GARBAGE “CASE STUDY” Egypt UkraineUnited Kingdom Russia
StrengthHistorical City Center 3rd Largest City in Italy
StrengthAvailability of Garbage Dumpsters Tourism
HistoryIn mid 1990, the garbage landfill in the Campania district were full and so allemployees refused to collect the garbage from Naples. Leaving the streetsfilled with garbage.Even after newly elected Prime MinisterSilvio Berlusconi took immediate action intoimplementing a solution for garbage.Today the crisis isn’t as bad however it stillremains. Tons of garbage has been sent to Germany as well as the opening of new landfill have been initiated and authorized by the government.
“Waste in the World”
MAFIA CONTROLS HEALTH ISSUES DESEASED ANIMALS WATER AND AIR POLLUTIONBAD REPUTATION FOR NAPLES
The biggest ProblemAfter month’s of research, we conclude that: The main problem with Garbage in the City of Naples is its transport and final destination of garbage i.e. Landfills
Camorra For years it has believed that a private distinct group called the “camorra” located in southern Italy, Campania control the land in which landfills are present. It might be the hardest solution but alsothe most efficient an investigation into private sectors ofCampania to resolve the issue with private land owned by the“Camorra” and the use of illegal dumping of toxic waste.
49 WtE plants ONLY ?
Waste-To-EnergyIn Italy, 3.5 million tons of garbage was incinerated in 2004. Today there arearound 49 WtE (Waste-to-Energy) facilities in Italy.32 located in northern Italy15 in the center of Italy7 in the southern part of Italy.Technology in energy has increased a lot. Today people use more energy thanever before. In 2004, 2.4 million MW of electrical energy and 0.575 millionMW of thermal energy were produced from waste. In 2004, the averageproduction of electrical energy was 587 kW per ton of processed waste and ofthermal energy 361 kWhth per tonne.The great results as written up there are not many in south Italy where Naplesis located. Investments should start to increase the WtE plants in southernItaly as well as incineration plants.
RecycleIn 2004, approximately 7.1 million tons of garbage was recycled, which is equalto 22.7% of the total waste production.However, the situation is very different between the geographical areas: The North has reached a recycling value of 35.5%, The Center 18.3% The South ONLY 8.1%. Awareness should be raised for recycling in the south. Especially recycling facilities.
Reduce – Reuse – Recycle LIVE and RESPECT
ReuseREUSE YOURBOTTLES, PAPERAND EVENTECHNOLOGY !
RECYCLE => RESPECT
RussiaRussia is one of the most countriesthat have incinerations with itsbiggest located in St. Petersburg “Rubbish Chute” Motivates the people to throw garbage in the right place, closer to home
Russia - INVOLVEMENTTHE GREEN PEACE ACTION The international movement “LET’S DO IT”GARBAGE SEPERATION
UNITED KINGDOM Alternative methods
“PLASMA ARC DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY” THE “BETTER” TOMORROW PLASMA ARC WASTE DISPOSAL, IT IS AN ADVANCED METHOD FOR DISPOSAL. THE WASTE IS PLACED BETWEEN TWO ELECTRODES AND AN ELECTRIC CURRENT IS STARTED GIVING A LARGE SPARK AT A TEMPERATURE OF 1500 DEGREES CELCIUSIT IS ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPOSING THE WASTE INTO BIOGAS WHICH CAN BE USED AS FUEL AND MELT FRIENDLY WHICH CAN ALSO BE USED BY THE METAL, CONSTRUCTION, ABRASIVE INDUSTRY
EgyptAfter the revolution thenew government issued astatement saying“THE EGYPTIANS PEOPLE ARE THEOWNERS OF EGYPT AND THE LANDOF EGYPT, THEY DESERVE THE BESTSORROUNDING ENVIRONMENT”before giving the order ofopening 12 new landfills.
EGYPT NEW CONSTITUTION: INSINKERATOR STARTING FROM 2013 EVERY HOUSHOLD BUILT MUST HAVE AN INSTALLED INSINKERATOR
Why do we need to resolve ?
Green DotThe system, called the Green Dot, is very common in Europe.You can see this symbol on plastic, shampoo bottles, and cansof food. The Green Dot means that the price of the product youare paying for includes collection and recycling. This symbol isknown all over Europe under similar names.Today, the Green Dot® program has morethan 130,000 participating companies and460 billion packages have been stamped withthe Green Dot® logo.
Countries that implement “GREEN DOT” AIESEC NAPOLI PARTHENOPE DREAM: “ITALY WILL BECOME A MEMBER OF THE GREEN DOT”
“Plastic”Italy already enforces Recycling and persists on its implementation. It hasn’tyet banned the excessive use of plastic: Plastic is Non-Biodegradable It takes about 10,000 years for plastic to be degraded• Laws should be amended to ban markets from giving out plastic bags and should be sold, making people re-use the plastic bags more than once and reduce the use and production of Plastic.• Restaurants should be restricted from giving out plastic cups but instead use paper cups
“BioDrying”Biodrying is the process by whichbiodegradable waste is rapidlyheated through initial stages ofcomposting to remove waterfrom a waste collection andtherefor reduce its overallweight. Reducing the totalvolume of the waste so less spaceneeded for it to be disposed.
“Waste Gasification”Gasification is a process that converts waste carbonaceousmaterials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide andmethane. By reacting the material at high temperatures(>700°C), without combustion, The resulting gas is syngas orproducer gas and is itself a fuel.•Less production of flue gas•Electricity may be generated in engines and gas turbines whichis more efficient than steam cycle used in incineration•Chemical processing of syngas may produce other synthetic gasinstead of electricity•Some gasification process produce metals to release it inchemically stable form
“Mechanical Biological Treatment” This deals with all the garbage that hasn’t been recycled or sorted. 1.The waste is shredded 2.Recyclable material is removed 3.The waste is composted, digested or anaerobically digestedIf it was anaerobically digested it results withgas used as a fuel.MBT reduces the total volume of the waste.Most MBT technologies have been developedin Germany, Austria and Switzerland
“Mechanical Biological Treatment”
“Mechanical Heat Treatment”Mechanical Heat Treatment, is separatedinto two parts “mechanical-and-heat”The waste is first sorted and all recyclablematerial is removed and recycled.The waste is autoclaved, steam is pressuredat 160 degrees and this kills all the bacteriaand viruses in the waste.The plastic is softened and flattened, paper and fibers are disintegrated.Reducing the total volume of waste by about 70%In most countries this is used for medical waste because the process kills allthe bacteria, virus and pathogens.
“Pyrolysis” It is the thermochemical decomposition of organic material, without the use of pressurized oxygen. It occurs at temperatures of 600 degrees under pressure. Itturns biomass intosyngas which can be used to produce syntheticmaterials or fuel. Also to convert waste into safelydisposal materials.Anhydrous Pyrolysis can also be used toproduce liquid fuel similar to diesel fromplastic waste.
Tunnel CompostingThe tunnel composting is a closed-circuit reactor process with air diffusion andautomated process flow.Apart from biowaste this process can also handle mixed domestic wastes anddifficult-to-treat materials such as large-kitchen wastes, sewage sludge and wastesfrom livestock farming.
PenaltyA law should be passed to ban throwing garbage inpublic and to concentrate on throwing garbage atnight only and if not applied then a fee must be paid.
“DustBot”The garbage bin of the Dust-box robot has a capacity of 40 kg.The robot works with a combination of GPS navigation and with a gyroscope to keep it standing up.There are also a number of sensors on the machine so it does not crash into anything. It is able tomonitor pollution through a number of air quality sensors, and can advise if the levels are too high.
“Rubbish Chute” The cost of one barrel (euro)Estimated Floors 6 9 10 12 14 17 19 23Delivery of 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500theequipmentConstruction 1080 1100 1180 1300 1480 1600 1780 1900worksTotal 1580 1600 1680 1800 1980 2100 2280 2400 Life time of “Rubbish Chute” 50 years
Garbage VehiclesThe transport of vehicles is one of themain problems with the garbage crisisin Naples.It is mandatory for the garbage to becollected more frequently.Garbage collected more oftenPublic areas will be cleanerMore job opportunitiesThe prices are different depending onthe size of the vehicle.From 20,000 – 70,000 euros
RecyclingEstimated total amount of garbage in Naples is ± 1400tonsKind of material Price € per ton With every ton of paper we recyclePaper 28 We save 17 Large Trees 7,000 Gallons of WaterPlastic 272 380 Gallons of Oil 4,100 KW of Electricity or Enough Energy To Heat orGlass 14 Air-condition An Average Home for 6 MonthsMixed 183-229(206) Elimination of 69 Pounds of Air Pollution
RecyclingPaper 1400/3=466 Recycling one aluminum 466* 28=13048 € can saves enough energy to run a TV for three hours.Plastic 1400/3=466 Recycling one pound of 466* 272=126752 € steel saves enough energy to power a 60 WattGlass 1400/3=466 bulb for 1 day. 466* 14=6524 € In the United States, recycling of steel savesTotal 13048+126752+6524= enough energy to heat and light 18,000 homes in 146324 € one year.
“Dust Bot” DustBotThe Dust Bot isvery efficient asit is portableand can changeits location.The cost of afully functioningDust Bot Is€14,000
“Green Dot”The Green Dot has no fixed fee but to berecognized by the official Green DotOrganization the company must pay alicense fee of around € 800-1000A law should be passed that allmajor industries in Naples shouldabide by the green dot program
“EcoPark”The EcoPark project in England, built for new recycling and organic treatment facilities to help deliver 50 per cent recycling and mechanical biological treatment plants to treat waste which cannot be recycled.Total Cost:
“InSinkerator”Insinkerator used to disposeof organic waste and saves up50% of household waste alsoreduces the risk of havingrodents.Average price:€ 110 - 400 depending oncompany provider and qualityof product.
“WASTE-to-ENERGY” WtE plants act in the same way as incinerators but instead have the advantage of creating electrical energy and fuel products. The average cost of WtE cost in Europe is about €120,000,00 and an average of €1,000,000 for maintenance per year
Landfills Landfills Year 1993 1996 1997 1998- 2005 €/ton MSW 20,00 211,23 184,38 191,09Even though landfills are the Costs in Euro per Ton to access landfillworst solutions for disposing ofgarbage it is also the most ideal,quickest and cheapest way fordisposal of garbage.As you can see in the tableabove the cost of disposing ofgarbage in landfills in northerneurope. You can also see that itincreases with time.
“Plasma Arc Waste Disposal” (PAWD)The cost of using plasma arcwaste disposal has decreasedfrom €40 per ton to ZERO as aresult of creation ofecological by-products. Usingincinerations costs about€100 per ton.“PAWD” produces ethanol andSyngas which can be sold forprofitEthanol => €1.60 / gallonSyngas => €5.00 per million BTU
“BioDrying” Estimated price for a 30,000 ton/per year BioDrying Plant
“Waste Gasification”Average estimated cost of a waste gasification plant according toone that has been built and 2 under construction in the USA isabout €120-160 million The process of disposing of garbage costs €60 per ton
Pyrolysis The cost of one of the pyrolysis plant in China costs 37000000¥ which equates to €4,000,000. In the USA it cost $11.33 million (€8 million) and annual operating and maintenance costs of about $1.94 million,
Tunnel CompostingTunnel composting cost an estimated TOTALcapital of €20,000,000Including land, infrastructure and utilitybuilding. It can compost up to 60,000 tonsper year with about 220 tons per day.
“Mechanical Biological Treatment” (MBT) The highly efficient “MBT” plant that exists in the UK costs about £41.5 million pounds.€47.33 million