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    Flag of costa rica Flag of costa rica Document Transcript

    • Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica Use State flag and ensign Proportion 3:5 Adopted November 27, 1906
    • Design Showing Costa Rican flag prior to 1998 addition of "smoking" volcanoes to coat of arms.[1] Designed by Pacífica Fernández Variant flag of Costa Rica Use Civil flag and ensign Proportion 3:5 The official flag of the Republic of Costa Rica is based on a design created in 1848. The state/national flag, also used as the military ensign, includes the coat of arms of Costa Rica. The civil ensign, commonly used as an unofficial national flag, omits the coat of arms. The flag was officially adopted on November 27, 1906, including a slight modification to the placement and design of the entrenched coat of arms. The flag was updated to reflect concurrent modifications to the national coat of arms in 1964 and 1998.Flags Prior to 1848[edit] During most of its colonial period, Costa Rica was the southernmost province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, which was nominally part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (i.e., Mexico), but which in practice operated as a largely autonomous entity within the Spanish Empire. As such, the land of present Costa Rica was covered by the various flags of the Spanish and Mexican Empires until 1823. Costa Rica was part of the Federal Republic of Central America (originally known as the "United Provinces of Central America"), a sovereign state in Central America, which consisted of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala. A republican democracy, it existed from July 1823 to 1841. During this period, Costa Rica used the flag of the United Provinces of Central America, augmented by variations specific to the State of Costa Rica within the United Provinces of Central America (a blue and white striped United Provinces flag, with the Costa Rican State Seal added). When the Federal Republic of Central America unofficially dissolved by 1841, Costa Rica made a further modification to its specific variation of the United Flags since 1848[edit] The blue, white and red horizontal design was created in 1848 by Pacífica Fernández, wife of then president José María Castro Madriz. Fernández was inspired by France's 1848 Revolution,
    • and the creation of the French Second Republic. The new design to the Costa Rican flag adopted the colors of the French tricolor. The blue color stands for the sky, opportunities, idealism and perseverance. The white color stands for peace, wisdom and happiness. The red color stands for the blood spilt by martyrs in defense of the country, as well as the warmth and generosity of the people. The stripes are in the ratio 1:1:2:1:1. The coat of arms of Costa Rica was also revised in 1848 and placed in the center of the flag. In 1906, when the coat of arms was modified, the update was placed in a white disk on the flag's red stripe, and later on an oval, set toward the hoist. The coat of arms depicts the isthmus between the Pacific ocean and the Caribbean Sea, with 3 volcanoes. The 7 stars stand for the 7 provinces of Costa Rica. The Spanish name of the country is scrolled on a white banner, Republica de Costa Rica (Republic of Costa Rica), and the Central American union is recognized in the blue upper scroll, America Central, recalling the former United Provinces of Central America. The flag of Costa Rica is similar to the flag of Thailand, which was adopted 11 years later.[3] It also resembles the flag of North Korea which was adopted almost 42 years later in 1948.[4] Historical flags[edit] September, 1821 – June 6, 1823 June 6, 1823 – March 4, 1824 March 4 – November 2, 1824 November 2–22, 1824 November 22, 1824 – November 15, 1840 April 21, 1840 – April 20, 1842 September, 1842 – November 12, 1848 November 12, 1848 – November 27, 1906
    • 1906 - 1964 1964 – 1998 COSTA RICA CONTINENT COSTA RICA MAP
    • Coat of arms of Costa Rica From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coat of arms of Costa Rica
    • Details Armiger Republic of Costa Rica Adopted 1848 (5 May 1998 alteration added smoke to volcanoes[1] ) Crest An azure ribbon declaring "America Central" The official coat of arms of the Republic of Costa Rica was designed in 1848, with modifications in 1906, 1964, and 1998. The latest change was the addition of smoke to distinguish the three volcanoes. ("Se dibujaron los volcanes humeantes para diferenciarlos." Languages of Costa Rica From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Costa Rica's official and predominant language is Spanish; the variety spoken there, Costa Rican Spanish, is a form of Central American Spanish. However, Costa Rica is also home to at least five local indigenous languages (Maléku, Cabécar, Bribri,Guaymí, and Bocotá), as well as Costa Rican Sign Language. An English-based creole language called Mekatelyu is spoken to varying degrees in Limón Province. Mennonite immigrants, mostly in the area of Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui also speakPlautdietsch. The Quakers community, who settled in Monteverde in early 1950s, speaks an ancient dialect of English, using thou instead you Demographics of Costa Rica From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the demographic features of the population of Costa Rica, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population. Costa Ricans
    • costarricenses Sonia Chang-Díaz • Jose Pablo Cantillo • Heather Hemmens •Debi Noval • Madeleine Stowe • Candice Michelle • Eliot A. Jardines • Franklin Chang- Díaz • Leonora Jiménez • Bruno Carranza • Harry Shum, Jr. • Maribel Guardia • Claudia Poll •Nery Brenes • Oscar Arias • Chavela Vargas Languages Costa Rican Spanish, Limonese Creole,Bribri, Ngäbere Religion Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism and minorities of other religions. Related ethnic groups Spaniards, Italian Costa Rican, Nahuatl,Other European peoples, Afro-Costa Rican,Other Amerindian peoples, Chinese people in Costa Rica Demographics of Costa Rica, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. According to the United Nations, in 2009 Costa Rica has an estimated population of 4,579,000
    • people. Together, whites and mestizos make up a 94% of the population, 3% are black people, 1% Amerindians, 1% Chinese, and 1% other. Just under 3% of the population is of black African descent who are called Afro-Costa Ricans or West Indians and are English- speaking descendants of 19th century black Jamaican immigrant workers. Another 1% is composed of ethnic Chinese, and less than 1% are Middle Easterners, mainly of Lebanese descent but also Palestinians. There is also a community of North American retirees from the United States and Canada, followed by fairly large numbers of European Union expatriates (esp. Scandinavians and from Germany) come to retire as well, and Australians.[citation needed] The indigenous population today numbers about 60,000 (1% of the population) with some Miskito and Garifuna (mixed African and West Indian with indigenous Arawak/Carib/Taíno) peoples live in the coastal regions. Descendants of 19th century West Indian and Jamaican immigrant workers constitute an English-speaking minority and at 3% of the population—number about 96,000 to 100,000.[citation needed] An estimated 10% of the Costa Rican population is made up of Nicaraguans.[1] There is also a number of Colombian refugees. Moreover, Costa Rica took in lots of refugees from a range of other Latin American countries fleeing civil wars and dictatorships during the 1970s and 80s - notably from Chile and Argentina. Almost 100,000 Costa Ricans (2% of the country's population) live abroad, mostly in the United States, Mexico and Spain. COSTA RICA History & Culture The first European explorer to encounter Costa Rica was the Great Navigator himself, Christopher Columbus. The day was September 18, 1502, and Columbus was making his fourth and final voyage to the New World. As he was setting anchor off shore, a crowd of local Carib Indians paddled out in canoes and greeted his crew warmly. Later, the golden bands that the region's inhabitants wore in their noses and ears would inspire the Spaniard Gil Gonzalez Davila to name the country Costa Rica, or Rich Coast. Archaeologists now know that civilization existed in Costa Rica for thousands of years before the arrival of Columbus, and evidence ofhuman occupation in the region dates back 10,000 years. Among the cultural mysteries left behind by the area's pre-Columbian inhabitants are thousands of perfectly spherical granite bolas that have been found near the west coast. The sizes of these inimitable relics range from that
    • of a baseball to that of a Volkswagen bus. Ruins of a large, ancient city complete with aqueducts were recently found east of San Jose, and some marvelously sophisticated gold and jade work was being wrought in the southwest as far back as 1,000 years ago. Some archeological sites in the central highlands and Nicoya peninsula have shown evidence of influence from the Mexican Olmec and Nahuatl civilizations. By the time Columbus arrived, there were four major indigenous tribes living in Costa Rica. The east coast was the realm of the Caribs, while the Borucas, Chibchas, and Diquis resided in the southwest. Only a few hundred thousand strong to begin with, none of these peoples lasted long after the dawn of Spanish colonialism. Some fled, while many others perished from the deadly smallpox brought by the Spaniards. Having decimated the indigenous labor force, the Spanish followed a common policy and brought in African slaves to work the land. Seventy thousand of their descendants live in Costa Rica today, and the country is known for good relations among races. Regrettably, only 1 percent of Costa's Rica's 3 million people are of indigenous heritage. An overwhelming 98 percent of the country is white, and those of Spanish descent call themselves Ticos. Of all the Spanish colonies, Costa Rica enjoyed the least influence as a colony. It was initially a tough and unpopular place to settle, with few valuable or easily exploited resources. The Spanish were far more interested in developing their holdings in Mexico and Peru, where vast amounts of silver and gold were being obtained. The early hapless settlers who came to Costa Rica were left largely to their own devices, and the first successful establishment of a colonial city was not until 1562, when Juan Vasquez de Coronado founded Cartago. When Mexico rebelled against Spain in 1821, Costa Rica and the rest of Central America followed suit. Two years later, a faction in Costa Rica even opted to become part of Mexico, sparking a civil war in the country's center between four neighboring cities. After the republican cities of San Jose and Alajuela soundly defeated the pro-Mexican Heredia and Cartago, sovereignty was established. The first head of state was Juan Mora Fernandez, elected in 1824. Best remembered for his land reforms, Fernandez followed a progressive course but inadvertantly created an elite class of powerful coffee barons. The barons later overthrew the nation's first president, Jose Maria Castro, who was succeeded by Juan Rafael Mora. It was under Mora's leadership that Costa Rican volunteers managed to repulse a would-be conqueror, the North American William Walker.
    • Walker was a disgruntled southerner who thought that the United States should annex Central America and turn it into a slave state. He was a lunatic, and a dangerous rather than charming one. With a piecemeal army of about 50 men, Walker had earlier invaded Mexico, where he had been captured and then released back to the States. Not to be discouraged, he next invaded Panama, where he briefly seized control before being forced to flee--into Costa Rica. After his bid for despotic rule there was defeated by Mora's forces, the indomitable Walker turned his attentions to Honduras. The Hondurans, unlike their predecessors on Walker's list, captured him, and Walker was finally and summarily executed. Military rule has reared its head in Costa Rica from time to time, though it has not been marked by the sort of violent extremism that has occurred elsewhere in Central America. In 1870, when General Tomas Guardia seized control of the government, he made some of the country's most progressive reforms in education, military policy, and taxation. The Costa Rican civil war erupted in 1948, after incumbent Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon and the United Social Christian Party refused to relinquish power after losing the presidential election. An exile named Jose Maria (Don Pepe) Figueres Ferrer managed to defeat Calderon in about a month, and he later proved to be one of Costa Rica's most influential leaders, as head of the Founding Junta of the Second Republic of Costa Rica. Under Ferrer's leadership, the Junta made vast reforms in policy and civil rights. Women and blacks gained the vote, the communist party was banned, banks were nationalized, and presidential term limits established. Ferrer was immensely popular, creating a political legacy that firmly cemented Costa Rica's liberal democratic values. In 1987, Costa Rican President Oscar Arias Sanchez garnered world recognition when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in ending the Nicaraguan civil war. During that conflict, both the Sandanistas and the Contras set up military bases in the northern area of Costa Rica, and Arias was elected under the promise that he would work to put an end to this situation. He was able to get all five Central American presidents to sign his peace plan, and Nicaragua is now experiencing relative stability. Education in Costa Rica The education system in Costa Rica consists of three main levels. It is a duty of every citizen and an obligation to receive education, as such it is free and obligatory by law. Universities[edit] There are five public universities in Costa Rica
    • Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica (ITCR) or (TEC) Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (UNA) Universidad Nacional Estatal a Distancia (UNED) Universidad Técnica Nacional de Costa Rica (UTN) Public universities offer degree programs according to their specialty and by law, and manage their own central and regional campus. By Costa Rican law, two different public universities may not offer the same degree program. There are also several private universities: Universidad Latinoamericana de Ciencia y Tecnología (Costa Rica) Universidad Latina de Costa Rica Instituto Centroamericano de Administracion de Empresas (INCAE) Universidad Adventista de Centroamérica (UNADECA) United Nations University for Peace Universidad de Ciencias Medicas (UCIMED) Universidad de EARTH Universidad de Iberoamerica (UNIBE) Universidad Autónoma de Centroamérica (UACA) Universidad Católica de Costa Rica Universidad Empresarial de Costa Rica (UNEM) Universidad Santa Paula Universidad Veritas Universidad Cristiana del Sur Universidad San Juan de la Cruz (SJDLC) Politics of Costa Rica The politics of Costa Rica take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the president and her cabinet, and the President of Costa Rica is both the head of state and head of government. Legislative power is vested in the Legislative Assembly. The president and 57 Legislative Assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. The Judiciary operates independent of the executive and the legislature. Costa Rica is a republic with a strong system of constitutional checks and balances.[1] Voting is compulsory in Costa Rica but it is not enforced. The offices of the Comptroller General of the Republic, the Procurator General of the Public, and the Ombudsman exercise autonomous oversight of the government. The Comptroller General's office has a statutory responsibility to scrutinize all but the smallest contracts of the public sector and strictly enforces procedural requirements. Costa Rica has no military but maintains domestic Police and armed National Guard forces securing its interests. The position of governor in the seven provinces was abolished in 1998.[2] There are no provincial legislatures. In 2009, the state monopolies on insurance and telecommunications (in which one often needed to wait months to get a cellular phone line) were opened to private- sector competition. Certain other state agencies enjoy considerable operational independence and autonomy; they include the electrical power, the nationalized commercial banks (which are open to competition from private banks), and the social security agency. Costa Rica
    • This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Costa Rica President Laura Chinchilla Vice Presidents Alfio Piva Luis Liberman Legislative Assembly Supreme Court of Justice Political parties Recent elections General: 2006 2010 2014 CAFTA referendum 2007 Administrative divisions Provinces Cantons Districts Foreign relations Other countries Atlas Politics portal Economy of Costa Rica The economy of Costa Rica is very stable, and depends essentially on tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. According to a study conducted by ADEN Business School (which included 18 other countries in the region), Costa Rica is the fourth most competitive country in Latin America in 2012 and is part of a bloc of countries rated as having a "very good competitive level, with advances and developments in infrastructure, technology and macroeconomic stability".[6] The nation scored a 71,8 out of 100 on a study which measured competitiveness based on 10 criteria. Compared to the 2011 rank, Costa Rica went up by one position (form 5th to 4th ).[6] The CIA World Factbook states that Costa Rica's GDP per capita is US$11,900 (2011 est.); however, poverty has remained around 15-20% for nearly 20 years, and the strong social safety net that had been put into place by the government has eroded due to increased financial constraints on government expenditures. It also states that foreign investors remain attracted by the country's political stability and relatively high education levels, as well as the incentives offered in the free-trade zones.
    • According to the CIA World Factbook, Costa Rica has attracted one of the highest levels of foreign direct investment per capita in Latin America. However, many business impediments remain such as high levels of bureaucracy, legal uncertainty due to overlapping and at times conflicting responsibilities between agencies, difficulty of enforcing contracts, and weak investor protection. Inflation rose to 22.5% in 1995, dropped to 11.1% in 1997, 12% in 1998, 11% in 1999 and 13% in 2008. Measures taken by the Central Bank have reduced inflation substantially to 4.3% in 2009, and a projected 5.8% for 2010. Curbing inflation, reducing the deficit, and improving public sector efficiency through an anti-corruption drive, remain key challenges to the government. Previous political resistance to privatization had stalled liberalization efforts. However, after the signing of CAFTA, Costa Rica is now opened to competition in its insurance and telecommunications markets. Costa Rica's economy emerged from recession in 1997 and has shown strong aggregate growth since then. After 6.2% growth in 1997, GDP grew a substantial 8.3% in 1999, led by exports. The strength in the nontraditional export and tourism sector is masking a relatively lackluster performance by traditional sectors, including agriculture. The central government deficit decreased to 3.2% of GDP in 1999, down from 3.3% from the year before. On a consolidated basis, including Central Bank losses and parastatal enterprise profits, the public sector deficit was 2.3% of GDP. Controlling the budget deficit remains the single biggest challenge for the country's economic policy makers, as interest costs on the accumulated central government debt consumes the equivalent of 30% of the government's total revenues. This limits the resources available for investments in the country's deteriorated public infrastructure, investments in many cases that would result in higher quality infrastructure if they were better planned. Natural resources[edit] See also: Ecotourism in Costa Rica Costa Rica's rainfall, its well-educated population, and its location in the Central American isthmus, which provides easy access to North and South American markets and direct ocean access to the European and Asian Continents. Costa Rica has two seasons, both of which have their own agricultural resources: the tropical wet and dry seasons. One-fourth of Costa Rica's land is dedicated to national forests, often adjoining beaches, which has made the country a popular destination for affluent retirees and ecotourists. It has one of the best economies in Latin America. Because of the ocean access 23.7% of Costa Ricas people fish and trade their catches to fish companies. In terms of the 2012 Environmental Performance Index ranking, Costa Rica is 5th in the world, and first among the Americas.[7] Tourism[edit]
    • Ecotourism is key in Costa Rica's tourism industry. Shown Savegre River, Talamanca. Main article: Tourism in Costa Rica With a $1.92-billion-a-year tourism industry, Costa Rica stands as the most visited nation in the Central American region, with 1.9 million foreign visitors in 2007,[8] thus reaching a rate of foreign tourists per capita of 0.46, one of the highest in the Caribbean Basin, and above other popular destinations such as Mexico (0.21), Dominican Republic (0.38), and Brazil (0.03). Ecotourism is extremely popular with the many tourists visiting the extensive national parks and protected areas around the country. Costa Rica was a pioneer in this type of tourism and the country is recognized as one of the few with real ecotourism.[9] Other important market segments are adventure, and sun and beaches. Most of the tourists come from the U.S. and Canada (46%), and the EU(16%),[10] the prime market travelers in the world, which translates into a relatively high expenditure per tourist of $1000 per trip. In terms of 2008 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), Costa Rica reached the 44th place in the world ranking, being the first among Latin American countries, and second if the Caribbean is included.[11] Just considering the subindex measuring human, cultural, and natural resources, Costa Rica ranks in the 24th place at a worldwide level, and 7th when considering just the natural resources criteria. The TTCI report also notes Costa Rica's main weaknesses, ground transport infrastructure (ranked 113th), and safety and security (ranked 128th).[12] [13] Agriculture[edit] Main article: Agricultjure in Costa Rica Costa Rica's economy was historically based on agriculture, and this has had a large cultural impact through the years. Costa Rica's main cash crops, both historically and up to modern times, wereCoffee and Bananas. Coffee, especially, had much cultural and political importance during the 1800s, being the crop that brought a newfound wealth to the nation's elite. Agriculture also plays a profound part in that country’s gross domestic product (GDP). It makes up about 6.5% of Costa Rica’s GDP, and 14% of the labor force.[14] Depending on location and altitude, many regions differ in agricultural crops and techniques. The main exports from the country include: bananas, pineapples, coffee, sugar, rice, vegetables, tropical fruits, ornamental plants, corn, andpotatoes. Livestock activity consists of cattle, pigs and horses, as well as poultry. Meat and dairy produce being leading exports.[15] Exports, jobs, and energy[edit]
    • Graphical depiction of Costa Rica's product exports in 28 color-coded categories. Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica is responsible for 25% of exports and 4,9% of the country'sGDP. Costa Rica used to be known principally as a producer of bananas and coffee. Even though coffee, bananas, pineapple, sugar, lumber, wood products and beef are still important exports, in recent timeselectronics, pharmaceuticals, financial outsourcing, software development, and ecotourism have become the prime industries in Costa Rica's economy. High levels of education among its residents make the country an attractive investing location. The country has successfully attracted important investments by such companies as Intel Corporation, which employs nearly 3,500 people at its custom built $300 million microprocessor plant; Procter & Gamble, which is establishing its administrative center for the Western Hemisphere in Costa Rica; and Abbott Laboratories and Baxter Healthcare from the health care products industry likewise. Manufacturing and industry's contribution to GDP overtook agriculture over the course of the 1990s, led by foreign investment in Costa Rica's free trade zones. Well over half of that investment has come from the U.S. In 2006 Intel's microprocessor facility alone was responsible for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP.[16][17] Poás Volcano Crater is one of the country's main tourist attractions. Trade with South East Asia and Russia has boomed during 2004 and 2005, and the country obtained full Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) membership by 2007 (the country became an observer in 2004). In 2011 the Financial Times Intelligent Unit awarded Costa Rica with the fDi’s Caribbean and Central American Country of the Future 2011/12 for its successful record in attracting FDI into the country, and being the number one destination country in the region in terms
    • of foreign direct investment (FDI) project numbers since 2003. In the previous assessment for the 2009/10 ranking the country had ranked second after Puerto Rico.[18][19] Tourism is booming, with the number of visitors up from 780,000 in 1996, through 1 million in 1999, to 2.089 million foreign visitors in 2008, allowing the country to earn $2.144-billion in that year.[20] Tourism now earns more foreign exchange than bananas and coffee combined.[21] In 2005, tourism contributed with 8,1% of the country's GDP and represented 13,3% of direct and indirect employment.[22] The country has not discovered sources of fossil fuels—apart from minor coal deposits—but its mountainous terrain and abundant rainfall have permitted the construction of a dozen hydroelectric power plants, making it self-sufficient in all energy needs, except oil for transportation. Costa Rica exports electricity to Central America and has the potential to become a major electricity exporter if plans for new generating plants and a regional distribution grid are realized. Mild climate and trade winds make neither heating nor cooling necessary, particularly in the highland cities and towns where some 90% of the population lives. Infrastructure[edit] Costa Rica's infrastructure has suffered from a lack of maintenance and new investment. The country has an extensive road system of more than 30,000 kilometers, although much of it is in disrepair. Most parts of the country are accessible by road. The main highland cities in the country's Central Valley are connected by paved all-weather roads with the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and by the Pan American Highway withNicaragua and Panama, the neighboring countries to the North and the South. Costa Rica's ports are struggling to keep pace with growing trade. They have insufficient capacity, and their equipment is in poor condition. The railroad didn't function for several years, until recent government effort to reactivate it for city transportation. The government hopes to bring foreign investment, technology, and management into the telecommunications and electrical power sectors, which are monopolies of the state. However, political opposition to opening these sectors to private participation has stalled the government's efforts. Costa Rica has a reputation as one of the most stable, prosperous, and among the least corrupt in Latin America.[23] However, in fall 2004, three former Costa Rican presidents (Jose Maria Figueres, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, and Rafael Angel Calderon) were investigated on corruption charges related to the issuance of government contracts. After extensive legal proceedings Calderon and Rodriguez have been sentenced; however, the inquiry on Figueres has since been dismissed by the competent judicial party and no charges were ever raised against him. Trade policy[edit] Costa Rica has sought to widen its economic and trade ties, both within and outside the region. Costa Rica signed a bilateral trade agreement with Mexico in 1994, which was later amended to cover a wider range of products. Costa Rica joined other Central American countries, plus the Dominican Republic, in establishing a Trade and Investment Council with the United States in March 1998. Costa Rica has bilateral free trade agreements with the following countries and blocs which took effect on (see date):
    • Canada (November 1, 2002) Chile (February 15, 2002) China (August 1, 2011). Caribbean Community (CARICOM)¨ (November 15, 2002)