the background of private security personnel: Clean • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security criminal record services -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to –– A special licence is not required for private security com- enter the private security profession panies using dogs for the provision of private security • Operational staff: 18 services • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri-Specific requirements vate security industry –– Commercial manned guarding• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– Beat patrol private security personnel: Uniforms are mandatory –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple-• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- menting the police etc.) tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– Critical infrastructure protection 75
  • 75. • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses can be used for the provision of private security services –– A special licence is not required for private security com- panies using horses for the provision of private security services• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 52 –– The training is provided by certified training institutes –– The training is financed by the guard or the employing company –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination, namely when carrying weapons –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- logical examination, namely when carrying weapons –– A background check/security check -- The certificate is issued by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Clean criminal record 76
  • 76. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011LUXEMBOURG which represent 2,500 man years1 Private security companiesGeneral information • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by lawPopulation: 502,066 –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: MinistryGross National Income (GNI): € 29.19 billion of JusticeRatio security force/population: 1/185 –– Duration of the licence: 5 yearsRatio police force/population: 1/330 –– Permission from the Ministry of Justice is also required to hire operational staff • Total number of private security companies (2010): 13Economic aspects –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: 13Private security market • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is embodied in the legislation governing the private security• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- industry curity companies (market concentration): 85% –– Percentage of single-service private security companies• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the (only carrying out private security activities): 100% private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies tions: ± 40 (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 0%Private security contracts Private security guards• Commercial contracts for the private market (private customers) • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- • Total number of private security guards (2010): 2,700 vate market: 20% –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 2,700 –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out the private market: 15 days private security activities (2010): 2,700 –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- vate market: 80% ons (2010): ± 80 –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for –– The licence fee is financed by the company the private market: 1.5 years –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi-• Commercial contracts for the public market (public vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: customers) 95% –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the • Maximum number of working hours in the private security public market: 5% industry –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for –– According to the collective labour agreement the public market: 15 days -- A maximum of 8 hours per day –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the -- A maximum of 40 hours per week public market: 95% -- Overtime: Classified as every hour exceeding 10 hours –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for per day, 56 hours per week, 192 hours per month, 1,038 the public market: 2.5 years• Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the year in the private security industry: ± 5,000,000 hours, number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 77
  • 77. hours per semester and the average of 40 hours per -- h t t p : / / w w w . l e g i l u x . p u b l i c . l u / l e g / a / a r - week, calculated on the basis of a legal reference period chives/2002/0131/a131.pdf#page=1 of 6 months -- h t t p : / / w w w . l e g i l u x . p u b l i c . l u / l e g / a / a r - -- Weekend and nights: Prohibited for Cash-In-Transit chives/2003/0152/a152.pdf#page=2 (CIT) operations between 22h00 and 06h00 –– The law regulating the private security industry allows –– According to national legislation armed private security services -- A maximum of 8 hours per day • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- A maximum of 40 hours per week amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- Overtime: Classified as every hour exceeding 10 hours try: Ministry of Justice per day, 48 hours per week and the average of 40 hours • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically per week, calculated on the basis of a legal reference covered by the legislation regulating the private security period of 1 month industry -- Weekend and nights: With authorisation –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter)• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed –– Airport security private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking –– Maritime security into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) other allowances) –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– Gross: € 2,107.67 –– Other segments, i.e. bodyguarding –– Net3: € 1,732.21• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- Controls and sanctions vate security industry: 38• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Competent national authority in charge of controls and rity industry inspections for the private security industry: Ministry of –– Men: 80% Justice and police –– Women: 20% • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private below sanctions for the private security industry security industry –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of Justice –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: Set –– Penal sanctions: Court of Justice in collective agreement • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum• Annual staff turnover rate4 in the private security industry: 15% sentence that can be imposed: € 250,000 –– This percentage does not include transfers of contracts • One of the possible sanctions can result in the with- and/or other considerations drawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licenceLegal aspects Collective labour agreementsPrivate security legislation • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- ments in place for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law of No- Entrance requirements and restrictions vember 12, 2002 and Regulation of the Grand-Duchy of 2003 (‘Loi du 12 novembre 2002’ and ‘Règlement Grand- • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private Ducal du 23 août 2003’), enacted in 2002 and 2003 security industry –– Online information can be found here –– At company level: Two authorisations are required, one from the Ministry of Trade and another from the Ministry3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives of Justice after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a –– At personal level: Authorisation from the Ministry of Justice set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 78
  • 78. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Every –– On the background of owners of private security compa- weapon mentioned in the authorisation nies: Being a fit and proper person –– On the background of private security personnel Personal level -- Being a fit and proper person -- Clean criminal record • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to viding armed private security services enter the private security profession –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry • Managers: 18 of Justice • Operational staff: 18 –– Duration of the licence: 2 years –– The licence is renewableSpecific requirements • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of weapons private security personnel –– This training comprehends: Theory and target practice• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- –– Number of training hours: 4 training sessions per year tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– The training is provided by certified security trainersPowers and competences K9 (dogs)• Private security guards have the following powers and • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services competences: No special powers –– A special licence is required for private security companies• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure using dogs for the provision of private security services -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Min-Weapons istry of Justice -- Duration of the licence: 5 yearsCompany level -- The licence is renewable • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri-• A special licence is required for private security companies vate security industry providing armed private security services –– Commercial manned guarding –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Beat patrol of Justice –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– Duration of the licence: 2 years –– Event security (crowd control) –– The licence is renewable –– Aviation security• A special licence is required for private security companies –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- owning weapons menting the police etc.) –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Critical infrastructure protection of Justice • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- –– Duration of the licence: 2 years ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for –– The licence is renewable the provision of private security services• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours: They must be stored in a secure room within an ar- Horses moured cupboard. Ammunition must be stored separately.• There is a legal obligation for a private security company • Horses can be used for the provision of private security providing armed private security services to keep a de- services tailed weapons register –– A special licence is required for private security companies• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of using horses for the provision of private security services 79
  • 79. -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Min- istry of Justice -- Duration of the licence: 5 years -- The licence is renewable• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 80 –– The training is provided by a certified training institute –– The training is financed by the company –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law• Specialised training is foreseen for the following type of private security activities –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- ing) – duration: 80 hours –– This specialised training is provided by a certified training institute• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private secu- rity guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psychological examination, namely for guards transporting valuables –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the Ministry of Justice -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Clean criminal record 80
  • 80. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011MACEDONIA • Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or otherGeneral information allowances) –– Gross: € 300Population: 2,052,722 –– Net2: € 200Gross National Income (GNI): € 6.79 billion • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri-Ratio security force/population: 1/410 vate security industry: 30Ratio police force/population: 1/213 • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industry –– Men: 98%Economic aspects –– Women: 2% • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the privatePrivate security market security industry –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy:• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- Labour law curity companies (market concentration): 47% (5% of com- panies represent 80% of the market)• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the Legal aspects private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- tions: 16 Private security legislationPrivate security companies • The private security industry is regulated by law –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on secu-• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law rity of people and property, enacted in 1999• Total number of private security companies (2010): 165 –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: 2007 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– Online information can be found here: www.obezbedu- rying out private security services: 139 vanje.org.mk• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not –– The law regulating the private security industry allows embodied in the legislation governing the private security armed private security services industry • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and amending legislation regulating the private security indus-Private security guards try: Ministry of the Interior • Area/segment of the private security industry specifically• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law covered by the legislation regulating the private security• Total number of private security guards (2010): 4,000 industry –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 4,000 –– General guarding –– The licence fee is financed by the guard• Maximum number of working hours in the private security Controls and sanctions industry –– According to national legislation • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- -- A maximum of 8 hours per day spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the -- A maximum of 40 hours per week (full-time) Interior -- Overtime: A maximum of 190 hours per year • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the below sanctions for the private security industry1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives services and not auxiliary or additional services. after taxes and other (legal) deductions. 81
  • 81. –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior ised filming equipment –– Penal sanctions: Ministry of the Interior –– Fire and disaster prevention and recovery• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Transport of valuables sentence that can be imposed: € 600-1,000 (guards) and € –– Use of force and dogs 1,500-5,000 (companies) • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal –– A search and seizure is allowed when and where deemed of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence necessary –– This constitutes a limited search and seizureCollective labour agreements Weapons• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industry Company levelEntrance requirements and restrictions • A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– On the background of owners of private security compa- of the Interior nies: Clean criminal record –– Duration of the licence: 10 years –– On the background of private security personnel: Clean –– The licence is renewable criminal record • A special licence is required for private security companies owning weaponsSpecific requirements –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry of the Interior• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– Duration of the licence: 10 years private security personnel: Uniforms must be distinct from –– The licence is not renewable those worn by the police force • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- hours: The company must have special locked and secure tion card (ID card) of private security personnel storage cabinets for weapons, secure metal cabinets, racks, –– The ID card is mandatory carts and cases for all guns –– The private security company applies for the ID card, • There is a legal obligation for a private security company which is then issued to the guard by the Ministry of the providing armed private security services to keep a de- Interior (through the Chamber of the Republic of Macedo- tailed weapons register nia for Security of People and Property) • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Pistols andPowers and competences revolvers (in accordance with the Firearms Law and by ap- proval of the Ministry of the Interior)• Private security guards have the following powers and competences Personal level –– Determine persons’ identity when entering the guarded property • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- –– Warn a person to step away from the guarded property viding armed private security services when an unauthorised individual remains at the property –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Deny access to the guarded property to unauthorised in- of the Interior dividuals –– The licence is renewable –– Apprehend and deliver to the police individuals commit- • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- ting a crime tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– Prohibit unauthorised photography and seize unauthor- weapons 82
  • 82. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– This training comprehends: Theory and target practice security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- –– Number of training hours: 10 logical examination –– The training is provided by training institutes licensed by –– A background check/security check the Ministry of the InteriorK9 (dogs)• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- nies using dogs for the provision of private security services• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 40 –– The training is provided by the Chamber of the Republic of Macedonia for Security of People and Property –– The training is financed by the guard –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training does not exist• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Event security (crowd control) –– Bodyguarding (close protection) –– Cash-in-Transit services (including cash handling/processing)• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private 83
  • 83. MALTA Controls and sanctions • Competent national authority in charge of controls and inspec-General information tions for the private security industry: Ministry of the Interior • Competent national authority in charge of imposing thePopulation: 412,970 below sanctions for the private security industryGross National Income (GNI): € 4.37 billion –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the InteriorRatio security force/population: 1/256 –– Penal sanctions: CourtsRatio police force/population: 1/215 • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum sentence that can be imposed –– Breach of company licence conditions by the company:Economic aspects fine of € 23,294 or up to one year imprisonment or both –– Breach of guard licence conditions by the guard or war-Private security companies den: fine of € 4,659 or up to six months imprisonment or both• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– Any other breaches: € 1,165 • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawalPrivate security guards of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law Collective labour agreements• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private security industry • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: ments in place for the private security industry Employment regulations Entrance requirements and restrictionsLegal aspects • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private security industryPrivate security legislation –– At company level -- Possess a licence• The private security industry is regulated by law -- Employ licensed personnel –– Law regulating the private security industry -- Pay annual fee -- Private Guards and Local Wardens Act of 1996 -- Indemnity insurance -- Chapter 389 of the Laws of Malta –– At personal level -- Private Guards Regulations Legal Notice 160/1996 -- Uniforms are required -- Private Security Wages Council Wage Regulation Order -- Training is required Legal Notice 264/2000 -- Previous education (academic training or other qualifi- -- Private Guards and Local Wardens Regulations Legal cations) is required Notice 115/2002 -- Criminal records check –– The law regulating the private security industry does not -- Awarding authority: police and Criminal Records De- allow armed private security services partment• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically -- Proficiency in Maltese or English covered by the legislation regulating the private security • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies –– General guarding (excluding the segment listed hereafter) -- No conviction of crimes against persons or property –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) fined over € 2,329 or crimes against public trust and not have been convicted in the last five years 84
  • 84. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- No discharge from police or military service due to of- –– This training programme is mandatory by law fence or misbehaviour • When applying for an individual private security guard li- -- Not hold public office cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- -- Not have been previously declared bankrupt or be in a tion to undergo precarious financial situation –– A background check/security check -- Hold the necessary qualifications -- This background check/security check is carried out by –– On the background of private security personnel the police and the Criminal Records Department -- No conviction of crimes against persons or property -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass fined over € 2,329 or crimes against public trust and this check are: Clean criminal record not have been convicted in the last five years -- No discharge from police or military service due to of- fence or misbehaviour -- Not hold public office -- Not have been previously declared bankrupt or be in a precarious financial situation -- Hold the necessary qualifications -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security profession • Managers: 18 • Operational staff: 18Specific requirements• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel: They must be approved by the Commissioner of Police• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– The Commissioner of Police issues the ID cards –– ID cards remain the property of the CommissionerPowers and competences• Private security guards are allowed to perform a search and seizure –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Only with the consent of the individual –– This constitutes a limited search and seizureK9 (dogs)• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training 85
  • 85. NORWAY which represent ± 7,000 man years1 Private security companiesGeneral information • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by lawPopulation: 4,858,199 • Total number of private security companies (2010): 250Gross National Income (GNI): € 312.59 billion –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-Ratio security force/population: 1/387 rying out private security services: ± 180Ratio police force/population: 1/567 • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not embodied in the legislation governing the private security industryEconomic aspects –– Other activities performed by private security companies next to private security activities: Cleaning, maintenance,Private security market control on alcohol sale, road maintenance control• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: Private security guards € 934 million• Market growth of the private security industry (based on • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law yearly turnover) • Total number of private security guards (2010): 7,750 –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 45% –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 7,750 –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 8% –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 8% private security activities (2010): 7,750 –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 8% –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 8% ons (2010): 0 –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 6% –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 6% ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 60%• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Maximum number of working hours in the private security curity companies (market concentration): 85% industry• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security –– According to the collective labour agreement industry segment -- A maximum of 7.5 hours per day –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- -- A maximum of 37.5 hours per week ter): € 500 million -- Overtime: 200 hours per year –– Airport security: € 106 million –– According to national legislation –– Maritime security: € 10 million -- A maximum of 7.5 hours per day –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 124 million -- A maximum of 37.7 hours per week –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 194 million -- Overtime: 200 hours per year• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking tions: None into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances)Private security contracts –– Gross: € 3,125• Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of year in the private security industry: 12,436,000 hours, hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 86
  • 86. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Net3: € 2,100 Controls and sanctions• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charges paid by the employer) of all private security guards (including • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) spections for the private security industry: Police –– Gross: € 3,350 • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the –– Net4: € 2,250 below sanctions for the private security industry• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- –– Administrative sanctions: Police vate security industry: 25 –– Penal sanctions: Police• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum rity industry sentence that can be imposed: No maximum amount –– Men: 70% • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal –– Women: 30% of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private security industry Collective labour agreements• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 25% –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- other considerations ments in place for the private security industry Entrance requirements and restrictionsLegal aspects • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the privatePrivate security legislation security industry –– At company level• The private security industry is regulated by law -- 18 years of age –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on -- No criminal record Guarding (‘Vaktvirksomhetsloven’), enacted in 2001 -- Citizen of an EEA Member State –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: 2004 and 2011 -- Business office has to be in Norway –– Online information can be found here: http://www.lov- -- Manager has to be registered in the Norwegian Business data.no/for/sf/jd/jd-20040525-0787.html Register (‘Brønnøysundregisteret’) –– The law regulating the private security industry does not -- The police will also check that the applicant has a cer- allow armed private security services tain standard of behaviour• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- The licence to operate as a private security company amending legislation regulating the private security indus- has to be sent to the police authority in the district in try: Department of Justice which the head office is based• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– At personal level covered by the legislation regulating the private security -- Criminal records check industry -- The basic requirement is that the criminal records check –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) has to be satisfactory –– Airport security -- Awarding authority: Police –– Maritime security • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– On the background of owners of private security compa- –– Monitoring and remote surveillance nies: Clean police record –– Other segments, i.e. loss prevention –– On the background of private security personnel: Clean police record -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. enter the private security profession4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives • Managers: 18 after taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a • Operational staff: 18 set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 87
  • 87. Specific requirements Training and related provisions• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow of private security personnel: They must be distinct from basic guard training those worn by the police –– This training programme is mandatory by law (April 1, 2012)• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- –– Number of training hours: 185 tion card (ID card) of private security personnel: According –– The training is provided by companies selected by the gov- to the law of April 1, 2011 ernment –– The training is financed by the company and in some casesPowers and competences by the guard –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa-• Private security guards have the following powers and nies whose employees are following basic training competences: Same powers as any other citizen –– Upon successfully completing the basic training and an of-• They are allowed to perform a search and seizure ficial examination, private security guards are issued with –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: a certificate of competence Only when weapons can be hidden on the person or in • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for a bag private security managers, i.e. operational managerial –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure: Guards are staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) not allowed to search under clothing • Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every 4K9 (dogs) years (including an official examination) –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of services private security activities –– A special licence is required for private security companies –– Commercial manned guarding – included in the basic using dogs for the provision of private security services guard training -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– Beat patrol – included in the basic guarding training -- The licence is renewable –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – included in• Dogs can only be used as close protection for the security the basic guard training guard –– In-house manned security – included in the basic guard• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- training vate security industry –– Event security (crowd control) – included in the basic –– Commercial manned guarding guard training –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– Door supervision (bouncing) – included in the basic guard –– Maritime security training –– Private security training –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – basic guard training +• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- specialised training tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the –– Cash-in-Transit services (including cash handling/process- provision of private security services ing) – basic guard training + specialised training –– This training comprises: Theory and practice –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – included in the basic guard –– Guards must pass an examination training –– Aviation security – basic guard training + specialisedHorses training –– Maritime security – included in the basic guard training• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols com- services plementing the police etc.) – included in the basic guard training 88
  • 88. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Critical infrastructure protection – basic guard training + specialised training –– Fire prevention and protection services – included in the basic guard training –– Receptionist/concierge services – included in the basic guard training –– Private security training – regulated by law –– Other area/segment, namely: loss prevention – basic guard training + specialised training –– These specialised trainings are provided by the company• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A psychotechnical/psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psy- chological examination, namely when working on oil platforms –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No serious criminal offence (only minor traffic offences are allowed) -- The background check/security check is carried out each year for all security guards• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo –– A medical examination -- However, there are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical exami- nation, namely when working on oil platforms 89
  • 89. POLAND –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the private market: 2 weeks –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri-General information vate market: 90% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forPopulation: 38,167,329 the private market: 4 yearsGross National Income (GNI): € 357.60 billion • Number of commercial contracts for the public marketRatio security force/population: 1/190 (public customers): 20,000Ratio police force/population: 1/388 –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: 1% –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts forEconomic aspects the public market: 1 week –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for thePrivate security market public market: 95% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: the public market: 3 years € 1.5 billion • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours• Market growth of the private security industry (based on sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each yearly turnover) year in the private security industry: 275,000,000 hours, –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 3% which represent 1,276,596 man years1 –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 2% –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 5% Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 9% –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 5% • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 5% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 3,200 –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 2% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- rying out private security services: > 3,000 curity companies (market concentration): 30% • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security embodied in the legislation governing the private security industry segment industry –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- –– Other activities performed by private security companies ter): € 805.97 million next to private security activities: Cleaning, fire prevention –– Maritime security: € 4.50 million –– Percentage of single-service private security companies –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 454.77 million (only carrying out private security activities): 25% –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 198.12 million –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Other segments (not included in the market value) (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private -- Technical security: € 652.98 million security activities): 75%• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- Private security guards tions: 500 armoured cars and 1,500 adjusted vehicles • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by lawPrivate security contracts • Total number of private security guards (2010): 200,000• Number of commercial contracts for the private market 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of (private customers): 300,000 hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially vate market: 10% recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 90
  • 90. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 65,000 Legal aspects –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out private security activities (2010): 58,000 Private security legislation –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- ons (2010): 35,000. Weapons are allocated to the private • The private security industry is regulated by law security companies. Security guards may carry weapons –– Law regulating the private security industry: Act on the upon admission to the company. Weapons are issued by the Protection of People and Property, enacted in 1997 police, but their use is restricted to certain assignments. –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Personal –– The licence fee is financed by the company and/or guard licence for foreigners, rationalisation of procedures re- –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- garding documentation ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 55% –– Online information can be found here• Maximum number of working hours in the private security -- Act on the Protection of People and Property: http:// industry isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19971140740 –– According to national legislation -- Executive legislation: http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/RelatedSer -- A maximum of 14 hours per day vlet;jsessionid=764CE3CE19AB8A8C786C3549C60FD1D -- A maximum of 40 hours per week 7?id=WDU19971140740&type=9&isNew=true -- Overtime: 8 hours -- Act on Mass Events Security: http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/Det -- Weekend: 24 hours ailsServlet?id=WDU20090620504 -- Nights: 8 hours -- Executive legislation: http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/RelatedSer -- Stand-by: 13 hours vlet;jsessionid=4F057316DF6EE771BFD345D94A80F55• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed E?id=WDU20090620504&type=9&isNew=true private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking –– The law regulating the private security industry allows into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or armed private security services other allowances) • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and –– Gross: € 312.04 amending legislation regulating the private security indus- –– Net3: € 232.34 try: Parliament• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- covered by the legislation regulating the private security cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other industry allowances) –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– Gross: € 326.44 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– Net4: € 247.66 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- vate security industry: 38 Controls and sanctions• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- rity industry • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- –– Men: 95% spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the –– Women: 5% Interior and the Chief of Police• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is not in place in the • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the private security industry below sanctions for the private security industry• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 93% –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior and the –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or Chief of Police other considerations –– Penal sanctions: Courts • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after sentence that can be imposed: taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after –– Company: € 4.50-1,125 and other sanctions as per other taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a generally applicable acts – maximum sentence of 2 years set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 91
  • 91. –– Employee: € 22.52-243,152.54 depending on income – –– At personal level maximum sentence of 5 years -- Clean criminal record• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal -- Over 21 years of age of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence -- Must have completed secondary education –– The Minister of the Interior shall withdraw the licence • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry should the entrepreneur, as a result of his/her operations, –– On the background of owners of private security companies cause threat to -- No criminal record -- The interest of the national economy -- Pose no threat to national security, public security and -- State defense or security the security and safety of citizens -- The safety or personal property of citizens -- No previous licence withdrawal -- Fail to conform to the duties specified in the Act on Per- –– On the background of private security personnel: No crim- sonal and Property Protection inal record • Fail to notify the licensing authority of having en- -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to gaged in business operations enter the private security profession • Fail to keep and/or store records of such operations • Managers: 21 in compliance with the provisions of the Ordinance • Operational staff: 18 of the Ministry of the Interior (fail to keep and/ or store documentation concerning security em- Specific requirements ployees, fail to keep and/or store any agreements signed) • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnelCollective labour agreements • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour –– They should be clearly distinct from the IDs and badges of agreements in place for the private security industry: Col- public service officers and employees lective agreements are mainly concluded at company level Powers and competencesEntrance requirements and restrictions • Private security guards have the following powers and• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private competences: Within the limits of guarded areas and sites, security industry guards have the right to –– At company level –– Determine the right of individuals to be present or not in -- No criminal record the guarded area or site -- No court convictions –– Check individuals’ IDs in order to establish their identity -- The Director of the Permits and Licences Department –– Order individuals to leave a site or area if they are unauthorised of the Ministry of the Interior issues licences for private –– Apprehend and deliver to the police any unauthorised in- security companies upon having obtained an opinion dividual of the Chief of Police for the relevant local authority • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure (‘voivodship’) -- A licence may be refused or limited in scope to an entre- Weapons preneur, who constitutes a threat to national security or the personal rights of citizens Company level -- A licence may be refused to an entrepreneur, who, in the past three years, has had a licence for such activi- • A special licence is required for private security companies ties revoked or who has been removed from a company providing armed private security services register because of fraudulent declarations or who de- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Chief of Police clared bankruptcy –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended 92
  • 92. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• A special licence is required for private security companies • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- owning weapons vate security industry –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Chief of Police –– Commercial manned guarding –– Duration of the licence: According to the duration of a –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services specific assignment –– In-house manned security –– The licence is renewable –– Aviation security• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours –– Maritime security –– Weapons should be stored securely on site –– Critical infrastructure protection –– Storage containers should be covered with a steel sheet –– Private security training with a thickness of more than 2 mm and have at least two • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- deadbolt locks tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the –– Windows should be covered with steel mesh, permanently provision of private security services fixed in the wall bars, made from steel rods with a diameter –– This training comprises: Theory and practice of at least 12 mm or flat steel of at least 8 mm x 30 mm; –– Number of training hours: 240-350 spacing between the bars of the grid should not exceed 120 –– The training is provided by certified security training institutes mm x 120 mm, 80 mm horizontally and 240 mm vertically –– The site must be equipped with a controlled burglar alarm Horses –– Arms and ammunition, which are not used for the tasks of protection, should be stored in steel cabinets in a warehouse • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security –– Firearms for storage should be removed from their case services and disconnected from the magazine• There is a legal obligation for a private security company Training and related provisions providing armed private security services to keep a de- tailed weapons register • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of basic guard training weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Limited –– This training programme is mandatory by law to pistols, revolvers, rifles, machine pistols, shotguns and –– Number of training hours: 8 electric stun guns –– The training is provided by the company –– The training is financed by the companyPersonal level –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies whose employees are following basic training: Training is• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- delivered during working hours (paid time) viding armed private security services –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, pri- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Chief of Police vate security guards are not issued with a certificate –– Duration of the licence: Depends on the duration of a spe- of competence cific assignment • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private –– The licence is renewable security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ-• Private security guards must follow specialised and obligatory encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use weapons –– Number of training hours: 350 –– Number of training hours: 240-350 • Follow-up or refresher training does not exist –– The training is provided by certified security training institutes • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activitiesK9 (dogs) –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 240 hours –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 20-62 hours• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- ing) – duration: 240 hours nies using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Fire prevention and protection services – duration: 619 hours 93
  • 93. –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified secu- rity training institutes• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination, namely before first employment; then a regular medical examination every 3 years –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- logical examination, namely for the private licence ap- plication procedure; licence required for specific positions –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the National Criminal Register -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal offence, no conviction 94
  • 94. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011PORTUGAL • Total number of private security guards (2010): ± 38,928 –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out private security activities (2009): 21,188General information –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- ons (2010): The use of weapons depends on specific con-Population: 10,637,713 tracts, so this figure variesGross National Income (GNI): € 178.25 billion –– The licence fee is financed by the guard and/or the companyRatio security force/population: 1/275 –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ-Ratio police force/population: 1/228 ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 60% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security industryEconomic aspects –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 8 hours per dayPrivate security market -- A maximum of 40 hours per week -- Overtime: First hour is paid at an additional 50% of nor-• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: mal salary; further hours are paid at an additional 75% € 730 million -- Weekend and nights: Nights are paid at an extra 100%;• Market growth of the private security industry (based on holidays are paid at an extra 200% yearly turnover) -- Stand-by: Discretionary –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: ± 7% • Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: ± 9.4% es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: ± 4.4% cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: ± 5.2% allowances)• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– Gross: € 600 curity companies (market concentration): 85% –– Net2: € 480• Repartition of yearly turnover (2008) by private security • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- industry segment vate security industry: 42 (male) and 38 (female) –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter): 78% • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): 10% rity industry –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: 12% –– Men: 80% –– Women: 20%Private security companies • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private security industry in line with general national equal op-• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law portunities legislation• Total number of private security companies (2010): 160 • Annual staff turnover rate3 in the private security industry: 35% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or rying out private security services: 105 other considerations• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not embodied in the legislation governing the private security industry Legal aspectsPrivate security guards Private security legislation• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law • The private security industry is regulated by law 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially after taxes and other (legal) deductions. recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 3 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 95
  • 95. –– Law regulating the private security industry: Decree No. • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal 35/2004, enacted in 2004 of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since –– Temporary or definite suspension or withdrawal of the -- Decree No.198/2005, enacted in 2005 licence depending on the infraction -- Decree No. 38/2008, enacted in 2008 -- Decree No. 135/2010, enacted in 2010 Collective labour agreements –– Online information can be found here -- http://www.cnpd.pt/bin/le gis/nacional/DL35- • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- 2004-VVG-SEGURANCAPRIVADA.pdf ments in place for the private security industry -- h t t p : / / t r a n s l a t e . g o o g l e . c o . u k / translate?hl=en&sl=pt&u=http://segurancaprivada. Entrance requirements and restrictions mai-gov.info/legislacao/&ei=hvzETpO_CMTJhAfM15nc DQ&sa=X&oi=translate&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2 • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private &ved=0CCMQ7gEwAA&prev=/search%3Fq%3DDecree security industry %2B(Despacho)%2Bn%25C2%25BA%2B6159%2B/%2B –– At company level 2002%2B%2Bportugu%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1772% -- Adequate premises and human resources 26bih%3D1007%26prmd%3Dimvns -- At least 15 contracted employees –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Financial guarantee up to € 45,000 given to the Minis- armed private security services. The carrying of arms by try of the Interior private security guards is governed by common law con- -- Liability insurance of minimum € 250,000 for Cash-In- cerning the possession, carrying and use of weapons. For Transit companies professional security purposes an additional authorisa- -- Theft insurance of minimum € 2,000,000 tion from the employing company is required. -- Headquarters or subsidiary must be located in Portugal• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- A minimum share capital is required (except for compa- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- nies licensed and operating in the EU with a subsidiary try: Ministry of the Interior in Portugal)• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically • € 50,000 for monitoring and remote surveillance covered by the legislation regulating the private security services industry • € 125,000 for general guarding and surveillance –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) services –– Airport security • € 250,000 for Cash-In-Transit operations –– Maritime security –– At personal level –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) -- Minimum age of 18 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance -- Minimum mandatory education (9 years) –– Other segment, i.e. bodyguarding -- Proof of physical and mental aptitude -- Clean criminal recordControls and sanctions • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- -- Not have performed functions or duties of public con- spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the trol in private security for three years Interior -- No previous conviction for the last three years for serious• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the transgressions with respect to private security legislation below sanctions for the private security industry -- Not have been dismissed from the army, information –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior services or public security forces –– Penal sanctions: Ministry of the Interior –– On the background of private security personnel• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum -- Not have performed functions or duties of public con- sentence that can be imposed: € 100-40,000 trol in private security for three years 96
  • 96. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- No previous conviction for the last three years for serious Personal level transgressions with respect to private security legislation -- Not have been dismissed from the army, information • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- services or public security forces viding armed private security services -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to –– The licence is renewable enter the private security profession • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- • Managers: 18 tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use • Operational staff: 18 weapons –– Number of training hours: 58 hours of basic training (30Specific requirements additional hours for staff carrying firearms and 42 addi- tional hours for Cash-In-Transit operations)• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– The training is provided by state schools and training private security personnel centres approved for this purpose by the Ministry of the• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- Interior tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– Mandatory ID card issued by the Ministry of the Interior K9 (dogs) –– Valid for 5 years –– Renewable after refresher training • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security ser- vicesPowers and competences –– A special licence is required for private security companies using dogs for the provision of private security services• Private security guards are allowed to perform a search -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police and seizure authorities –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases -- Duration of the licence: Only as long as authorised in -- At entrance points to sports venues, airports and port writing facilities -- The licence is renewable -- Personnel qualified to control these points may con- • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- duct personal and baggage searches using the necessary tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the equipment provision of private security services –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure –– This training comprises: Theory and practical exercises –– The training is provided by accredited training centresWeapons HorsesCompany level • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security• A special licence is required for private security companies services providing armed private security services –– For professional security purposes, an additional authori- Training and related provisions sation from the employing company is required• A special licence is required for private security companies • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow owning weapons basic guard training• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours –– This training programme is mandatory by law: Ordinance• There is a legal obligation for a private security company (‘Portaria’) No. 1325/2001 determining the duration and providing armed private security services to keep a de- content of initial basic training for guards and body- tailed weapons register guards• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of –– Number of training hours: 58 hours of mandatory basic weapons used and/or to the ammunition used training for operational staff on the following terms 97
  • 97. -- 58 hours general basic training -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass -- 42 hours additional training for those engaged in the this check are: No criminal conviction for fraud or other transport of valuables, guarding and protection of per- offences involving wilful intent sons, the protection of goods and guarding of buildings -- 30 hours additional training for staff carrying firearms -- 36 hours additional training for bouncers in pubs and clubs where guests are able to dance -- Staff must pass two written examinations –– The training is provided by state schools and training in- stitutes approved for this purpose by the Ministry of the Interior –– The training is financed by the company –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training exists• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 72 hours –– Bouncing – duration: 36 hours –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- ing) – duration: 42 hours –– Guarding and protection of persons – duration: 42 hours –– Protection of goods and guarding of buildings – duration: 42 hours –– Staff carrying firearms – duration: 30 hours –– These specialised trainings are provided by entities that hold a licence or specialised agencies authorised under the applicable Decrees and special regulations• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination, namely for carrying weapons –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- logical examination, namely for carrying weapons –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police authorities and companies 98
  • 98. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011ROMANIA • Maximum number of working hours in the private security industry –– According to national legislationGeneral information -- A maximum of 8 hours per day -- A maximum of 48 hours per weekPopulation: 21,462,186 -- Overtime: 8 hoursGross National Income (GNI): € 232.42 billion -- Weekend and nights: 8 hoursRatio security force/population: 1/229 -- Stand-by: 48 hoursRatio police force/population: 1/1,050 • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/orEconomic aspects other allowances) –– Gross: € 160Private security market –– Net2: € 120 • Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg-• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- € 643.3 million cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other• Market growth of the private security industry (based on allowances) yearly turnover): ± 2.8% –– Gross: € 290• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– Net3: € 250 curity companies (market concentration): 18.5% • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri-• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the vate security industry: 35 private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- tions: 1,500 rity industry –– Men: 85%Private security companies –– Women: 15% • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law security industry in line with general national provisions• Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,282 –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: La-• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not bour Code embodied in the legislation governing the private security • Annual staff turnover rate4 in the private security industry: industry ± 35-40% –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/orPrivate security guards other considerations• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Total number of private security guards (2010): 107,000 Legal aspects –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 96,500 –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- Private security legislation ons (2010): 35,542 –– There is no licence fee to be paid by the company nor by • The private security industry is regulated by law the guard –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law No. 333, –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- enacted in 2003 ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 90% 2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. 3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially after taxes and other (legal) deductions. recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 4 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 99
  • 99. –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Law No. –– At personal level 40, enacted in 2010 -- Medical examination –– Online information can be found here -- Basic private security training -- http://www.fss.org.ro -- Romanian or EU citizenship -- http://www.igpr.ro/ordine_publica/societati_paza.htm -- Aged 18 years or over -- http://www.apcs.ro/ro/legislatie.html -- No criminal record for crimes committed with intent –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Have completed primary education armed private security services • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and –– On the background of owners of private security companies amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- Aged 21 years or over try: Ministry of Administration and the Interior through -- No medical/psychological issues, which are incompat- the General Inspectorate of the police ible with working in the private security industry• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically -- No criminal record for crimes committed with intent (as covered by the legislation regulating the private security stipulated in the private security legislation) industry -- Have completed private security training –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– On the background of private security personnel –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) -- Proficiency in Romanian –– Monitoring and remote surveillance -- Aged 18 years or over –– Other segments -- No medical/psychological issues, which are incompat- -- Close protection (bodyguarding) ible with working in the private security industry -- Installation and maintenance of alarm systems -- No criminal record for crimes committed with intent -- Have completed private security trainingControls and sanctions -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security profession• Competent national authority in charge of controls and • Managers: 21 inspections for the private security industry: General In- • Operational staff: 18 spectorate of the police• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the Specific requirements below sanctions for the private security industry –– Administrative sanctions: General Inspectorate of the police • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– Penal sanctions: General Inspectorate of the police private security personnel• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Uniforms are different for each company sentence that can be imposed: € 2,500 or 3 years impris- –– Uniforms must be approved by the General Inspectorate onment of the police• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal –– They must only be worn during working hours of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence –– They must not create confusion with those of the public authoritiesCollective labour agreements • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour –– The ID card must contain the name and the surname of agreements in place for the private security industry the guard as well as the name of the employing companyEntrance requirements and restrictions Powers and competences• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • Private security guards have the following powers and security industry competences –– At company level: Licence –– Check identity100
  • 100. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Search persons, belongings and vehicles –– Number of training hours: 30 –– Deny access to unauthorised individuals –– The training is provided by authorised companies –– Stop and apprehend individuals when committing a crim- inal act K9 (dogs) –– Perform first responder functions in case of fire or other disasters • The use of dogs is not regulated, but they can be used if• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure defined in the security plan –– The dog and the dog handler must have the necessaryWeapons qualifications • Dogs can be used in all types of security operations withCompany level the prior approval of the police • Private security guards are required to follow specialised• A special licence is required for private security companies and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use providing armed private security services dogs for the provision of private security services –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: General –– The training is provided by authorised training centres Inspectorate of the police –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended Horses• A special licence is required for private security companies owning weapons • The use of horses is not regulated –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: General Inspectorate of the police Training and related provisions –– The licence is renewable• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow hours: Secure weapons room basic guard training• There is a legal obligation for a private security company –– This training programme is mandatory by law providing armed private security services to keep a de- –– Number of training hours: 360 tailed weapons register –– The training is provided by specialised companies ap-• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of proved by the Ministry Administration and the Interior weapons used and/or to the ammunition used and the National Authority of Qualifications (ANC) –– Weapons for protection and security (maximum 9 mm –– The training is financed by the company or the guard. calibre, lethal weapons category B) Usually, private security companies support the cost re- –– Weapons for self-protection (non-lethal weapons category C) lated to qualification courses of their employees. –– The number of weapons used is defined in the security –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies plan whose employees are following basic training: ANOFM (Na- –– Ammunition: 50 or 100 bullets (projectiles) tional Employment Agency). These schemes are valid only to train unemployed persons who are changing professions.Personal level –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for viding armed private security services private security managers, i.e. operational managerial –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: General staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) Inspectorate of the police • Follow-up or refresher training exists –– The licence is renewable –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- at company level tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law weapons • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– This training comprehends: Theory and practical exercises private security activities 101
  • 101. –– Beat patrol –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– In-house manned security –– Event security (crowd control) –– Door supervision (bouncing) –– Bodyguarding (close protection) –– Cash-in-Transit services (including cash handling/processing) –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- menting the police etc.) –– Critical infrastructure protection –– Fire prevention and protection services –– Canine (K9) services –– Receptionist/concierge services –– Private investigation –– Security consulting –– Private security training –– These specialised trainings are provided by specialised companies approved by the Ministry of Administration and the Interior and the National Authority for Qualifica- tions (ANC)• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination, namely when carrying weapons and/or driving cars –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- logical examination, namely when carrying weapons and/or driving cars –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: No criminal record for crimes committed with intent102
  • 102. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011SERBIA –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for the private market: 3 years • Number of commercial contracts for the public marketGeneral information (public customers): 6,000 –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for thePopulation: 7,306,677 public market: 85%Gross National Income (GNI): € 33.62 billion –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts forRatio security force/population: 1/146 the public market: 12 monthsRatio police force/population: 1/218 –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: 15% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forEconomic aspects the public market: 3 years • Number of in-house contracts: 100Private security market –– Percentage of short-term in-house contracts: 10% –– Average duration of short-term in-house contracts: 12• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: months € 180 million –– Percentage of long-term in-house contracts: 90%• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Average duration of in-house contracts: 5 years yearly turnover) • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 10% sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 12% year in the private security industry: 150,000,000 hours, –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 14% which represent 100,000,000 man years1 –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 20%• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- Private security companies curity companies (market concentration): 58%• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law industry segment • Total number of private security companies (2010): 797 –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- ter): € 92 million rying out private security services: 580 –– Airport security: € 4 million • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 62.5 million embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 1.5 million industry –– Other segments –– Percentage of single-service private security companies -- Electronic security: € 20 million (only carrying out private security activities): 60%• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the private –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations: ± 800 (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 40%Private security contracts Private security guards• Number of commercial contracts for the private market (private customers): 8,500 • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- • Total number of private security guards (2010): 50,000 vate market: 70% –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of the private market: 12 months hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially vate market: 30% recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 103
  • 103. –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 50,000 –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- other considerations ons (2010): > 50% –– The licence fee is financed jointly by the guard and the company Legal aspects –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 20% Private security legislation• Maximum number of working hours in the private security industry • The private security industry is regulated by law –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on Pri- -- A maximum of 12 hours per day vate Security, enacted in 2011 -- A maximum of 42 hours per week –– Online information can be found here: www.pks.rs -- Overtime: 2 hours per day –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Weekend and nights: 50% armed private security services (in accordance with the -- Stand-by: 10% Law on Weapons and Ammunition) –– According to national legislation • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- A maximum of 8 hours per day amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- A maximum of 40 hours per week try: Ministry of the Interior -- Overtime: 2 hours per day • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically -- Weekend and nights: 50% covered by the legislation regulating the private security -- Stand-by: 10% industry• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking –– Airport security into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) other allowances) –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– Gross: € 270 –– Other segments –– Net3: € 200 -- Technical protection• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- -- Private investigation es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other Controls and sanctions allowances) –– Gross: € 270 • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- –– Net4: € 200 spections for the private security industry: Police• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the vate security industry: 35 below sanctions for the private security industry• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Administrative sanctions: Magistrate rity industry –– Penal sanctions: Court –– Men: 80% • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Women: 20% sentence that can be imposed: € 10,000 (company); € 500• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is not in place in the (guard or security manager) private security industry • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence 30% Collective labour agreements3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour after taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a agreements in place for the private security industry set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period.104
  • 104. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Entrance requirements and restrictions petences: The law stipulates powers and competences in relation to the use of weapons, physical force, dogs and the• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private power of restraint and sets limits to their use and exercise security industry • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure –– At company level –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: If a -- Security check crime is being committed or can be prevented -- Minimum of completed secondary education –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure -- Serbian nationality -- Attestation of physical and mental fitness Weapons -- Minimum age of 18 -- At least one member of the managerial staff must also Company level be in possession of a guard licence –– At personal level • A special licence is required for private security companies -- Clean criminal record providing armed private security services -- Minimum of completed secondary education –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police -- Serbian nationality –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended, but can be revoked -- Attestation of physical and mental fitness • A special licence is required for private security companies -- Minimum age of 18 owning weapons -- Basic relevant vocational training and a completed vo- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police cational examination –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended as long as the com-• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry pany is in operation –– On the background of owners of private security compa- • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after nies: None hours: In a secure storeroom at the company premises –– On the background of private security personnel • There is a legal obligation for a private security company -- Clean criminal record providing armed private security services to keep a de- -- Minimum of completed secondary education tailed weapons register -- Serbian nationality • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of -- Attestation of physical and mental fitness weapons used and/or to the ammunition used -- Minimum age of 18 –– 9 mm calibre -- Basic relevant vocational training and a completed vo- –– No more than 50% of the total number of employees can cational examination be authorised to carry weapons -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the private security profession Personal level • Managers: 18 • Operational staff: 18 • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- viding armed private security servicesSpecific requirements –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– Duration of the licence: 5 years• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– The licence is renewable private security personnel • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– They must be clearly distinct from those worn by the police tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- weapons tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– This training comprises: Theory, target practice and an examinationPowers and competences –– Number of training hours: 18 –– The training is provided by a certified rifle range with a• Private security guards have the following powers and com- police representative present 105
  • 105. K9 (dogs) • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 50 + 30 hours –– A special licence is required for private security companies –– Beat patrol – duration: 50 + 30 hours using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Certi- 50 + 30 hours fied training centres –– In-house manned security – duration: 50 + 30 hours -- Duration of the licence: Open-ended, but can be revoked –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 50 + 30 hours• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 50 + 30 hours vate security industry –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 50 + 30 hours –– Commercial manned guarding –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- –– In-house manned security ing) – duration: 50 + 30 hours –– Critical infrastructure protection –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 50 + 30 hours• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Aviation security – duration: 50 + 30 hours tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the –– Critical infrastructure protection – duration: 50 + 30 provision of private security services hours – – This training comprises: Theory, practice and an ex- –– Fire prevention and protection services – duration: 50 + amination 30 hours –– Number of training hours: 50 hours of basic training and –– Receptionist/concierge services – duration: 50 + 30 hours an additional 30 hours of specialised training depending –– Private investigation – duration: 80 hours on the work being performed –– Security consulting – duration: 80 hours –– The training is provided by certified training centres –– Private security training – duration: 15 hours –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified train-Horses ing centres • When applying for an individual private security guard li-• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- services tion to undergo –– A medical examinationTraining and related provisions -- There are specific work situations for which a private security guard must undergo a medical examination,• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow namely when using weapons basic guard training –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– This training programme is mandatory by law -- There are specific work situations for which a private –– Number of training hours: 50 security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- –– The training is provided by certified training centres logical examination –– The training is financed by the company or the guard –– A background check/security check –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies -- This background check/security check is carried out by whose employees are following basic training the police –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass security guards are issued with a certificate of competence this check are: Clean criminal record• Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– Number of training hours: 30• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law106
  • 106. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011SLOVAKIA private security services and on amendments and supple- ments to certain laws (Private Security Act) –– Online information can be found here: http://www.pri-General information vatesecurityregulation.net/files/2005%20Law%20on%20 Private%20Security%20Services.pdfPopulation: 5,424,925 –– The law regulating the private security industry allows al-Gross National Income (GNI): € 59.99 billion low armed private security servicesRatio security force/population: 1/314 • Competent national authority in charge of drafting andRatio police force/population: 1/251 amending legislation regulating the private security indus- try: Ministry of the Interior • Areas/segments of the private security industry specificallyEconomic aspects covered by the legislation regulating the private security industryPrivate security companies –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT)• Licensing for private security companies is not mandatory –– Monitoring and remote surveillance by law –– The Private Security Act states “Any security service provi- sion licence holder under this Act shall be authorised toPrivate security guards provide all kinds of security service and technical service (…)”• Licensing for private security guards is not mandatory by law• Total number of private security guards (2008): ± 17,200 Controls and sanctions• Maximum number of working hours in the private security industry • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- –– According to national legislation spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the -- A maximum of 12 hours per day Interior -- A maximum of 40 hours per week • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the -- Overtime: 150 hours per year below sanctions for the private security industry• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior security industry –– Penal sanctions: Ministry of the Interior • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum sentence that can be imposed: Up to € 33,140.05Legal aspects • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licencePrivate security legislation Collective labour agreements• The private security industry is regulated by law –– Law regulating the private security industry • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour -- Act of the National Council of the Slovak Republic No. agreements in place for the private security industry 379/1997 on the Operation of Private Security Services -- Act No. 225/2000, Act No. 440/2004, Act No. 418/2004 Entrance requirements and restrictions and Act No. 181/2004 -- Regulation of the Ministry of the Interior of the Slovak • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private Republic No. 550/2001 in execution of certain provi- security industry sions of Act No. 100/2004 –– At company level –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Act No. -- Minimum 21 years of age 473/2005 of September 23, 2005 on the provisions of -- Physically and mentally fit 107
  • 107. -- High school education • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure -- 7-day training course –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: If –– At personal level the interests protected by a security service are jeopardised -- Criminal records check is required or violated -- Physical fitness –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure -- Integrity -- Reliability Weapons -- Permanent residence or reported and registered resi- dence in the Slovak Republic Company level• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies • A special licence is required for private security companies -- EU Member State, EEA, or Swiss citizen providing armed private security services -- Minimum 21 years of age –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry -- Unlimited legal capacity of the Interior -- Integrity • A special licence is required for private security companies -- Reliability owning weapons -- Physical fitness –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry -- Required professional qualifications of the Interior –– On the background of private security personnel • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after -- EU Member State, EEA, or Swiss citizen hours -- Minimum 21 years of age –– Must be stored in safes -- Unlimited legal capacity –– Ammunition must be stored in rooms separately from the -- Integrity weapons -- Reliability • There is a legal obligation for a private security company -- Physical fitness providing armed private security services to keep a de- -- Required professional qualifications tailed weapons register -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of enter the private security profession weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Category • Managers: 21 A weapons • Operational staff: 21 Personal levelSpecific requirements • A special licence is required for private security guards pro-• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of viding armed private security services private security personnel –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Uniforms are optional of the Interior –– The police must be informed about the type and design of • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- uniforms used by a private security company tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- weapons tion card (ID card) of private security personnel –– This training comprises: Theory and target practicePowers and competences K9 (dogs)• Private security guards have the following powers and • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services competences –– A special licence is not required for private security com- –– Hold offender until the police arrives panies using dogs for the provision of private security –– Secure evidence services108
  • 108. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses• Horses can be used for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law –– Number of training hours: 40 –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Beat patrol – duration: 4 hours –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 2 hours –– Fire prevention and protection services – duration: 7 hours –– Receptionist/concierge services – duration: 3 hours –– Other areas/segments – duration: 24 hours• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police authorities -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Clean criminal record 109
  • 109. SLOVENIA -- A maximum of 40 hours per week -- Overtime: A maximum of 20 hours per month • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armedGeneral information private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/orPopulation: 2,046,976 other allowances)Gross National Income (GNI): € 36.78 billion –– Gross: € 550Ratio security force/population: 1/326 • Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg-Ratio police force/population: 1/256 es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances)Economic aspects –– Gross: € 750 • Percentage of men and women active in the private secu-Private security market rity industry –– Men: 95%• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: € –– Women: 5% 1.3 million • An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private security industry in line with general national legislationPrivate security companies –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: La- bour Code• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law • Annual staff turnover rate2 in the private security industry: 25%• Total number of private security companies (2010): 113 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- rying out private security services: This number changes Legal aspects on a monthly basis• A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not Private security legislation embodied in the legislation governing the private security industry • The private security industry is regulated by law –– Percentage of single-service private security companies –– Law regulating the private security industry (only carrying out private security activities): 1% -- Private Security Act (Official Gazette No. 126/2003) –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies -- Detective Activities Act (Official Gazette No. 7/2003) (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Online information can be found here: http://www.urad- security activities): 99% ni-list.si/1/objava.jsp?urlid=201117&stevilka=690 –– The law regulating the private security industry allowsPrivate security guards armed private security services • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law amending legislation regulating the private security indus-• Total number of private security guards (2010): 6,364 try: Ministry of the Interior –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 6,364 • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– The licence fee is financed by the company covered by the legislation regulating the private security• Maximum number of working hours in the private security industry industry –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– According to national legislation –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) -- A maximum of 8 hours per day –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– Other segments1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security 2 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a services and not auxiliary or additional services. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period.110
  • 110. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- Private investigation person committing a crime, enforcement of debts etc.) -- Protection of persons (bodyguarding) -- Must not work for national or foreign defense, security -- Protection of property or counterintelligence services -- Event security –– On the background of private security personnel -- Must not perform services or tasks that are incompat-Controls and sanctions ible with the security function (such as persecution of a person committing a crime, enforcement of debts etc.)• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- -- Must not work for national or foreign defense, security spections for the private security industry: Ministry of the or counterintelligence services Interior and the Inspectorate of Internal Affairs -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the enter the private security profession below sanctions for the private security industry • Managers: 18 and at least 3 years of working experience –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior • Operational staff: 18 –– Penal sanctions: Courts• Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum Specific requirements sentence that can be imposed: € 12,000 and withdrawal of the licence • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of• One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal private security personnel of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence –– They must be clearly distinguishable from those worn by the police and the armyCollective labour agreements • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel• There are no sector-specific binding collective labour –– Issued by the Ministry of the Interior agreements in place for the private security industry Powers and competencesEntrance requirements and restrictions • Private security guards have the following powers and• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private competences security industry • In case an individual on the guarded premises threatens –– At company level to endanger life, personal safety, property or public order, -- Entrance requirements depend on the type of licence private security guards may -- General conditions are as follows -- Issue a warning • Criminal records check -- Request identification • Hold a valid guarding licence -- Carry out a surface inspection • Employ a minimum number of qualified employees -- Deny entry or exit from a protected area • Business registration in Slovenia -- Detain a suspect –– At personal level -- Use proportional physical force to restrain an individual -- Minimum age of 18 • They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure -- EU or EEA citizenship -- Minimum professional training Weapons -- Criminal records check -- Passed physical and psychological health assessment Company level -- Proficiency in Slovenian• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry • A special licence is not required for private security compa- –– On the background of owners of private security companies nies providing armed private security services -- Must not perform services or tasks that are incompat- • A special licence is not required for private security compa- ible with the security function (such as persecution of a nies owning weapons 111
  • 111. • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after –– This training programme is mandatory by law hours: Weapons must be handed in at the end of duty and –– Number of training hours: 94 stored on site in a secure facility –– The training is provided by specialised training institutes• There is a legal obligation for a private security company licensed by the Ministry of the Interior providing armed private security services to keep a de- –– The training is financed by the company or the guard tailed weapons register –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa-• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of nies whose employees are following basic training weapons used and/or to the ammunition used –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competencePersonal level • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ-• A special licence is not required for private security guards encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) providing armed private security services –– Number of training hours: 64• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- • Follow-up or refresher training exists tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every 5 weapons years –– This training comprehends: Theory, practice and psycho- –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law motoric performance • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– The training is provided by specialised training institutes private security activities licensed by the Ministry of the Interior –– Commercial manned guarding –– Beat patrol – duration: 15 hoursK9 (dogs) –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: 34 hours• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 15 hours –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 152 hours nies using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- –– In all areas, dogs need to be on a leash with a muzzle and ing) – duration: 15 hours both security guard and dog need to have followed a specific –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring training programme set down by the Ministry of the Interior –– Receptionist/concierge services – duration: 54 hours• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Other area/segment, namely handling classified information tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the –– These specialised trainings are provided by specialised provision of private security services training institutes licensed by the Ministry of the Interior –– Number of training hours: Defined in connection with the • When applying for an individual private security guard li- training programme cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- –– A new law to be passed in 2011 lays down a new training cur- tion to undergo riculum, which is currently being prepared by the Slovenian –– A medical examination Chamber of Commerce and the Ministry of the Interior –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– A background check/security checkHorses -- This background check/security check is carried out by the Ministry of the Interior• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass services this check are: No conviction of a criminal offenceTraining and related provisions• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training112
  • 112. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011SPAIN • Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers): ± 25% of total guarding services are performed for public entitiesGeneral information • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed eachPopulation: 45,989,016 year in the private security industry: 165,000 hours, whichGross National Income (GNI): € 1,129.47 billion represent 89,500 man years1Ratio security force/population: 1/513Ratio police force/population: 1/213 Private security companies • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by lawEconomic aspects • Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,494 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-Private security market rying out private security services: 1,100 • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: embodied in the legislation governing the private security € 3,386 million industry• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Percentage of single-service private security companies yearly turnover) (only carrying out private security activities): 100% –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 5.1% –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 6.9% (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 7.2% security activities): 0% –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 6.9% –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 4.4% Private security guards –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: -5.5% –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: -4.1% • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- • Total number of private security guards (2010): 188,018 curity companies (market concentration): 46% –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010):• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security 188,018 industry segment –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- private security activities (2010): 89,750 ter): € 1,984 million –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Airport security: € 197 million ons (2010): 20% perform armed services –– Maritime security: € 12 million –– The licence fee is financed by the guard –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 301 million –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- –– Other segments ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 82% -- Security systems and Alarm Receiving Centre-related ac- • Maximum number of working hours in the private security tivities: € 892 million industry –– According to national legislationPrivate security contracts -- A maximum of 40 hours per week -- Overtime: 80 hours per year• Number of commercial contracts for the private market • Starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private (private customers) –– There are a total of 51,783 guarding and personal protec- 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of tion contracts hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– ± 75% of total guarding services are performed for private number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially entities recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 113
  • 113. security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into ac- provisions for Cash-In-Transit services, personal protection count overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other al- and other specifically authorised services) lowances) • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and –– Gross: € 1,045 per month amending legislation regulating the private security in- –– Net3: € 13,750 per year dustry: Ministry of the Interior drafts and amends imple-• Average salary (not covering social security charges paid by menting regulations; the Acts are approved by the Spanish the employer) of all private security guards (including over- Parliament time, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically –– Gross: € 1,666 per month covered by the legislation regulating the private security –– Net4: € 17,500 per year industry• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) vate security industry: 40 –– Airport security• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Maritime security rity industry –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– Men: 85% –– Monitoring and remote surveillance –– Women: 15%• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private Controls and sanctions security industry –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: Act • Competent national authority in charge of controls and 3/2007 inspections for the private security industry: Ministry of• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 24% the Interior; Catalan and Basque police authorities in their –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or respective regions other considerations • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the below sanctions for the private security industry –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of the Interior; com-Legal aspects petent regional authorities for the Basque and Catalan regionsPrivate security legislation –– Penal sanctions: No penal sanctions are specifically fore- seen for private security activities; Courts apply normal• The private security industry is regulated by law penal sanctions –– Law regulating the private security industry: Act 23/1992, • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum enacted in 1992 sentence that can be imposed: € 601,012.10 –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Several • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal partial updates and amendments of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence -- RD 2/1999 -- Act 14/2000 Collective labour agreements -- RD 8/2007 -- Act 25/2009 • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- –– Online information can be found here: http://www. ments in place for the private security industry boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?id=BOE- A-1992-18489 Entrance requirements and restrictions –– The law regulating the private security industry allows armed private security services (Act 23/1992 determines • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private security industry3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. –– At company level: Special checks in the specific authorisa-4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after tion procedures for private security activities taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a –– At personal level set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period.114
  • 114. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- Clean criminal record (no criminal convictions in the -- Not have held managerial positions in bodies, services last five years) or proceedings regarding private security, surveillance -- EU or EEA citizenship or investigation, nor of its staff or means, such as mem- -- Not have been dismissed from armed forces or state se- bers of state security forces, in the two years prior to curity forces the application -- Not have been in charge of the inspection of private -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to security companies in the two years before applying for enter the private security profession the licence • Managers: 18 -- Pass the examinations (medical examinations and psy- • Operational staff: 18 chotechnical tests) -- Not have been condemned for improper conduct re- Specific requirements lated to fundamental rights in the last five years before applying for the licence (right to honour, personal or • There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of family privacy, personal image, private communica- private security personnel tions, other fundamental rights) –– Uniforms are mandatory -- Between 18-55 years of age –– Their use is restricted to working time -- Basic compulsory education –– Uniforms must be clearly distinguishable from those worn -- Not have held managerial positions in bodies, services by public security forces or proceedings regarding private security, surveillance –– Guards must also wear the company logo and an official or investigation, nor of its staff or means, such as mem- identification card (ID card) bers of state security forces, in the two years prior to • There are specific requirements related to the identifica- the application tion card (ID card) of private security personnel• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– On the background of owners of private security companies Powers and competences -- Clean criminal record for administrators -- Not have been in charge of the inspection of private • Private security guards have the following powers and security companies in the two years before applying for competences the licence –– Guard and protect goods and people -- No sanctions specifically related to security issues –– Control identity –– On the background of private security personnel –– Prevent criminal activities -- Clean criminal record (no criminal convictions in the • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure last five years) –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases -- EU or EEA citizenship -- Cooperation with public authorities (direct instructions, -- Not have been expelled from armed forces or state se- e.g. airports) curity forces -- To prevent criminal activities when a risk for the guard -- Not have been in charge of the inspection of private exists security companies in the two years before applying for –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure the licence -- Pass the examinations (medical examinations and psy- Weapons chotechnical tests) -- Not have been condemned for improper conduct re- Company level lated to fundamental rights in the last five years before applying for the licence (right to honour, personal or • A special licence is required for private security companies family privacy, personal image, private communica- providing armed private security services tions, other fundamental rights) –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry -- Between 18-55 years of age of the Interior -- Basic compulsory education –– Duration of the licence: Term of employment 115
  • 115. • A special licence is required for private security companies Horses owning weapons –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security of the Interior services –– Duration of the licence: Term of employment• There are legal requirements for storing weapons after Training and related provisions hours: Minimum requirements for storage sites• There is a legal obligation for a private security company • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow providing armed private security services to keep a de- basic guard training tailed weapons register –– This training programme is mandatory by law• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of –– Number of training hours: 180 weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Specific –– The training is provided by certified security training institutes arms and weapons are allowed depending on the task be- –– The training is financed by the guard unless there is a spe- ing performed cific agreement with the company –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa-Personal level nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- security guards are issued with a certificate of competence viding armed private security services • Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Guardia security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- Civil; Ministry of the Interior encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– Duration of the licence: Term of employment • Follow-up or refresher training exists• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use year; a licensed guard must pass an additional 20 hours weapons of recurrent training –– This training comprehends: Target practice –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law –– The training is provided on certified premises for target • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of practice private security activities –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration:K9 (dogs) 10 hours –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 60 hours• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 10 hours –– A special licence is not required for private security compa- –– Aviation security – duration: 10 hours and specific air se- nies using dogs for the provision of private security services curity provisions• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- –– Maritime security – duration: 10 hours vate security industry –– Canine (K9) services – duration: 10 hours –– Beat patrol –– Private investigation – duration: 1,800 hours –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- –– These specialised trainings are provided by certified secu- menting the police etc.) rity training institutes –– Critical infrastructure protection • When applying for an individual private security guard li-• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the tion to undergo provision of private security services –– A medical examination –– This training comprises: Theory and practical exercises –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– Number of training hours: 10 -- There are specific work situations for which a private –– The training is provided by certified security training in- security guard must undergo a psychotechnical/psycho- stitutes logical examination116
  • 116. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011–– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the Ministry of Justice -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are • Clean criminal record (no criminal convictions in the last five years) • Not have been condemned for improper conduct related to fundamental rights in the last five years before applying for the licence (right to honour, personal or family privacy, personal image, private communications, other fundamental rights) • No sanctions specifically related to serious or very serious violations relating to security in the last two or four years, respectively • Not have been dismissed from armed forces or state security forces • Not have held managerial positions in bodies, ser- vices or proceedings regarding private security, sur- veillance or investigation, nor of its staff or means, such as members of state security forces, in the two years prior to the application 117
  • 117. SWEDEN –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the private market: 12 months –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri-General information vate market: > 95% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts forPopulation: 9,340,682 the private market: 3 yearsGross National Income (GNI): € 347.66 billion • Number of commercial contracts for the public marketRatio security force/population: 1/467 (public customers): 2,000Ratio police force/population: 1/522 –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: < 5% –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts forEconomic aspects the public market: 12 months –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for thePrivate security market public market: > 95% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: the public market: 3 years € 840 million • Number of in-house contracts: 150• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Percentage of short-term in-house contracts: < 5% yearly turnover) –– Average duration of short-term in-house contracts: –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 5% 12 months –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 6% –– Percentage of long-term in-house contracts: > 95% –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 5% –– Average duration of in-house contracts: 3 years –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 7% • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 7% sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 6% year in the private security industry: 22,500,000 hours, –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 5% which represent 1,790 man years1• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- curity companies (market concentration): 86% Private security companies• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security industry segment • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- • Total number of private security companies (2010): 250 ter): € 525 million –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– Airport security: € 52.5 million rying out private security services: 250; the regulation re- –– Maritime security: € 10.5 million quires that there is activity in the security company –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 160 million • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 26 million embodied in the legislation governing the private security –– Other segments: € 66 million industry• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the –– Percentage of single-service private security companies private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- (only carrying out private security activities): 100% tions: 200 –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to privatePrivate security contracts security activities): 0%• Number of commercial contracts for the private market 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of (private customers): 8,000 hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially vate market: < 5% recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services.118
  • 118. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Private security guards • Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: 7% (full-time employed)• Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or• Total number of private security guards (2010): 20,000 other considerations –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 20,000 –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- ons (2010): 300 Legal aspects –– The licence fee is financed by the company –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- Private security legislation ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 60%• Maximum number of working hours in the private security • The private security industry is regulated by law industry –– Law regulating the private security industry: Security –– According to the collective labour agreement Companies Act, enacted in 1974 -- A maximum of 13 hours per day –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: None -- A maximum of 52 hours per week –– Online information can be found here: http://www.noti- -- Overtime: 150 hours per year (maximum 300 hours if sum.se/rnp/sls/lag/19740191.htm local agreement with the trade union) –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Weekend and nights: No restrictions armed private security services (FAP 579-3) -- Stand-by: Yes, if agreed with the individual/trade union • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and –– According to national legislation amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- A maximum of 40 hours per week (average) try: Police Administrative Board regulates and the County -- Overtime: 50 hours per month Administrative Board supervises• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking covered by the legislation regulating the private security into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or industry other allowances) –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– Gross: € 1,795 –– Airport security –– Net3: € 1,382 –– Maritime security• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- –– Monitoring and remote surveillance cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) Controls and sanctions –– Gross: € 2,580 –– Net4: € 1,987 • Competent national authority in charge of controls and in-• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- spections for the private security industry: County Admin- vate security industry: 30 istrative Board• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the rity industry below sanctions for the private security industry –– Men: 70% –– Administrative sanctions: County Administrative Board –– Women: 30% –– Penal sanctions: County Administrative Board• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum security industry sentence that can be imposed: Barred from work in the –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: private security industry Equality Act and most companies have a gender policy • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives 5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a after taxes and other (legal) deductions. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 119
  • 119. Collective labour agreements • A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services• There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Admin- ments in place for the private security industry istrative Board –– Duration of the licence: Term of the contractEntrance requirements and restrictions –– The licence is renewable • A special licence is required for private security companies• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private owning weapons security industry –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– At company level: No criminal convictions department –– At personal level –– Duration of the licence: 5 years -- Annual criminal records check –– The licence is renewable -- Proficiency in the national language is mandatory to • There are legal requirements for storing weapons after work in the industry hours: In secure alarmed lockers (in accordance with the• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry Weapons Law 1996:67). –– On the background of owners of private security compa- • There is a legal obligation for a private security company nies: No criminal convictions providing armed private security services to keep a de- –– On the background of private security personnel: Annual tailed weapons register criminal records check • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: 9 mm enter the private security profession semi-automatic • Managers: (20) There is no minimum age, but you have to have at least 2 years of experience in the Personal level private security industry • Operational staff: 18 • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- viding armed private security servicesSpecific requirements –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Local police department• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– Duration of the licence: As long as the armed guard is private security personnel (with the exception of store de- working on the assignment tectives and personal protection guards) –– The licence is renewable• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- tion card (ID card) of private security personnel tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use weaponsPowers and competences –– This training comprehends: Law, carrying and using the weap- on, technical knowledge, practical training and final tests• Private security guards have the following powers and –– Number of training hours: 43 competences: Same powers as any other citizen –– The training is provided by anyone who is approved as a• They are allowed to perform a search and seizure weapons instructor by the police department –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Only when an individual has been arrested K9 (dogs) –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security servicesWeapons • A special licence is required for private security companies using dogs for the provision of private security servicesCompany level -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police department120
  • 120. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 -- Duration of the licence: 5 years –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 80 hours -- The licence is renewable –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 92 hours• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- vate security industry ing) – duration: 50 hours –– Commercial manned guarding –– Aviation security – duration: 60 hours –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services –– Maritime security – duration: 80 hours –– Aviation security –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- –– Maritime security menting the police etc.) – duration: 80 hours –– Critical infrastructure protection –– Critical infrastructure protection – duration: 308 hours• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Canine (K9) services – duration: 39 hours tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the –– Some of these specialised trainings are provided by certi- provision of private security services fied security training institutes; some by the police depart- –– This training comprehends: Knowledge about the law and ment (e.g. crowd control, bouncing and maritime security the dog, practical training with the dog training are provided by the police department) –– Number of training hours: 39 • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– The training is provided by anyone who is licensed by the cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- police department for these purposes tion to undergo –– A background check/security checkHorses -- Who performs this background check/security check de- pends on the nature of the assignment• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass services this check are: Clean criminal record • When applying for an individual private security guard li-Training and related provisions cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow –– A medical examination basic guard training -- However, there are specific work situations for which a –– This training programme is mandatory by law private security guard must undergo a medical exami- –– Number of training hours: 288 nation: Guards, who work most of the time during the –– The training is provided by certified security training in- night, are offered a medical examination by their em- stitutes ployer –– The training is financed by the private security sector –– Psychotechnical/psychological examination –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) –– Number of training hours: 44• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every fourth year –– This follow-up or refresher training is mandatory by law• Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 110 hours 121
  • 121. SWITZERLAND vate market: 60% –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for the private market: 2-3 yearsGeneral information • Number of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers): 30%Population: 7,785,806 –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for theGross National Income (GNI): € 386.85 billion public market: 40%Ratio security force/population: 1/636 –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts forRatio police force/population: 1/463 the public market: 2-3 weeks –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: 60%Economic aspects –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: 2-3 yearsPrivate security market • Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: year in the private security industry: 20,800,000 hours, € 678.36 million which represent 10,400 man years1• Market growth of the private security industry (based on yearly turnover) Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 3% –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 3% • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 5% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 637 –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 5% –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 10% rying out private security services: 637 –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: -2% • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is not –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 3% embodied in the legislation governing the private security• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- industry curity companies (market concentration): 70% –– Other activities performed by private security companies• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security next to private security activities: Facility management, industry segment security consulting, investigation services and others –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- ter): € 506.72 million Private security guards –– Airport security: € 49.04 million –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 65.39 million • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 49.04 million • Total number of private security guards (2010): 17,742 –– Other segment, i.e. close protection (bodyguarding): –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- € 8.17 million ons (2010): 2,193 –– The licence fee is financed by the guardPrivate security contracts –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ- ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 60%• Number of commercial contracts for the private market • Maximum number of working hours in the private security (private customers): 70% industry –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: 40% 1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the the private market: 2-3 weeks number of weeks worked in a year). 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services.122
  • 122. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– According to the collective labour agreement –– Law regulating the private security industry: 26 different -- A maximum of 14 hours per day cantonal regulations -- A maximum of 50 hours per week –– Online information can be found here: www.vssu.org -- Overtime: 140 hours per year –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- Weekend and nights: 9 hours per day armed private security services (in accordance with the –– According to national legislation Firearms Act) -- A maximum of 14 hours per day • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- A maximum of 50 hours per week amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- Overtime: 140 hours per year try: 26 different cantonal Police and Justice Authorities -- Weekend and nights: 9 hours per day • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed covered by the legislation regulating the private security private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking industry into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) other allowances) –– Airport security –– Gross: € 3,228.70 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) –– Net3: € 2,746.44 –– Monitoring and remote surveillance• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- Controls and sanctions cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) • Competent national authority in charge of controls and –– Gross: € 3,629.30 inspections for the private security industry: 26 cantonal –– Net4: € 3,089.81 Police and Justice Departments, 26 cantonal Work Control• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- Offices, National Joint Supervisory Commission (PAKO – vate security industry: 35 trade union and VSSU)• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the rity industry below sanctions for the private security industry –– Men: 81% –– Administrative sanctions: 26 cantonal Police and Justice De- –– Women: 19% partments, 26 cantonal Work Control Offices, National Joint• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private Supervisory Commission (PAKO – trade union and VSSU) security industry –– Penal sanctions: 26 cantonal Police and Justice Depart- –– Policies and/or legislations determining the EO Policy: ments, 26 cantonal Work Control Offices, National Joint Gender Equality Act Supervisory Commission (PAKO – trade union and VSSU)• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum 17% (full-time) and 26% (part-time) sentence that can be imposed: € 40,869.89 (National Joint –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or Supervisory Commission) other considerations • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licenceLegal aspects Collective labour agreementsPrivate security legislation • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- ments in place for the private security industry: Collective• The private security industry is regulated by law Labour Agreement for the Security Service Sector con- cluded between the Association of Swiss Security Service3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. Companies (VSSU) and the UNiA trade union organisation,4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives Berne, of September 4, 2003, valid as of January 1, 2004 – after taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a 2009 edition set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 123
  • 123. Entrance requirements and restrictions Powers and competences• Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private • Private security guards have the following powers and security industry competences –– At company level: 26 different cantonal regulations –– Same powers as any other citizen –– At personal level: 26 different cantonal regulations –– Right of public access -- Impeccable reputation –– The authorities shall set out whether and to what degree -- Well-ordered financial situation the security function to be performed requires the use of -- No previous convictions police control and restraint techniques and police meas- -- Not have committed any criminal offences ures in conformity with the law -- Any such occurrences must be immediately notified to • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure the employer without being asked –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: -- A serious offence against the Penal Code or concealed Enforcement of domiciliary rights and coercive measures financial problems can be grounds for immediate (delegated by the authorities) dismissal –– This constitutes a search and seizure without genital search - - The loss of a licence possibly required (regulated at regional or cantonal level) to perform the work Weapons shall also be regarded as a reason for immediate dismissal Company level -- Criminal records check • Request must be submitted to the Central Crimi- • A special licence is not required for private security compa- nal Records by employees at the employer’s re- nies providing armed private security services quest • A special licence is required for private security companies • The costs involved shall be carried by the employer owning weapons • The check is performed by the federal and cantonal –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Deter- authorities mined by the Firearms Act -- Proficiency in the regional language is required to work –– Duration of the licence: One-time for purchasing in the sector (French/German/Italian) –– The licence is renewable• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry • There are no legal requirements for storing weapons after hours –– On the background of owners of private security compa- • There is no legal obligation for a private security company nies: 26 different cantonal regulations providing armed private security services to keep a de- –– On the background of private security personnel: 26 dif- tailed weapons register ferent cantonal regulations • There are limitations as to the type and/or number of -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Automatic enter the private security profession weapons, hard core or explosive ammunition • Managers: 22 • Operational staff: 18 Personal levelSpecific requirements • A special licence is required for private security guards pro- viding armed private security services• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Can- of private security personnel: No resemblance with police tonal Police Department uniforms –– Duration of the licence: 1-5 years• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- –– The licence is renewable tion card (ID card) of private security personnel • Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- –– Mandatory and worn in a visible place tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use –– 26 different cantonal regulations weapons124
  • 124. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011K9 (dogs) • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 20 hours –– A special licence is required for private security companies –– Beat patrol – duration: 20 hours using dogs for the provision of private security services –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services – duration: -- Competent national authority issuing the licence: 26 20 hours different cantonal regulations –– Event security (crowd control) – duration: 20 hours -- Duration of the licence: 26 different cantonal regulations –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 20 hours -- The licence is renewable –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process-• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- ing) – duration: 20 hours vate security industry –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 20 hours –– Commercial manned guarding –– Aviation security – duration: 20 hours –– Beat patrol –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services menting the police etc.) – duration: 20 hours –– In-house manned security –– Critical infrastructure protection – duration: 20 hours –– Event security (crowd control) –– Canine (K9) services – duration: 20 hours –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- –– Receptionist/concierge services – duration: 20 hours menting the police etc.) –– These specialised trainings are provided by companies and –– Critical infrastructure protection certified security training institutes• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- • When applying for an individual private security guard li- tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- provision of private security services tion to undergo –– A background check/security checkHorses -- This background check/security check is carried out by the cantonal Police and Justice Departments• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass services this check are: No criminal offence • When applying for an individual private security guard li-Training and related provisions cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow –– A medical examination basic guard training -- However, there are specific work situations for which a –– This training programme is mandatory by law private security guard must undergo a medical exami- –– Number of training hours: 20 nation, namely when working at a nuclear power plant, –– The training is provided by the company migration centre or other –– The training is financed by the company –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- nies whose employees are following basic training –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private security managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influ- encing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Follow-up or refresher training exists –– This follow-up or refresher training is organised every year –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by law 125
  • 125. THE NETHERLANDS • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not embodied in the legislation governing the private security industryGeneral information –– Other activities performed by private security companies next to private security activities: Fire fighting, receptionistPopulation: 16,574,989 services, selling technical solutions (safety)Gross National Income (GNI): € 612.49 billion –– Percentage of single-service private security companiesRatio security force/population: 1/526 (only carrying out private security activities): 90%Ratio police force/population: 1/461 –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private security activities): 10%Economic aspects Private security guardsPrivate security market • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • Total number of private security guards (2010): 31,543 € 1.48 billion –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 31,543• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- yearly turnover) ons (2010): None –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: -0.7% –– The licence fee is financed by the company –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 2.8% –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an individ-• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- ual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 83% curity companies (market concentration): 70% • Maximum number of working hours in the private security• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security industry industry segment –– According to the collective labour agreement –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- -- A maximum of 10 hours per day ter): € 82.88 million -- A maximum of 50 hours per 4 weeks and 45 hours per –– Airport security: € 25.16 million 13 weeks –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 14.8 million -- Overtime: 2 hours per day and 15 hours per week –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 25.16 million -- Nights: 9 hours per day and 40 hours per 13 weekends -- Stand-by: 1 weekPrivate security contracts –– According to national legislation -- A maximum of 12 hours per day• Number of commercial contracts for the private market -- A maximum of 60 hours per week (55 hours per 4 weeks (private customers): 65% and 48 hours per 16 weeks)• Number of commercial contracts for the public market -- Nights: 10 hours per day (public customers): 35% -- Stand-by: 14 days per 4 weeks • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armedPrivate security companies private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or• Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law other allowances)• Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,300 –– Gross: € 1,585.59 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- • Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- rying out private security services: 400 vate security industry: 25-35 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services.126
  • 126. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum sentence rity industry that can be imposed: € 12,000 and/or loss of the company licence –– Men: 76% • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal –– Women: 24% of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is not in place in the private security industry Collective labour agreements• Annual staff turnover rate2 (2010) in the private security industry: 0.89% • There are sector-specific binding collective labour agree- ments in place for the private security industryLegal aspects Entrance requirements and restrictionsPrivate security legislation • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law –– At company level: None –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law on private –– At personal level guarding organisations (‘Wet Particuliere Beveiligingsor- -- No criminal record ganisaties en Recherchebureaus (WPBR)’), enacted in 1999 -- Mandatory vocational training –– Online information can be found here: http://www.st-ab. -- A permit is required to work in the sector nl/wetten/0756_Wet_particuliere_beveiligingsorganisa- • The permit is granted for three years then renewable if ties_en_recherchebureaus.htm the individual does not have any criminal convictions for –– The law regulating the private security industry does not the last four years or any criminal convictions in the last allow armed private security services eight years which are subject to a term of imprisonment• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and • Permits are granted by the regional police amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- Proficiency in the national language is required try: Ministry of Justice • Language training can be obtained through lan-• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically cov- guage institutes ered by the legislation regulating the private security industry • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) –– On the background of owners of private security compa- –– Airport security nies: No criminal record –– Maritime security –– On the background of private security personnel –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) -- No criminal record –– Monitoring and remote surveillance -- Mandatory vocational training –– Other segments -- A permit is required to work in the sector -- Event security • The permit is granted for three years then renew- -- Private investigations able if the individual does not have any criminal convictions for the last four years or any criminalControls and sanctions convictions in the last eight years which are subject to a term of imprisonment• Competent national authority in charge of controls and in- • Permits are granted by the regional police spections for the private security industry: Police -- Proficiency in the national language is required• Competent national authority in charge of imposing the • Language training can be obtained through lan- below sanctions for the private security industry guage institutes –– Administrative sanctions: Ministry of Justice -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to –– Penal sanctions: Courts enter the private security profession • Managers: 182 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a • Operational staff: 18 set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 127
  • 127. Specific requirements –– Number of training hours: 1 year of training –– The training is provided by schools and companies• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of –– The training is financed by the company private security personnel –– There are compensation schemes in place for companies –– Uniforms are mandatory for all employees except for whose employees are following basic training: Subsidies managerial staff are granted by the European Social Fund and through –– They must have visible and recognisable identification some sectoral arrangements –– They must be clearly distinct from the uniforms worn by –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private the police security guards are issued with a certificate of competence• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for tion card (ID card) of private security personnel: Issued by private security managers, i.e. operational managerial the regional police staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) • Follow-up or refresher training does not existPowers and competences • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of private security activities• Private security guards have the following powers and –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services competences: Same powers as any other citizen –– Event security (crowd control)• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure –– Door supervision (bouncing) –– Bodyguarding (close protection)K9 (dogs) –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/processing) –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services –– Aviation security –– A special licence is not required for private security com- –– Maritime security panies using dogs for the provision of private security –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- services menting the police etc.)• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- –– Canine (K9) services vate security industry –– Private investigation –– Commercial manned guarding –– These specialised trainings are provided by the company, –– Beat patrol certified training institutes and technical schools –– Mobile alarm response and call-out services • When applying for an individual private security guard li- –– Aviation security cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- –– Maritime security tion to undergo –– Critical infrastructure protection –– A background check/security check• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- -- This background check/security check is carried out by tory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for the the police provision of private security services -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check areHorses • No conviction in the last eight years • A criminal offence or even ‘information’ about the• Horses cannot be used for the provision of private security person can be a reason to refuse the licence services • When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law does not require the private security guardTraining and related provisions in question to undergo –– A medical examination• There is an obligation for private security guards to follow –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination basic guard training –– This training programme is mandatory by law128
  • 128. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011TURKEY the private market: 12 months –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: 20%General information –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for the private market: 2-3 yearsPopulation: 72,561,312 • Number of commercial contracts for the public marketGross National Income (GNI): € 499.02 billion (public customers): 3,800Ratio security force/population: 1/4,077 –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for theRatio police force/population: 1/220 public market: 85% –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for the public market: 12 monthsEconomic aspects –– Percentage of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: 15%Private security market –– Average duration of long-term commercial contracts for the public market: 2-3 years• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: • Number of in-house contracts: 320 € 2.01 billion –– Percentage of short-term in-house contracts: 50%• Market growth of the private security industry (based on –– Average duration of short-term in-house contracts: 12 yearly turnover) months –– Percentage of growth in 2004 compared to 2003: 12% –– Percentage of long-term in-house contracts: 50% –– Percentage of growth in 2005 compared to 2004: 14% –– Average duration of in-house contracts: 2 years –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 12% –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 9% Private security companies –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 14% –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: 12% • Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law –– Percentage of growth in 2010 compared to 2009: 7% • Total number of private security companies (2010): 1,212• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car- curity companies (market concentration): 24% rying out private security services: 1,212• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is not em- industry segment bodied in the legislation governing the private security industry –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereaf- –– Percentage of single-service private security companies ter): € 1.7 billion (only carrying out private security activities): 90% –– Airport security: € 86.67 million –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies –– Maritime security: € 96.70 million (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 135.10 million security activities): 10% –– Monitoring and remote surveillance: € 4.03 million• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the Private security guards private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- tions: 600 • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law • Total number of private security guards (2010): 427,967Private security contracts –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): 297,660• Number of commercial contracts for the private market –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out (private customers): 4,500 private security activities (2010): 170,795 –– Percentage of short-term commercial contracts for the pri- vate market: 80% 1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially –– Average duration of short-term commercial contracts for recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 129
  • 129. –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- on Private Security Services, enacted in 2004 ons (2010): 50,000 –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: 2005 (Arti- –– The licence fee is financed by the guard cles amended: 3, 5, 10, 11, 14 and 28) and 2008 (Articles• Maximum number of working hours in the private security amended: 7, 10, 19, 20, 21, 23 and 25) industry –– Online information can be found here: http://www.ozel- –– According to the collective labour agreement guvenlik.pol.tr/Mevzuat/MevzuatDefault.aspx -- A maximum of 8 hours per day –– The law regulating the private security industry allows -- A maximum of 45 hours per week armed private security services (pistol, semi-automatic -- Overtime: 3 hours per day pistol, long-barrel rifle) –– According to national legislation • Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- A maximum of 11 hours per day amending legislation regulating the private security indus- -- A maximum of 45 hours per week try: Ministry of the Interior -- Overtime: 3 hours per day • Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically• Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed covered by the legislation regulating the private security private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking industry into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) other allowances) –– Airport security –– Gross: € 375.02 –– Maritime security –– Net2: € 229.86 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT)• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charges paid by the employer) of all private security guards (including Controls and sanctions overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) –– Gross: € 645.21 • Competent national authority in charge of controls and inspec- –– Net3: € 362.93 tions for the private security industry: Ministry of the Interior• Average age of a private security guard working in the pri- • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the vate security industry: 25 below sanctions for the private security industry• Percentage of men and women active in the private secu- –– Administrative sanctions: Courts rity industry –– Penal sanctions: Ministry of the Interior –– Men: 80% • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum –– Women: 20% sentence that can be imposed• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private –– € 2,419.90 security industry –– A 2-year prison sentence• Annual staff turnover rate4 in the private security industry: 46% –– Withdrawal of the company licence –– This percentage includes transfers of contracts and/or • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal other considerations of a company licence and/or an individual guard licence Collective labour agreementsLegal aspects • There are no sector-specific binding collective labourPrivate security legislation agreements in place for the private security industry• The private security industry is regulated by law Entrance requirements and restrictions –– Law regulating the private security industry: Law No. 5188 • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private2 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. security industry3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives –– At company level: Clean criminal record after taxes and other (legal) deductions.4 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a –– At personal level: Clean criminal record set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period.130
  • 130. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011• Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– In addition, it must mention whether the guard is licensed –– On the background of owners of private security companies or not to carry a weapon -- Turkish citizenship –– The ID card is attached to the collar of the uniform -- At least 8 years of education (in accordance with Article throughout the duration of the assignment (in accordance 10 a-b of Law No. 5188 on Private Security Services) with Article 11-12 of Law No. 5188 on Private Security –– On the background of private security personnel Services) -- Turkish citizenship -- Graduate of high school or an equivalent school Powers and competences -- Minimum 18 years of age -- No criminal offences • Private security guards have the following powers and -- Not have been sentenced to imprisonment for more than competences six months or – in case pardon is granted – not have been –– Ensure that individuals wishing to enter the guarded site convicted of crimes against the state or the following crimes: pass through a metal detector embezzlement, insubordination, bribery, theft, swindling, –– Perform a search by means of a manual metal detector breach of confidence, falsification, fraudulent bankruptcy, –– Ask individuals to pass their belongings through an X-ray smuggling, illicit public tenders and purchases, disclosing machine or similar security systems state intelligence, verbal and sexual harassment and moles- –– During mass events such as meetings, concerts, stage per- tation, rape, kidnapping, incitement to or acting as interme- formances or similar activities, and during funeral and diary in prostitution, using or smuggling drugs wedding ceremonies, guards may ask visitors or partici- -- Enjoy full public rights pants for identification; also in these cases, private secu- -- No mental or physical disabilities preventing the perfor- rity guards can mance of the assignment -- Ensure that individuals pass through a metal detector -- Have successfully completed basic private security -- Perform a search by means of a manual metal detector training (in accordance with Article 10-14 of Law No. -- Ask individuals to pass their belongings through an X- 5188 on Private Security Services) ray machine or similar security systems -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to –– In accordance with Criminal Procedures Law, Turkish Civil enter the private security profession Law and Law No. 5188 on Private Security Services, pri- • Managers: 18 vate security guards may • Operational staff: 18 -- Enter work places and residences at the guarded site in case of natural catastrophes (fire, earthquake etc.) or inSpecific requirements case assistance is needed -- Ask individuals for identification• There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of -- Ensure that individuals pass through a metal detector private security personnel at public facilities such as public transportation facili- –– Uniforms must only be worn during working hours ties, airports, ports, railways or other facilities –– Special permission can be granted not to wear uniforms -- Retain objects found during a search which are hazardous, for particular assignments illicit or may be evidence related to a crime; in these cases, –– Uniforms and related apparel must be clearly distinguish- private security guards must immediately notify the police able from those worn by the Turkish Armed Forces, police -- Retain lost and found articles forces or private police forces (different colour and design) -- Apprehend an individual in order to protect him/her from –– Uniforms must bear the name and logo of the employing imminent and life-threatening danger or health hazards company -- Guard the scene of a crime and evidence related to a• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- crime (in accordance with Article 157 of the Criminal tion card (ID card) of private security personnel Procedures Law) –– The ID card is issued by the local authority -- Use force (in accordance with Article 981 of Turkish –– The card must state the name and surname of the private Civil Law and Article 7 of Law No. 5188 on Private Se- security guard curity Services) 131
  • 131. • They are allowed to perform a search and seizure K9 (dogs) –– A search and seizure is allowed in the following cases: Guards are allowed to apprehend and search – in the • Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services building or area they are guarding – individuals for whom –– A special licence is not required for private security com- a search warrant or arrest warrant is issued (in accord- panies using dogs for the provision of private security ance with Article 7-d of Law No. 5188 on Private Security services Services) • Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- –– This constitutes a limited search and seizure vate security industry –– Beat patrolWeapons –– Event security (crowd control) –– Door supervision (bouncing)Company level –– Aviation security –– Maritime security• A special licence is required for private security companies –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- providing armed private security services menting the police etc.) –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Police –– Critical infrastructure protection –– Duration of the licence: 5 years • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- –– The licence is renewable ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for• A special licence is required for private security companies the provision of private security services owning weapons –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry Horses of the Interior –– Duration of the licence: Open-ended • Horses cannot be used for the provision of private securityThere are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours: servicesWeapons must be stored in a locked strongbox• There is a legal obligation for a private security company Training and related provisions providing armed private security services to keep a de- tailed weapons register • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow• There are limitations as to the type and/or number of basic guard training weapons used and/or to the ammunition used: Limited by –– This training programme is mandatory by law law depending on the nature of the assignment –– Number of training hours: 90 –– The training is provided by a certified security trainingPersonal level institute –– The training is financed by the guard• A special licence is required for private security guards pro- –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- viding armed private security services nies whose employees are following basic training –– Competent national authority issuing the licence: Ministry –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private of the Interior and local authorities security guards are issued with a certificate of competence –– Duration of the licence: 5 years • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for –– The licence is renewable private security managers, i.e. operational managerial• Private security guards must follow specialised and obliga- staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) tory training (by law) in order to be able to carry and use • Follow-up or refresher training does not exist weapons • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– This training comprehends: Theory and target practice private security activities –– Number of training hours: 30 –– Commercial manned guarding – duration: 30 hours –– The training is provided by a certified security training –– Aviation security – duration: 51 hours institute –– Private security training – duration: 30 hours132
  • 132. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– These specialised trainings are provided by a certified se- curity training institute• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the police -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are: Clean criminal record 133
  • 133. UNITED KINGDOM Private security companies • Licensing for private security companies is not mandatoryGeneral information by law • Total number of private security companies (2010): 2,500Population: 62,008,048 –– Number of private security companies (2010) actively car-Gross National Income (GNI): € 1,956.84 billion rying out private security services: 2,500Ratio security force/population: 1/170 • A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies2 is notRatio police force/population: 1/382 embodied in the legislation governing the private security industry –– Other activities performed by private security companiesEconomic aspects next to private security activities: Facility management and related servicesPrivate security market –– Percentage of single-service private security companies (only carrying out private security activities): 80%• Yearly turnover (2010) of the private security industry: –– Percentage of multi-service private security companies € 3.97 billion (carrying out auxiliary/additional activities next to private• Market growth of the private security industry (based on security activities): 20% yearly turnover) –– Percentage of growth in 2006 compared to 2005: 6.6% Private security guards –– Percentage of growth in 2007 compared to 2006: 5.9% –– Percentage of growth in 2008 compared to 2007: 7.4% • Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law –– Percentage of growth in 2009 compared to 2008: -2.7% –– Licences are valid for a period of three years• Combined market share (2010) of the top three private se- –– A fee of € 293.86 will be charged to obtain a licence curity companies (market concentration): 46% • Total number of private security guards (2010): 364,586• Repartition of yearly turnover (2010) by private security –– Number of licensed private security guards (2010): industry segment 364,586 – – General guarding (excluding the segments listed here- –– Number of individual licence holders actively carrying out after): € 3 billion private security activities (2010): 225,000 –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT): € 1.04 billion –– Number of private security guards allowed to carry weap- –– Other segments ons (2010): None -- Police and public services: € 903.04 million –– Licences are either funded by the guard, the company or• Number of armoured cars currently (2010) in use in the costs are passed on to the security buyer private security industry for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) opera- –– Percentage of the workforce that operates under an indi- tions: 3,500 vidual labour contract that is full-time and open-ended: 2% • Maximum number of working hours in the private securityPrivate security contracts industry –– According to the collective labour agreement• Number of operational guarding hours (commercial hours -- A maximum of 48 hours per week sold and thus paid for by the customer) performed each –– According to national legislation year in the private security industry: 8,520,000 hours, -- A maximum of 13 hours per day which represent 3,120 man years1 -- A maximum of 78 hours per week • Monthly starting salary of a licensed, full-time, non-armed private security guard performing basic tasks (not taking1 Calculating man years is a method of describing the amount of work performed by a private security guard throughout the entire year. A man year takes the amount of 2 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially hours worked by a private security guard during the week and multiplies it by 52 (or the recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security number of weeks worked in a year). services and not auxiliary or additional services.134
  • 134. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 into account overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or –– Monitoring and remote surveillance other allowances) –– Other segments –– Gross: € 2,181.51 -- Door supervisors –– Net3: € 1,739.19 -- Close protection (bodyguarding)• Average monthly salary (not covering social security charg- es paid by the employer) of all private security guards (in- Controls and sanctions cluding overtime, weekend, evening, night and/or other allowances) • Competent national authority in charge of controls and –– Gross: € 2,293.33 inspections for the private security industry: Security In- –– Net4: € 1,823.53 dustry Authority (SIA)• An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is not in place in the • Competent national authority in charge of imposing the private security industry beyond the general provisions of below sanctions for the private security industry equal opportunities legislation applicable in the United –– Administrative sanctions: Security Industry Authority (SIA) Kingdom –– Penal sanctions: Security Industry Authority (SIA)• Annual staff turnover rate5 in the private security industry: • Maximum amount of a (financial) sanction or maximum 23.58% sentence that can be imposed: If convicted at Crown Court, –– This percentage does not include transfers of contracts High Court of Justice or sheriff and jury trial, an unlimited and/or other considerations fine or imprisonment • One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company licence and/or an individual guard licenceLegal aspects Collective labour agreementsPrivate security legislation • There are no sector-specific binding collective labour• The private security industry is regulated by law agreements in place for the private security industry –– Law regulating the private security industry: Private Secu- rity Industry Act, enacted in 2001 Entrance requirements and restrictions –– Updates and/or amendments introduced since: Amend- ment to schedule 2 in 2006 • Entrance requirements (vetting procedure) for the private –– Online information can be found here: http://www.legis- security industry lation.gov.uk/uksi/2007/810/contents/made –– At company level: None –– The law regulating the private security industry does not –– At personal level allow armed private security services -- Proof that an individual has no previous convictions• Competent national authority in charge of drafting and -- At present, to comply with BS 7858 vetting stand- amending legislation regulating the private security indus- ards, prospective employers need to ask in a crimi- try: Security Industry Authority (SIA) nal records check for unspent convictions (as de-• Areas/segments of the private security industry specifically fined by the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act). These covered by the legislation regulating the private security should be available from the local police station. industry Under the Security Industry Authority (SIA) licensing –– General guarding (excluding the segments listed hereafter) regime, all licensable workers are checked by the –– Airport security Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) against the ‘Standard –– Maritime security Disclosure’ which includes both spent and unspent –– Cash-In-Transit (CIT) convictions. If there is a reason to get an ‘Enhanced Disclosure’, such as where a security guard is work-3 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives after taxes and other (legal) deductions. ing with vulnerable adults or children, this will be4 By net salary we understand the amount of cash the private security guard receives obtained through the client (i.e. a local authority), after taxes and other (legal) deductions.5 The staff turnover rate can be calculated by taking the average numbers of leavers in a or through a registered body. set period divided by the average numbers of people employed over the same period. 135
  • 135. • Entrance restrictions for the private security industry –– Critical infrastructure protection –– On the background of owners of private security compa- –– Other area/segment, namely as search dogs nies: Completing a Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) criminal • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- records check ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use dogs for –– On the background of private security personnel: Complet- the provision of private security services ing a Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) criminal records check -- Minimum age for private security guards to be able to Horses enter the private security profession • Managers: 18 • Horses can be used for the provision of private security • Operational staff: 18 services –– A special licence is not required for private security com-Specific requirements panies using horses for the provision of private security services• There are no specific requirements related to the uniforms • Private security guards must not follow specialised and ob- of private security personnel ligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use horses• There are specific requirements related to the identifica- for the provision of private security services tion card (ID card) of private security personnel: The Secu- rity Industry Authority (SIA) licence must be displayed Training and related provisionsPowers and competences • There is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training. Individuals applying for a Security In-• Private security guards have the following powers and dustry Authority (SIA) licence must prove that they have competences: Same as any other citizen unless accredited the appropriate qualifications for the job. The qualification under the Community Safety Accreditation Scheme (CSAS) requirements differ depending on the type of licence that• They are not allowed to perform a search and seizure is needed. –– This training programme is mandatory by lawK9 (dogs) –– Number of training hours: 20.5 –– The training is provided by the company or other training• Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services providers –– Heavily regulated by a range of domestic criminal and –– A mixture of funding is available to finance the training civil laws) –– There are no compensation schemes in place for compa- -- Metropolitan Police Act of 1839 nies whose employees are following basic training -- Town Police Clauses Act of 1847 –– Upon successfully completing the basic training, private -- Animals Act of 1975 security guards are not issued with a certificate of com- -- Dangerous Dogs Act of 1991 (as amended) petence –– A special licence is not required for private security com- • Mandatory specialised training does not exist (by law) for panies using dogs for the provision of private security private security managers, i.e. operational managerial services staff influencing operations (from site supervisor to CEO)• Dogs are used in the following areas/segments of the pri- • Follow-up or refresher training exists vate security industry –– This follow-up or refresher training is not mandatory by –– Commercial manned guarding law –– Beat patrol • Specialised training is foreseen for the following types of –– In-house manned security private security activities –– Aviation security –– Door supervision (bouncing) – duration: 30 hours –– Maritime security –– Bodyguarding (close protection) – duration: 145.5 hours –– Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols comple- –– Cash-In-Transit services (including cash handling/process- menting the police etc.) ing) – duration: 21 hours136
  • 136. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 –– Alarm and CCTV monitoring – duration: 27 hours –– These specialised trainings are provided by a mixture of the company, colleges and training providers• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- tion to undergo –– A background check/security check -- This background check/security check is carried out by the Criminal Record Bureau (CRB) -- The basic conditions for a private security guard to pass this check are • Normally, no criminal offences committed within a set period • However, each case is judged individually depend- ing on the severity of the offence committed• When applying for an individual private security guard li- cence, the law does not require the private security guard in question to undergo –– A medical examination –– A psychotechnical /psychological examination 137
  • 137. 138
  • 138. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 STATISTICS The present statistical overview reflects which questions within the Facts & Figures 2011 questionnaire were not or less frequently answered and which were more frequently an- swered. It also provides information as to why this is the case. Questions least answered100%90% 47 44 2180%70%60% Answered50% Unanswered40%30% 53 56 7920%10% 0% Question 6 Question 7 Question 44 As can be seen from the graph above, the question that was most frequently left unanswered was Question 44. This question related to the specialised and obligatory training for the use of horses in the provision of private security services. However, this question was dependent on Question 43 which asked if horses can be used in the provision of private security services in the individual countries. Question 44 should have only been answered by those countries that answered ‘yes’ to Question 43. Subsequently, the question was only applicable to 9 countries and of these countries only 2 did not answer. Over half of the countries did not answer Question 7. This question focused on the number of operational guarding hours performed each year in the private security services industry in the individual countries. Question 6 was left unanswered by just over half of the respondents. This question explored the division of types of commercial contracts in the private security services industry in the individual countries. The question asked respondents to specify the number of contracts for the private market, contracts for the public market and in-house contracts. Respondents were also asked to indicate the percentage of short-term and long-term contracts for each contract type. Only 6 countries answered all the components of Question 6, and 10 countries partially answered it. Sections 6.3., 6.3.1. and 6.3.2. were the most commonly unanswered sections 139
  • 139. of the question; these sections related to in-house contracts. A total of 18 countries did not answer any of the components of Question 6. These questions were not frequently answered due to the fact that the data required is not collected in many countries. Questions most frequently answered 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Answered 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Question 9 Question 12 Question 13 Question 27 Question 29 Question 30 Question 31 The questions that were most frequently answered are displayed above. These questions had a 100% response rate. The questions related to: • The total number of private security companies • The total number of private security guards • The maximum number of working hours in the private security services industry • The entrance restrictions on the background of owners of private security companies and private security personnel • If there are sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security services industry • Specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel • Requirements related to the identification card (ID card) of private security personnel These questions were not, however, always fully answered and subsections of these questions were left unanswered. For example, the subsection of Question 9, which related to how many of the companies actively carry out private security services, was not fully answered by 34% of respondents.140
  • 140. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011 Subsections of Question 12 were also often left unanswered. In total 71% of respondents only answered this question partially. The subsection that was most frequently left unanswered was Question 12.2., which related to how many of the individual licence holders actively carry out private security services. 56% of countries did not answer this question. Questions answered by the majority of respondents100%90%80%70%60% 90 90 86 93 93 97 97 Answered50% Unanswered40%30%20%10% 10 10 14 7 7 3 3 0% Question 1 Question 17 Question 18 Question 21 Question 22 Question 28 Question 45 There were also several questions that had response rates close to 100%. These questions can be seen in the graph above. These questions related to: • The yearly turnover (2010) of the private security services industry in the individual countries • The percentage of men and women active in the private security services industry in the countries • If there is an Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy in place in the private security services indus- try in the individual countries • The competent national authority in charge of drafting and amending legislation regulating the private security services industry in the individual countries • The areas/segments of the private security services industry that are specifically covered by the legislation regulating the private security services industry • The entrance requirements for the private security services industry, at company level and at personal level • If there is an obligation for private security guards to follow basic guard training It appears that data concerning these questions is systematically collected in most countries, but not all. 141
  • 141. 142
  • 142. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011CONCLUSIONSThis section provides a consolidated overview of the facts and figures gathered for the 34 targeted countries, i.e. the 27EU Member States and seven additional European countries: Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia,Switzerland and Turkey.General information Average ratio security force/10,000 inhabitants ± 31.11 Average ratio police force/10,000 inhabitants ± 36.28Economic aspectsPrivate security market Total yearly turnover of the private security industry ± € 35 billion Average market growth of the private security industry (based on yearly turnover) 2005-2010 ± 13.30% Average combined market share, at national level, of the top three private security companies ± 54.65% (market concentration) Average balance of yearly turnover of general guarding services versus other industry segments ± 60.19% Average number of armoured cars in use for Cash-In-Transit (CIT) operations ± 825Private security contracts Average percentage of commercial contracts for the private market (private customers) ± 73.25% Average percentage of commercial contracts for the public market (public customers) ± 25.01% Average percentage of in-house contracts ± 1.74% Average number of operational guarding hours performed each year in the private security ± 76,246,456.67 industry Private security companies Licensing for private security companies is mandatory by law ± 94% Total number of private security companies ± 52,300 A ‘specialty principle’ for private security companies1 is embodied in the legislation governing ± 18% the private security industry1 The ‘specialty principle’ in private security means that one single legal entity, officially recognised as a private security company, is only allowed to carry out private security services and not auxiliary or additional services. 143
  • 143. Private security guards Licensing for private security guards is mandatory by law ± 88% Total number of private security guards ± 2,170,589 Average age of a private security guard working in the private security industry ± 35 Average percentage of men active in the private security industry ± 83% Average percentage of women active in the private security industry ± 17% An Equal Opportunities (EO) Policy is in place in the private security industry ± 85% Average annual staff turnover rate in the private security industry ± 33.27%Legal aspectsPrivate security legislation The private security industry is regulated by sector-specific legislation ± 94% Competent national authority in charge of drafting and amending legisla- • Ministry of the Interior (± 53%) tion regulating the private security industry • Other (± 25%) • Ministry of Justice (± 16%) • Police (± 6%)Controls and sanctions Competent national authority in charge of controls and inspections for the • Police (± 41%) private security industry • Ministry of the Interior (± 38%) • Other (± 18%) • Ministry of Justice (± 3%) Competent national authority in charge of imposing administrative sanc- • Ministry of the Interior (± 38%) tions • Police (± 29%) • Other (± 18%) • Ministry of Justice/Courts (± 15%) Competent national authority in charge of imposing penal sanctions • Courts (± 38%) • Police (± 25%) • Ministry of the Interior (± 22%) • Other (± 15%) One of the possible sanctions can result in the withdrawal of a company 100% licence and/or an individual guard licenceCollective labour agreements There are sector-specific binding collective labour agreements in place for the private security industry ± 62%144
  • 144. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Entrance requirements Entrance requirements at company level (owners) • Clean criminal record (± 88%) • Background screening and/or testimonial of good moral character (± 87%) Entrance requirements at personal level (operational staff) • Clean criminal record (± 97%) • Background screening and/or testimonial of good moral character (± 97%) Average minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the ± 19 private security profession as managers Average minimum age for private security guards to be able to enter the ± 18 private security profession as operational staffSpecific requirements There are specific requirements related to the uniforms of private security personnel 100% Uniforms are mandatory ± 95% There are specific requirements related to the identification card (ID card) of private security personnel 100% ID cards are mandatory ± 98%Powers and competences Private security guards have the same rights as any other citizen ± 59% Private security guards can exercise additional powers ± 41% Private security guards are allowed to perform a search and seizure (full or limited) ± 56%Weapons The use of weapons is allowed (in most cases conditional) ± 82%Company level A special licence is required for private security companies providing armed private security services ± 82% There are legal requirements for storing weapons after hours ± 85% There is a legal obligation for a private security company providing armed private security services to keep ± 92% a detailed weapons register 145
  • 145. Personal level A special licence is required for private security guards providing armed private security services ± 96% Private security guards must follow specialised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to carry ± 96% and use weaponsK9 (dogs) Dogs can be used for the provision of private security services ± 91% A special licence is required for private security companies using dogs for the provision of private security ± 39% services Private security guards must follow specialised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use ± 59% dogs for the provision of private security servicesHorses Horses can be used for the provision of private security services ± 37% A special licence is required for private security companies using horses for the provision of private secu- ± 29% rity services Private security guards must follow specialised and obligatory training (by law) in order to be able to use 0% horses for the provision of private security servicesTraining and related provisions There is an obligation for private security guards to follow ± 97% basic guard training This training programme is mandatory by law ± 97% Average number of training hours ± 97 Upon successfully accomplishing the basic training, private ± 87% security guards are issued with a certificate of competence Mandatory specialised training exists (by law) for private se- ± 50% curity managers, i.e. operational managerial staff influenc- ing operations (from site supervisor to CEO) Follow-up or refresher training exists ± 70%146
  • 146. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011Specialised training exists for specific industry segments • Cash-In-Transit (CIT) services (including cash han- dling and processing) (± 75%) • Bodyguarding (close protection) (± 63%) • Alarm and CCTV monitoring (± 54%) • Aviation security (± 46%) • Event security (crowd control) (± 46%) • Mobile alarm response and call-out services (± 42%) • Door supervision (bouncing) (± 38%) • Commercial manned guarding (± 33%) • Beat patrol (± 33%) • Critical infrastructure protection (± 33%) • Fire prevention and protection services (± 29%) • Maritime security (± 25%) • Other (± 25%) • Canine (K9) services (± 21%) • Private security training (± 21%) • Urban security (train/metro stations, city patrols complementing the police etc.) (± 21%) • Receptionist/concierge services (± 21%) • In-house manned security (± 17%) • Private investigation (± 17%)When applying for an individual private security guard • A background check/security check (100%)licence, the law requires the private security guard in ques- • A psychotechnical/psychological examination (± 71%)tion to undergo • A medical examination (± 66%) 147
  • 147. 148
  • 148. Private Security Services in Europe CoESS Facts & Figures 2011EU LEGISLATIVE MAPPINGThe present EU legislative mapping reflects the level of strictness of national-level private security legislations across Eu-rope and provides an analysis of the responses to the questions within the legal aspects section of the Facts & Figures 2011questionnaire.Mapping process Rating of each Mapping of Analysis of country on the Formulation countries by answers to basis of answers of judgement rating according relevant given criteria to judgement questions criteriaThe answers provided to a number of relevant questions, i.e. answers related to private security legislation at national level,were used to produce a rating on the strictness of private security legislation for each country. A numerical value was allocatedto each country on the basis of the answers given. Points were allocated to each country depending on the answer given andthe value was subsequently calculated from the total number of points. Five judgement criteria were devised: very strict, strict,medium, low, weak or non-existent. These criteria were then given numerical values as can be seen below. The countries couldthen be assigned to different brackets and this assessment could then be transferred to a coloured map of Europe with differ-ent colours to indicate the different levels of strictness. Rating Category 0 Non-existent 1-5 Weak 6-13 Low 14-20 Medium 21-27 Strict 28-34 Very strictThe questions that were used to formulate a rating related to the provisions and requirements that were found within national-level legislation. For example it was key to establish if the private security services industry is regulated by law and if so, whichareas of the industry are covered. Furthermore, it was necessary to determine whether sanctions are enforced and whetherthere are entrance requirements or restrictions in place. 149
  • 149. EU legislative mapping Finland Sweden Norway Estonia Latvia Denmark Lithuania Ireland United Kingdom The Netherlands Poland Germany Belgium Luxembourg Czech Republic Slovakia Austria Hungary France Romania Switzerland Slovenia Croatia Bosnia and Serbia Herzegovina Bulgaria Italy Turkey MacedoniaPortugal Spain Greece Cyprus Malta Low Medium Strict Very Strict 150
  • 150. Private Security Services in Europewww.coess.eu CoESS Facts & Figures 2011