Where ICT meets Social &Economic DevelopmentHow to set-up and maintain asuccessful Open Data InitiativeCarlos Iglesias – O...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 2Open DataWhat? Why? Who? How? When?• What is Open Data and an OpenGo...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 3What is Open Data?
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDefinition4“Expose (raw) data in free openstandard formats and underno...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDefinition5http://www.flickr.com/photos/28634332@N05/5473561903/DATAGO...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved8+2 Principles6CompletenessPrimacyTimelinessEasy AccessMachine readabi...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits7“Data is the new oil for thedigital age” - Neelie Kroes, Vice...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits8Information is powero New technologies are making it easier t...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits9 Transparency and Accountability. Public participation and ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits10Bottom lineInnovation (Jobs and growth)Efficiency (Community...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers11Economic: it will cost too much, there are noresources avail...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers12Legal: Legal or privacy issues.Expertise: Absence of digital...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers, an example:13Government’s (excessive) secrecy“If people don’...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers14Bottom lineIt is toughIt is expensive and there is no ROII’m...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe data hugging syndrome15SymptomsLoss of control: Authenticity, prov...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMyths and Misunderstandings16o We do not own the data, it is held sepa...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMyths and Misunderstandings17All these have some truth in themo They r...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns18Evidence: Economic growtho OGD in EU woul...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns19Evidence: Data qualityoUK released data o...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns20Evidence: InteroperabilityoOpen Data Brit...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns21Evidence: Social valueoUK published compa...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns22Evidence: Transparencyo Capitation funds ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns23Evidence: Better public serviceso Apps fo...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns24New business opportunitiesData analysisDa...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2009: 2225http://datos.fundacionctic.org/sandbox/cata...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2010: 5826
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2011: 14027
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2012: 20228
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2013: 21729
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOpen Government Partnership: 5830http://www.opengovpartnership.org/cou...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLMICs: 21731https://maps.google.de/maps/ms?msid=214949500913461139756....
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedAfrica: 1632
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMillennium Development Goals33
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMDGs34Almost as difficult as choosing the right goals, is to findadequ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMDGs35https://s3.amazonaws.com/one.org/images/ONE_HLP_Report_-_FINAL.p...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 36The components of an OpenData initiative
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedObjective37Development and deployment of localsustainable Open Data in...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOpen Government pioneers38How it all began?Most of the things were alr...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedHypothesis39What if we use the knowledge in Westernworld Open Data pro...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOGD readiness40Need to go one step backo What is needed?o How much of ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLMICs’ singularities41o Transparency and accountability toencourage fo...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDimensions42PoliticalLegalOrganizationalDataTechnicalEconomicSocialSta...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSocio-economic43oDemographicsoLabour marketoQuality of lifeoEducation ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedInstitutional framework44oLeadershipo Is there a political top-level l...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedInstitutional framework45oPolicies and legal frameworko Does the count...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedInstitutional framework46oEconomicsoAre there sufficient resources in ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedTechnology and Infrastructures47oWhat is the importance of ICT toGover...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedGovernment Data48o What level of data collection does thegovernment un...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem49“It has to happen at the top,it has to happen...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem50Several ActorsoPolitical Level: to achieve to...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem51Joy’s Law“No matter who you are,most of the s...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem52Collorary: The many minds principle“The coole...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem53Open Data stakeholders and rolesoPublic secto...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem54Open Data stakeholders and rolesoMedia (use O...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem55Community engagemento Are there Public Sector...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem56Community engagemento Is there an academic or...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?57“Open Data must have a wellbalanced ecosystem” – Nig...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?58Quick OGD portal vs. sustainablelong-term OGD initia...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?59oThe issue with OpenoSeveral times not really Open (...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?60o Raw data now… and better dataafterwards (make it w...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 61How to set-up an OpenGovernment Data initiative?
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSteps621 – Organise2 - Standardize3 – Publish4 – Share5 - Supervise5 f...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSteps63OrganiseReadinessAssessmentData inventoryData analysisStandardi...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise64What data am I currentlymanaging and/or publishing?
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise65Data inventoryo Health and welfare (e.g. public healthinspec...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise66Data inventoryo Politic and Policies (e.g. laws, officialpro...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise67“If I had asked people whatthey wanted, they wouldhave said ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise68Data analysisIdentification of datasets (data cards)What: da...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize69How could I structure data in away that it can be easilyr...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize70Regulatory frameworko Open by default (keeping logical pr...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize71Regulatory frameworko Legislationo Laws and policies (FOI...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize72Organizational charto Managemento General management.o In...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize73Standards and guidelineso Metadata definition for dataset...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize74Standards and guidelineso Vocabularies to describe and cl...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize75Catalogue functionalityo Informative sections (about, hel...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish76How should I share the data?http://www.w3.org/TR/gov-data/
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish77“There wouldn’t be Open Datawithout the Web”o Need to be incl...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish78“Keep it simple. When in doubtduring design, choose thesimple...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation79Metadata Standardso Re-use of standardized m...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation80Taxonomies and Vocabularieso Existing refere...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation81IDs Schemehttp://{base}/{type}[/{domain}][/{...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation82o Use URIs as names for things.o Use HTTP UR...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation83Updates and versioningo How to preserve inte...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing84DataCatalogues
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing85The 5 ★ of Linked Open Datadata on the webstruc...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing86The road aheadLinked DataRDFaAPIsXMLRSS/atomHTM...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing870% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%LINKED DATARAW DATAPubll...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure88
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure89Raw data vs. machine readable
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure90http://lod-cloud.net/
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure91LOD benefits are great, but…o Modelling is t...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure92What platform?o Data Catalog Interoperabilit...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure93“Tim Berners-Lee didn’t develophundreds of m...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare94How could I be more open?
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (internally)95Internal participation (Government)o The consolida...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (internally)96Internal participation (Government)o Attract new p...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)97External participation (OtherStakeholders)Open Gov...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)98“If you prevent people fromdoing bad things, you p...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)9910 lessons from Internet pioneerso 1 - Let everyon...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)100o 4 - Use multiple communicationchannels: do not ...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)101o 8 - Design for participation: breaking workinto...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDissemination and outreach102o Public consultation: ask people what da...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDissemination and outreach103o Public-private collaboration: explorepo...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision104http://www.data.gov.uk/odug-roadmap
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision105Data monitoringoData catalogue monitoring: visitors,sour...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision106Internal supporto Knowledge transfer.o Assistance for pu...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision107Strategy revisiono Have a look back to the originalobjec...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 108Some final remarks
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedFinal remarks109Spend some time to analyse the startingpoint, identify...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedFinal remarks110Technology is a small percentage: butstill remember th...
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 111That’s allThank you for yourattention!Any other Questions?
Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 112Do you need some supportwhile Opening up your Data?Just keep in to...
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How to set-up and maintain a successful Open Data initiative

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Workshop: How to set up and maintain a successful Open Government Data initiative
• What is an Open Government Data (OGD) initiative.
• Steps and process to implement a successful OGD initiative.
• Potential impact of an OGD initiative.
• How to engage with the different stakeholders.

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How to set-up and maintain a successful Open Data initiative

  1. 1. Where ICT meets Social &Economic DevelopmentHow to set-up and maintain asuccessful Open Data InitiativeCarlos Iglesias – Open Data Consultantcarlos@sbc4d.com | @carlosiglesiasSBC4D.comCTO’s 7th Annual eGov Africa
  2. 2. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 2Open DataWhat? Why? Who? How? When?• What is Open Data and an OpenGovernment Data (OGD) initiative.• Steps and process to implement asuccessful OGD initiative.• Potential impact of an OGD initiative.• How to engage with the differentstakeholders.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 3What is Open Data?
  4. 4. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDefinition4“Expose (raw) data in free openstandard formats and undernon-restrictive licenses tomake it accessible to all and allowreuse”
  5. 5. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDefinition5http://www.flickr.com/photos/28634332@N05/5473561903/DATAGOVERNMENT
  6. 6. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved8+2 Principles6CompletenessPrimacyTimelinessEasy AccessMachine readabilityhttp://www.opengovdata.org/home/8principlesNon-discriminationNon-proprietaryLicense-freePermanenceUsage costhttp://sunlightfoundation.com/policy/documents/ten-open-data-principles/
  7. 7. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits7“Data is the new oil for thedigital age” - Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the European Commissionresponsible for the Digital Agenda.http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-12-149_en.htm
  8. 8. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits8Information is powero New technologies are making it easier tocollect data, share information, targetresources, provide feedback andmeasure progress.o Information can help to build trust,allowing people to exercise their rightsand make more informed choices in theirdaily lives.http://www.devinit.org/wp-content/uploads/Turning-information-into-action-A-post-2015-agenda-for-ending-poverty-Jan-2013.pdf
  9. 9. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits9 Transparency and Accountability. Public participation and Inclusion. Business opportunities, Economicgrowth and Employment. Data quality and Interoperability. Efficiency and better Public Services Social value and Benefits.
  10. 10. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBenefits10Bottom lineInnovation (Jobs and growth)Efficiency (Community)Transparency (Governance)
  11. 11. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers11Economic: it will cost too much, there are noresources available or may lose revenue generated bycertain data.Capacity: challenges when reviewing, releasing andmaintaining open data.Organisational: requires coordination acrossmultiple agencies and the diverse stakeholderscommunity.Cultural: Excessive government secrecy, or generalresistance to change.
  12. 12. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers12Legal: Legal or privacy issues.Expertise: Absence of digital literacy or specificknowledge on the matters.Data availability: Data is generally bad qualityor non existent.Technological: Lack of proper infrastructures.Lack of interest: Not being considerednecessary.
  13. 13. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers, an example:13Government’s (excessive) secrecy“If people don’t know whatyou’re doing, they don’tknow what you’re doingwrong” – Yes Minister on OpenGovernment (1980)http://www.yes-minister.com/index.html
  14. 14. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedBarriers14Bottom lineIt is toughIt is expensive and there is no ROII’m not required to do it
  15. 15. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe data hugging syndrome15SymptomsLoss of control: Authenticity, provenance,falsification, quality problemsSense of danger: Legal challenges, Privacy andNational security, unwelcomed exposureOverwhelming complexity: Capacity buildingand procedural changes requiredBankrupt panic: Investment, ROI, Loss of licencerevenue, Customer service
  16. 16. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMyths and Misunderstandings16o We do not own the data, it is held separately byseveral different organizations.o It is technically impossible, the data is too large to bepublished and used.o We know the data is wrong and people will tell uswhere it is wrong. That will make people angry.o People will draw superficial conclusions and constructleague tables from data ignoring the wider picture.o It might be combined with other data to identifyindividuals/sensitive information.o It will cost too much to put it into standard format.Our IT suppliers will charge us a fortune to so.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMyths and Misunderstandings17All these have some truth in themo They rationalise the official fear of theunknown.o Data managers need to be helped through.o Need to build a balanced ecosystem.o Examples and precedents are your friends.o For first phase, compromise then scale.o Release data that matters.
  18. 18. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns18Evidence: Economic growtho OGD in EU would increase business activity of€40bn. Indirect benefits up to €140bn/year.o +5000 jobs and €500m benefits in Spain fromPSI reuse.o €62m benefits (2005-2009) and €2m cost(2002-2009) in Denmark. €14m benefit against€0.2m cost in 2010.http://www.ontsi.red.es/ontsi/sites/default/files/121001_red_007_final_report_2012_edition__vf_en_1.pdfhttp://epsiplatform.eu/content/value-danish-address-datahttp://ec.europa.eu/information_society/policy/psi/docs/pdfs/report/psi_final_version_formatted.docx
  19. 19. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns19Evidence: Data qualityoUK released data on location ofnearly 300.000 bus-stops.oCommunity corrected 18.000 ofthem (6% approx..) thanks to OpenStreet Maps, improving official dataaccuracy.http://www.gong.hr/download.aspx?f=dokumenti/20120928-zagreb-conference-1.0-AndrewStott.ppt
  20. 20. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns20Evidence: InteroperabilityoOpen Data British Columbia, CA.oBuilt a provincial open data portal.oAs about one third of all the trafficoriginates from government.http://openspending.org/resources/gift/chapter2-2.html
  21. 21. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns21Evidence: Social valueoUK published comparable data onthe individual clinical outcomes in2004.oSeven years later there are 1.000fewer deaths in heart surgery unitseach year.http://10years.reform.co.uk/essays/The-future-is-Open-why-transparency-will-be-the-organising-principle-of-21st-century-public-services.pdf
  22. 22. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns22Evidence: Transparencyo Capitation funds reaching schools inUganda increased from 20% to 90%between 1995 and 2001.o Thanks not only to public expendituretracking surveys and data publication,but also to concurrent reforms inUgandas education and fiscal systems.http://www.cgdev.org/files/15050_file_Uganda.pdf
  23. 23. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns23Evidence: Better public serviceso Apps for democracy $50k investment.o 47 Phone, Social Networks and Web appsin 30 days (a $2.3m value - ROI 4000%)o 1-2 years time estimation to completethe procurement process and receiveapps.http://www.appsfordemocracy.org/citizen-engagement-through-apps-for-democracy-community-edition/
  24. 24. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPositives outweigh concerns24New business opportunitiesData analysisData miningData combinationIf it is hard for governments to experimentthen let others experiment for you.VisualisationNiche markets…
  25. 25. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2009: 2225http://datos.fundacionctic.org/sandbox/catalog/faceted/
  26. 26. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2010: 5826
  27. 27. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2011: 14027
  28. 28. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2012: 20228
  29. 29. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedState of the art 2013: 21729
  30. 30. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOpen Government Partnership: 5830http://www.opengovpartnership.org/countries
  31. 31. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLMICs: 21731https://maps.google.de/maps/ms?msid=214949500913461139756.0004d6af336a205394ed1&msa=0
  32. 32. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedAfrica: 1632
  33. 33. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMillennium Development Goals33
  34. 34. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMDGs34Almost as difficult as choosing the right goals, is to findadequate measures that will mark progress toward them.
  35. 35. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedMDGs35https://s3.amazonaws.com/one.org/images/ONE_HLP_Report_-_FINAL.pdfOpen, accountable and inclusive Governmentso Openness in the design of the post-2015 framework.o Openness in monitoring of investment and outcomes.o Openness in terms of making that information widelyavailable and accessible.o Making relevant data accessible to citizens andaccountability institutions.o Opportunities for their citizens to engage.http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/images/Ending_Poverty_in_Our_Generation_Africa.pdf
  36. 36. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 36The components of an OpenData initiative
  37. 37. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedObjective37Development and deployment of localsustainable Open Data initiativesCountry-based approach: implementation ofcomplete OGD initiatives to build local capacitiesFocus not only on data release but also oncreating ecosystems for the use and re-use ofthe released data by other actors such as civilsociety, academia, business, media or any otherorganisations that may benefit of them.
  38. 38. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOpen Government pioneers38How it all began?Most of the things were already in place (e.g. politicalwillingness, IT infrastructure, capacity etc.)
  39. 39. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedHypothesis39What if we use the knowledge in Westernworld Open Data projects in LMICs?o It wouldn’t work out of the boxo Some things will be applicable “as is”o Some will need little or huge changeso Some new challenges arise (and will need to beaddressed)http://www.webfoundation.org/projects/open-government-data/
  40. 40. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOGD readiness40Need to go one step backo What is needed?o How much of what we know fromexisting initiatives is applicable?o What are the indicators that willenable the definition of OGDreadiness in a given country?
  41. 41. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLMICs’ singularities41o Transparency and accountability toencourage foreign aid and investmentso ICT potential to provide basic services(health, education, business, government...) to ruralcommunities and under-privileged populationso Affordability (e.g., tools, assistive technologies)o Pronounced effects of some barriers(e.g. age, literacy, language, experience)o Integrate with current communications(business and social groups, radio, TV, SMS ..)
  42. 42. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDimensions42PoliticalLegalOrganizationalDataTechnicalEconomicSocialStakeholdersMethodology: http://www.webfoundation.org/projects/open-government-data-feasibility-studies/https://data.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/1/od_readiness_-_revised_v2.pdf
  43. 43. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSocio-economic43oDemographicsoLabour marketoQuality of lifeoEducation and literacyoMacroeconomic stabilityoFinancial marketsoMarkets for goods and servicesoBusiness environment
  44. 44. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedInstitutional framework44oLeadershipo Is there a political top-level leadership tofacilitate an Open Data initiative?oSustainabilityo Is there a management structure thatfacilitates Open Data?o Is the Government middle layer ready tofacilitate an Open Government initiative?
  45. 45. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedInstitutional framework45oPolicies and legal frameworko Does the country have legislation related toPSI reuse, data openness, transparency,official secrecy and/or privacy? (e.g. FOIA,Privacy Act)o Does the country have a licensing andcopyright framework?o What policies/laws help or hinder the use ofinformation by civil society?
  46. 46. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedInstitutional framework46oEconomicsoAre there sufficient resources in placeto fund an initial phase of an OpenGovernment Data initiative andsupport the necessary infrastructuresand skills needed?oTo what degree and how is theexpense of opening significantamounts of government data likely tobe an issue?
  47. 47. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedTechnology and Infrastructures47oWhat is the importance of ICT toGovernment?oHow developed are electronicservices in the country? Is there anyInteroperability Framework?oWhat is ICT Development level andevolution? (e.g. connectivity,mobile coverage, etc.)
  48. 48. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedGovernment Data48o What level of data collection does thegovernment undertake?o Are there inventories of data held atgovernment?o What is the quality of data?o How easy is to reuse available data?o What are the most valuable governmentdatasets when publicly available?
  49. 49. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem49“It has to happen at the top,it has to happen in the middleand it has to happen at thebottom” - Tim Berners-Lee, inventorof the Web.http://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/open-data-study-20110519.pdf
  50. 50. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem50Several ActorsoPolitical Level: to achieve top level politicalwillingness.oPublic Administration Level: to raiseawareness, improve skills, make it sustainable.oCivil Society Level: to realize the valuebehind the data and keep government opening up.
  51. 51. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem51Joy’s Law“No matter who you are,most of the smarter peoplework for someone else” – BillJoy, Sun Microsystems co-founder.
  52. 52. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem52Collorary: The many minds principle“The coolest thing to do withyour data will be thought ofby someone else” – Jo Walsh andRufus Pollock, OKFN.
  53. 53. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem53Open Data stakeholders and rolesoPublic sector (political guidance, top leveldirection, guide implementation, policy-making,agenda-setting, implementation and support)oCivil Society Organisations (use OpenData for their advocacy work, monitoring policies andencourage political participation)oCivic hackers (apply technological skills tomake sense of data)
  54. 54. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem54Open Data stakeholders and rolesoMedia (use Open Data in reporting and datajournalism)oAcademia & Research (use Open Data inresearch, provide theoretical concepts andframeworks)oPrivate sector (build business on Open Dataand support infrastructures)oDonors, Foundation & Int. Orgs.(funding, knowledge transfer and capacity building)
  55. 55. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem55Community engagemento Are there Public Sector Information re-useoutreach and encouragement activities?o Does a network or community exist thatbridges the gap between the middlegovernmental layer and civil society?o Are there donors active in the country thatcould be useful allies?o How dynamic is the media sector?
  56. 56. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedThe Open Data Ecosystem56Community engagemento Is there an academic or research communitythat both trains people and has people skilledat data science?o Are there data reuse initiatives or championsfrom the civil society?o Is there a potential user base that may makeuse of targeted data?o How dynamic is the ICT sector?o Is there a data economy already in place?
  57. 57. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?57“Open Data must have a wellbalanced ecosystem” – NigelShadbolt, Head of the Web and InternetScience Group at the University ofSouthampton.http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedKingdom/Local%20Assets/Documents/Market%20insights/Deloitte%20Analytics/uk-insights-deloitte-analytics-open-data-june-2012.pdf
  58. 58. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?58Quick OGD portal vs. sustainablelong-term OGD initiativeoOGD Portal should be just aconsequence not an end in itself.oTechnical approach vs. OGDecosystem (actors and dimensions).oStart simple but with long term goalin mind.
  59. 59. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?59oThe issue with OpenoSeveral times not really Open (have alook at the licenses)oThe issue with machine-readable,standard formatsoPDFs, Excel, etc. (documents not data)oWeb Architecture ≠ Web as file server.http://opendefinition.org/licenses/
  60. 60. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedLessons learned?60o Raw data now… and better dataafterwards (make it work and then make it better)o Start with the low hanging fruit and improveover time (make it work an then standardize)o Do not try to enforce an specificarchitectureo Chances are you could not deploy it.o Try to adapt to existing systems and build ontop of them as a start.
  61. 61. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 61How to set-up an OpenGovernment Data initiative?
  62. 62. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSteps621 – Organise2 - Standardize3 – Publish4 – Share5 - Supervise5 fundamental steps
  63. 63. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSteps63OrganiseReadinessAssessmentData inventoryData analysisStandardizeRegulatoryframeworkOrganizationalchartStandards andguidelinesPublishRepresentationCataloguingTechnicalInfrastructureShareInternalparticipationExternalparticipationSuperviseDatamonitoringInternalsupportStrategyrevision
  64. 64. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise64What data am I currentlymanaging and/or publishing?
  65. 65. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise65Data inventoryo Health and welfare (e.g. public healthinspections, hospitals performance, etc.)o Education and training (e.g. schoolperformance, educational resources, etc.)o Public finances and procurement (e.g.national budget, taxes distribution, contracts, etc.)o Natural resources and environment (e.g.extractive industry, pollution, etc.)o Geospatial (e.g. maps, points of interest, etc.)
  66. 66. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise66Data inventoryo Politic and Policies (e.g. laws, officialproceedings, bulletins, election results, etc.)o Justice and Public safety (e.g. crime data)o Public directories (e.g. addresses and contactfor schools, hospitals, libraries, police stations, etc.)o Transportation (e.g. information about roads andpublic transportation)o Statistics (e.g. socio-economic and demographicinformation)
  67. 67. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise67“If I had asked people whatthey wanted, they wouldhave said faster horses” – HenryFord, Founder of the Ford Motor Company.
  68. 68. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedOrganise68Data analysisIdentification of datasets (data cards)What: datasets, descriptions, formats, volume, etc.Where: location, storage, distributions, etc.Who: data owners and managers, roles, contacts, etc.When: data age, updates frequency, creation date,expiration date, etc.How: means of access, grants and restrictions, termsof use, quality, etc.
  69. 69. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize69How could I structure data in away that it can be easilyreused?
  70. 70. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize70Regulatory frameworko Open by default (keeping logical privacy andsecurity restrictions)o Free and unlimited access, no justificationrequired.o Ensure permanent availability in the future.o Terms of useo Licensing: free or open (at least use, reuse anddistribute), simple and unified, self-described andmachine readable, etc.
  71. 71. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize71Regulatory frameworko Legislationo Laws and policies (FOI, PSI re-use, standards,quality, etc.)o Security and privacy (be careful with the newmash-up possibilities)o Keep also into consideration other applicableframeworks (regional, national, international,specific, etc.)o Services procuremento Same requirements for suppliers and subcontractors(openness clause)
  72. 72. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize72Organizational charto Managemento General management.o Internal administration (data publishers)o External administration (data consumers)o Coordinationo Promoters and different public bodies.o Communicationo Dissemination and outreach.o Technical teamo Content management, developers, system admin.
  73. 73. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize73Standards and guidelineso Metadata definition for datasets description andcharacterization to facilitate findability and reuse.
  74. 74. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize74Standards and guidelineso Vocabularies to describe and classify all the recordsof the catalogue in common terms.o Taxonomies definition to provide standardnames and references for common objects.o IDs scheme to maintain persistent identifiers andpreserve data over time.o Catalogue requirements and functional specification.Always Document!
  75. 75. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedStandardize75Catalogue functionalityo Informative sections (about, help, terms of use,news, blogs, stats…)o Data Sets Catalogue (data catalogue, semanticcapabilities…)o Data Sets Services (browsing and searching,querying, download, apps, visualizing…)o Community Services (communities of interest,requests, comments…)o Back End (user management, data management,applications management…)
  76. 76. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish76How should I share the data?http://www.w3.org/TR/gov-data/
  77. 77. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish77“There wouldn’t be Open Datawithout the Web”o Need to be inclusive, minimize/avoid a data divide…address the challenges!o Need to provide global leadership across dimensions toadvance the Web and Open Data.o Need to act as catalyser and hub to make the Webavailable to all.o Think of the Web (technologies) as a mean, deliver asneeded (community radios, mobile phones, etc.)
  78. 78. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish78“Keep it simple. When in doubtduring design, choose thesimplest solution”– ArchitecturePrinciples of the Internet.http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1958.txt
  79. 79. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation79Metadata Standardso Re-use of standardized mainstream vocabularies:DCAT, ADMS, Dublin Core, vCard, FOAF, iCal…o In order to maximise interoperability and avoidambiguities, use also uniform formats to specifymetadata (i.e., ISO-8601 to represent dates)http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-dcat/http://www.w3.org/ns/admshttp://dublincore.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VCardhttp://www.foaf-project.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICalendar
  80. 80. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation80Taxonomies and Vocabularieso Existing reference vocabularies should be firstevaluated in order to establish those that are the mostappropriate: Data Cube, the eGov Core Vocabularies…http://www.w3.org/TR/vocab-data-cube/https://joinup.ec.europa.eu/community/core_vocabularies/descriptiono The SKOS standard is a data model for sharing andlinking through the Web’s basic structure and content.http://www.w3.org/TR/2009/REC-skos-reference-20090818/
  81. 81. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation81IDs Schemehttp://{base}/{type}[/{domain}][/{sector}][/{resource}]o The ability to identify resources via URIs is one of thefoundations of the Internet.o If we provide permanent URIs that are self-describingand follow established patterns; it will be much easierto find the desired information.o The usage of these persistent identifiers will alsoprovide reliable references to the data, a basicrequirement to ensure information access.
  82. 82. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation82o Use URIs as names for things.o Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up the names.o When somebody looks up an URI it should provideuseful information using standards.o Provide at least one machine-readable representationof the resource identified by the URI.o Use consistent, extensible & persistent URIs.o Create URIs that are understandable and meaningful.o Never expose information about the technicalimplementation of URIs.o Include links to other URIs so that people can discovermore related things.http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData
  83. 83. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Representation83Updates and versioningo How to preserve integrity of published data is one ofthe key challenges (new resources, new links betweendata sets, obsolescence and deletion of old material…)o Data persistence must be ensured over time if weexpect the stakeholders’ community to re-use it.o Keep track of relationships between different datasets versions.o Document changes that have been carried out,including appropriate version metadata.
  84. 84. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing84DataCatalogues
  85. 85. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing85The 5 ★ of Linked Open Datadata on the webstructured datanon-proprietary formatsURLs to identify thingslink to other’s data★★★★★★★★★★★★★★★
  86. 86. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing86The road aheadLinked DataRDFaAPIsXMLRSS/atomHTML ScrappingRaw Data
  87. 87. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Cataloguing870% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%LINKED DATARAW DATAPubllishReuse
  88. 88. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure88
  89. 89. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure89Raw data vs. machine readable
  90. 90. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure90http://lod-cloud.net/
  91. 91. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure91LOD benefits are great, but…o Modelling is though.o Good to combine multiple sources, butstill there are other issues (licensing, dataquality, provenance, trust…)o Sometimes slow performance.o Better toolkits are needed.o Capacity building.
  92. 92. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure92What platform?o Data Catalog Interoperability (allowcatalogues federation with standard schema – DCAT)o Data Portability Based (use standard dataformats such as JSON, XML or CSV, as well as RDF andother Linked Data standards)o Application Portability (based on Open DataAPI Standards, such as REST, HTTP, and StructuredQuery Language (SQL)
  93. 93. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedPublish - Infrastructure93“Tim Berners-Lee didn’t develophundreds of millions of websites.He designed a platform so thatothers could” – Tim O’Reilly,Founder of O’Reilly Media.http://www.businessofgovernment.org/report/designing-open-projects-lessons-internet-pioneers
  94. 94. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare94How could I be more open?
  95. 95. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (internally)95Internal participation (Government)o The consolidation of an Open Datainitiative is in need of involvement fromall Government bodies to achieve fullcultural integration with internalprocesses.o Resistance to change is a delicate issue.o Governments tend to avoid risks.
  96. 96. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (internally)96Internal participation (Government)o Attract new public bodieso Project presentation and communication.o Encourage participation.o Raise awarenesso Internal meetings, workshops, seminars…o Capacity buildingo Open Data, benefits, examples…o Data processing and classification.o Data catalogue inner workings.
  97. 97. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)97External participation (OtherStakeholders)Open Government Data initiatives shouldbe seen as collaborative projects within achanging environment, where the endmay not be clear and the coordinatingentities do not have all the resources tocreate change needed by themself.
  98. 98. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)98“If you prevent people fromdoing bad things, you preventalso them from doing goodthings” – Jimmy Wales, Wikipedia co-founder.
  99. 99. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)9910 lessons from Internet pioneerso 1 - Let everyone play: bring in additionalresources, attracts advocates, and captures new ideas.o 2 - Play nice: a common mistake is reduceparticipation by setting high walls to protect from low-quality contributions, vandalism, etc.o 3 - Tell what you are doing while you aredoing it: improve understanding and contributions,avoid overlap and create adjacent value, build trust.http://www.businessofgovernment.org/report/designing-open-projects-lessons-internet-pioneers
  100. 100. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)100o 4 - Use multiple communicationchannels: do not focus only on the Web.o 5 - Give it away: governments shouldn’t beproprietary about what they know and learn.o 6 - Reach for the edges: need observationsand insights from the edges when we face complicatedproblems.o 7 - Take advantage of all organizations:OGD is likely to require contributions from anecosystem of different participants with varyinginterests and incentives.
  101. 101. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedShare (externally)101o 8 - Design for participation: breaking workinto manageable pieces makes it easier to understandwhat needs to be done and become involved.o 9 - Increase network impact: a communitymodel based in a network of nodes that can interactback and forth will create an exponential growth.o 10 - Build platforms: help people andorganizations coordinate their activities so they arejointly more productive.
  102. 102. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDissemination and outreach102o Public consultation: ask people what data theywant.o Round tables and networking: shareexperiences face to face and set common goals.o Communities of interest: gather togetherpeople with different motivations and profiles, butthat share interest in a given topic.o Communities of practice: e.g. disseminationand engagement, data standards and homogenisation,data catalogues best practices, etc.
  103. 103. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedDissemination and outreach103o Public-private collaboration: explorepossible synergies between government and otherexternal entities, but avoiding exclusive alliances.o Dissemination (online and offline): news, blogs,social networks, press releases, multimedia, etc.o Education and investigation: training ofenough human resources with skills to take advantageof OGD.o Entrepreneurship promotion: capacitybuilding, support, business models, challenges,Hackatons, etc.
  104. 104. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision104http://www.data.gov.uk/odug-roadmap
  105. 105. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision105Data monitoringoData catalogue monitoring: visitors,sources, keywords, bounces, time onsite, devices, locations, etc.oData sets usage and characteristics:new datasets, updated datasets,publishers, formats, licenses, topics,apps, data requests, etc.
  106. 106. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision106Internal supporto Knowledge transfer.o Assistance for public bodies.o Procedural support for OGD processes.o Technical support for OGD tools.o Capacity building.o Guidelines and educational resources.
  107. 107. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedSupervision107Strategy revisiono Have a look back to the originalobjectives.o Detect achievements, failures, mistakes,best practices, champions, etc.o Analyse and evaluate the results.o Share the indicators.o Update the strategy accordingly.
  108. 108. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 108Some final remarks
  109. 109. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedFinal remarks109Spend some time to analyse the startingpoint, identify champions and collaborate, but…Get started now! you can start small andsimple, then grow steadily.Address fears and misunderstandings from thevery beginning.Share and engage data has no value if it is notbeing used, use examples that focus on everybody’s liveimprovement and avoid the “cool visualization” effect.
  110. 110. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reservedFinal remarks110Technology is a small percentage: butstill remember there are 3 fundamental steps“Identify the data that youmanage, represent that datain a way that people can use itand expose the data to thewider world” – Jeni Tennison, UKODI.http://www.jenitennison.com/blog/node/100
  111. 111. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 111That’s allThank you for yourattention!Any other Questions?
  112. 112. Copyright © 2013. SB Consulting. All rights reserved 112Do you need some supportwhile Opening up your Data?Just keep in touchCarlos Iglesiascarlos@sbc4d.com@carlosiglesias | sb4cd.comskype: carlos.iglesias.skypees.linkedin.com/in/carlosiglesiasmoro/enThis presentation: http://tinyurl.com/eGovAfricaOGD
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