SECURING COMMERCIAL AIRPORTSResponsibility between airport operator & TSABefore 9/11 every aspect of airport security was responsibility of airport operator except passenger screening *FAA oversaw both airport and airlines compliance with aviation security regulations.... Since 9/11 boundaries are blurred TSA migrating to other managing apsects: behavior detection bomb assessment officers civilian K-9 officers Deployable law enforcement personnel Visible intermodal protection and response teams Travel document checks *now deploying millimeter wave imaging technologies throughout public areas of terminal TSA now regulates some GA airports.
CHALLENGE OF COMMERCIAL AIRPORTSECURITY IN THE USAAirport security focuses on protecting the airfield and aircraft through controlling access of the general public and aviation employees, while still allowing those passengers and employees to efficiently move through the facility.TSA, Customs & Border Protection, domestic and foreign air carriers control many areas of an airport – complicating airport operationsTSA can change authority oversight for a particular area of an airport depending on the time of day or staffing requirements: 2006 – TSA determined screening checkpoint exit lanes were responsibility of airport operator, sometimes. *TSA accused of fixing budget and staffing challenges under guise of security
AIRPORT SECURITY IS A TEAM EFFORTTSA provides regulatory oversight over airport security practicesAirport operator must develop and implement prescribed security practicesWho is the FSD? (Federal Security Director)What does the FSD do?
FEDERAL SECURITY DIRECTORFSD clarifies the application of transportation security regulations and provides guidance on complying with the policies set forth by the TSAFSD provides guidance on systems, methods, and procedures by which airport and aircaft operators may comply with regulations and security directivesFSD approves the Airport Security Program.
AIRPORT SECURITY COORDINATOR - ASCASC is one of the most important people within the airport security systemASC drafts and enforces provisions of the airport security programASC implements policies set forth by security directivesASC oversees credentialing and access controlASC is primary liaison between the federal security director and other outside agencies with aviation security responsibilitiesASC must be available 24 hours a day (most airports have an alternate ASC)ASC may have other airport management dutiesASC must have comprehensive understanding of the security regulations and policy requirements of TSA to carry out key responsibilitiesASC must know regulations: Title 49 CFR Parts: 1540, 1542, 1544, 1546
TSA does not approve individual airport security coordinator training programs – ASC training program must cover required curriculum elements – best practice is formal industry training or certification courses such as offered by AAAEASC required for retraining if 2-year break
DESIGNATED RAMP OBSERVER - DROAirports with limited commercial service are approved to have an alternate means of compliance with security program requirements.Designated Ramp Observer program is most common at remote airports in Alaska.DRO is assigned to oversee the security of the commercial service operation for the duration of the operation *Before arrival of commercial service aircaft, DRO inspects the operation area for unauthorized individuals or contraband. *DRO visually observes the entire commercial service operation including: *Arrival of the aircraft *Debarkation and boarding *Screening *Departure The DRO cannot have other duties during a commercial flight operation.
ENFORCING THE AIRPORT SECURITY PROGRAM- ASPTSA’s enforcement authority comes from Title 49, CFR Part 1540 *Airport Operator is also required to enforce the ASPASC is directed to immediately initiate corrective action for any instance of noncompliance with this part, it’s security program, and applicable Security DirectivesThe punitive measures are required to be outlined in the Airport Security ProgramSome airport’s rules and regulations have been converted to local ordinance, making them enforceable under local laws.
COMMON VIOLATIONS OF AIRPORT SECURITYPROGRAMS*leaving SIDA access door open and unattended*allowing other authorized employees onto SIDA by ‘piggy-backing’*failing to wear access/ID in the SIDA*failing to challenge an un-badged individual in the SIDA*loaning one’s airport access media,*intentionally breaching security by blocking a door open, jumping over airport perimeter fence*allowing unauthorized individuals into the security areas*interfering with or assaulting security personnel*falsifying or altering airport access media
COMMERCIAL SERVICE AIRPORT AREAS1. Airside: 1. Secured areas, air operations areas, and security identification display areas (SIDA). 1. Secured area represents highest level of security protection 2. Air Operations Areas (AOA) represent the lowest level of protection 1. Traveling public is normally not allowed access to airside near the commercial service aircraft except where public walks outside to the aircraft.2. Terminal: 1. Public, non-public, and sterile areas 1. Public areas: ticket counters; 2. Non-public areas: vendor storage areas, tenant administrative offices; 3. Sterile area is divided from the public areas with a security –screening checkpoint and may extend beyon the screening checkpoint into the concourse3. Landside: 1. Commercial and private vehicle areas 2. Operations include private and commercial passenger vehicle pickup and drop off areas, rail, and subway access 3. Do not have specific security classification, but maintain highly important security considerations
STERILE AREASTSA describes a sterile area as a portion of an airport, specified in the Airport Security Program that provides passengers access to boarding aircraft and to which access generally is controlled by TSA or by an aircraft operator under 49 CFR 1544 or a foreign air carrier under 49 CFR 1546.ICAO recommends two types of secuirty areas in an airport: the Security Identification Display Area (SIDA) and the Air Operations Area (AOA).
SECURITY IDENTIFICATION DISPLAY AREA -SIDA*Includes areas where identification is necessary but access control may not - air carrier administrative areas - fuel farms - cargo areas*Security Training*Requires Identification display and challenge for individuals without ID displayed.*Requires Criminal History Record Check (CRHC)SIDA relates to ID display and CHRC only. Access controls are determined by requirements of Air Operations Area or secured area location in relation to the SIDA. It cannot be a secured area by itself.