Chpt 2 – TerrorismFundamental strategies for attacking aviation:HijackingsBombingsAirport assaults
Traditional objective for past hijackingswas to: “land and negotiate” Then: Terrorists used hostages to leverage arrangements ordemands Now: Terrorist use airliners as guided missiles What differences to AVSEC mission from then to now? None: mission remains the same – to prevent or deter hijackigsor attacks from occurring.
Why examine past attacks? As we look to the past is becomes apparent that acts to mitigatethreats often create the next challenge. “Airport security measures have simply chased out theamateurs and left the clever and the audacious.” – MalcolmGladwell on 9-11.
Criminals and terrorists have become morecreative, more daring and more deadly as newtechnologies and strategies, such as baggagescreening and air marshals are introduced. Reducing the number of criminal or terrorist attacksalso increases the potential severity of future attacks.
4 Eras of Attacks:1. 1930-19792. 1980-19903. 1991-20014. Post 9-11
1930-1979: Hijackings – prior to 1960: *escape persecution or prosecution• Hostage taking to extort money• Cuba or Mexico• Bombings were rare but usually result of insurance fraud
1960s: Hijackings turned deadly and became standardops procedure for Middle Eastern terrorist groups *leverage hostages for release of political prisoners *call attention to their cause *more dangerous to terrorists than hostages 10 hijackings/year – most ended with shootingdeaths of hijackers .
First recorded hijacking: Feb 21, 1031 Arequipa, Peru Armed revolutionaries approached Byron Rickardsand demanded use of his aircraft. Rickards refused for several days. Revolutionaries informed Rickards their uprising hadbeen successful and he was free to go providing heflew one of their members to Lima, Peru.
Fundamental precept in aviation security = criminalsand terrorists will assess new technologies anddtermine if those technologies can improve theirchances for success. Osama bin Laden – use of agricultural aircraft todeliver chemical or biological weaons. Recently terrorist assess use of helicopters tocommit terrorist acts or assist in surveillance, access tolower levels of NAS.
First airline bombing: 1933United Airlines B-247 CLE-ORD Nitroglycerin-based explosive detonated by a timing device – killed all 7 on board.*no one prosecuted for the attack…. Why? No pax or baggage screening reqs. Regs addressing these AVSEC concerns would not begin until 1971 – 40 years later.
1949 – insurance fraud on the rise flight crew worked together with hijackers Kiosks in airports for pax to purchase insurance onthemselves before departure. Kiosks used for insurance fraud…. NTSB not fullyformed and investigations could not determine ifcrash was accident or intentional.
1955 aircraft-related bombings significant United airlines Flight#629: Daisie King – son placed dynamite inside his mother’sluggage in an attempt to claim more than #37,000 inlife insurance money. Julian Frank – blew up his flight carrying dynamite inhis carry-on in an attempt to will money to hisrelatives.
Pax Dupe scenarios Pax unknowningly brings explosives onto anairplane…. Leads to “first level” pax profiling:1. Has anyone unknown to you asked you to carry an item on this flight?2. Have any of the items you are traveling with been out of your immediate control since the time you packed them?
1947-1953: 23 hijackings worldwide *Europeans seeking various forms of political asylum covered most attacks *Pilots provided firearms training…. *Pilots were considered mail carriers (mail carriers were armed back then) as they operated aircraft transporting mail. July 6, 1954 – 15 year old stormed the cockpit of AADC-6. Captain was packin and shot and killed theperpetrator.
1960-1980 Fidel Castro >240 hijackings/attempted hijackings related to Cuba Anti-hijacking Act of 1974 Mandated pax and carry-on baggage screening >60 hijacks/attempted hijacks after Anti-Hijacking Act was implemented
First U.S. Hijacker: Antuilo Ramierez Ortiz Used a gun to force the flight crew of a National Airlines’ jet to divert ot Cuba Pres. JFK implemented the first Air Marshall program Organized originally under the U.S. Marshall Service; reorganized in 1985 under the FAA. Death penalty/ 20 years in prison for hijacking an aircraft. 1971 – FAR Part 107 implemented: airports responsible for protecting airfield
1968-1973 : peak of hijackings and antihijackingmeasures. @364 total hijackings worldwide (U.S. DOT) Three reasons for hijackings: Political asylum Release of prisoners Financial gainMeasures taken to deter future hijackings: FAA created task force to study methods Findings resulted in First Hijacker Profile Metal detectors were implemented First Hijacker Profile: set of behaviors that hijackers would generally folow after hijacking an aircraft, specifically to allow the aircraft to land and let negotiations begin.
What problems did the “jet age” bring to AVSEC? 1970 marked epic proprotion of hijackings, 32 involving Cuba in 1969 alone Faster aircraft More passengers More fuelHijackers could now fly farther and faster and had morehostages on board.
1970: 3 atempted hijackings occurred; similarmotivation and tactics as 9-11 #1 EA Flt. 1320 EWR – BOS Pax John DiVivo entered cockpit with a gun and ordered the crew to crash the plane. Crew fought back – FO Hartley disarmed DiVivo and shot him but was mortally wounded. Capt. Wilbur injured but landed the plane safely.
#2 1972: 3 criminals (one an escaped convict) took over a Southern Airways DC-9 demanding $10 mil. Directed plane back and forth over the country and threatened to crash into a nuclear facility in Tennessee 31 pax held for over 29 hours FO shot and wounded before ordeal ended
#3 1974: attempt to crash a plane into the white house. Samuel Byck – stole a pistol, shot and killed an airport police officer at BWI, boarded a DAL DC-9 and ordered the pilots to take off and fly low towards Washington D.C. Intention was to crash into the white house in attempt to assassinate Pres. Nixon. Pilots refused to take off – Byck shot both pilots, killing the FO and ordered a pax to help the Captain fly te plane. FBI agent fired through a window in the aircraft’s door killing Byck.
Characteristics of hijackings: Only 1 or 2 hijackers who used guns, grenades, bombs, and sometimes only the threat of a bomb in order to take over the flight. Response to hijackings was straightforward – disable the aircraft: shoot out tires Response is to keep the aircraft on the ground Crisis is less ephemeral and risky Hijacked aircraft can land outside a country’s jurisdiction Creates hazards to air navigation Weapon of mass destruction “Airborne hijacked aircraft is essentially a roving crime scene in progress with huge dynamic and random elements at play.”
Middle East and Asia Much fewer bombings in comparison to USA, but resulted in greater loss of life and overall destruction Focus on extorting release of prisoners or political message Ever wonder why Israel is the world’s leader and example in AVSEC? First hijacking in Middle East was on Israeli Airline El Al in 1968
3 gunmen (from Popular Front for Liberation of Palestine, PLFP)hijacked Flt. 426 FCO-TLVForced landing in AlgiersHijackers demanded release of certain Arab prisonersNews crew on hand when plane landed, which demonstratedthe power of hijacking as a tool to attract worldwide attentionNo one killed, no Arab prisioners releasedResult – Israel implemented the strictest security measures onEl Al and adopted a retalitation policy toward those groups whoseek to harm Israeli citizens
6 months after El Al flt 426 hijacking, 2 terrorist withautomatic weapons and hand grenades boarded aflight. Substantial damage to aircraft 1 person killed El Al implemented an police escort on taxi Retalitation policy = Israeli commandoes raided the airport in Beirut, Lebanon and destroyd a dozen Lebanese registered aircraft There has never been another successful hijacking of an El Al airliner
Attacks on Middle East on commercial aviation didn’tnecessarily take place in the Middle East Several attacks in Europe on Mid. East. Airliners Attacks throughout Europe and Asia, majority in Soviet Union. Nowhere near the rate of hijackings during this time period as was taking place in the United States.
PFLP strikes again: 1970: Palestinian hijackers depart from 3 separate airports with intent to hijack 3 aircraft enroute from Europe to United States Intent was to land the aircraft at remote airfield and hold pax hostage in attempt to negotiate release of other PFLP members. El Al #219 AMS-JFK on B707, one of the hijackers, Khaled -a woman, had previous experience hijacking and had plastic surgery to change her appearance 4 suspicious passengers identified by crew//…. Capt. Allowed 2 on board, including Khaled, but denied the other 2 20 min into flight hijacking was initiated using pistols and hand grenades Threats to crew to open the cockpit door Capt. Used “negative G pushover” tactic = in chaos security personnel and pax overwhelmed the hijackers.
Airports: Third major form of attack against global aviation Provide shelter, services, various levels of security to aircraft while on the ground Pax and employees make transition from land transport to flight and hold hundreds and thousands of people at a time Transit point for more than 30,000 flights a day in the U.S. Disruption or shut down of airport can resulte in disruptions throughout NAS Public faciliteis where screening is not required for entry into a u.S. airport – increasing the possibiity for anyone to enter the facility with guns, grenades, or other explosive devices Airports are national assets – essential to AVSEC function
PFLP – Strikes yet again!Lod Int’l airport – TLV: 1972: 3 terrorists of Japanese Red Army (recruited by PFLP) opened fire in baggage claim killing 26 people and injuring dozens more 1973: shot their way through FCO airport destroying an aircraft – 30 people died
Unabomber: Ted Kaczynski – mail parcel containingbomb exploded in the Cargo hold of AA #444 ORD-IAD First time bomb was used as Cargo Air Cargo Security remains the focus of much attention and rule-making…. Though most bombs are put on board as carry-on or checked luggage 1971: Cooper parachuted out of an airplance he hijacked and held for ransom…. 19 more parachute hijackings followed Boeing installed the “Cooper Vane” – which prevents the rear air stairs from lowering in flight This only motivated hijackers to devlop new tactics.
Narco-Terrorism: Narcotics drug cartels targeted aircraft in Columbia Escobar orchestrated bombing campaign to eliminate informats, police and politicians Airline employees – with access to cargo and baggage holds were frequently paid to smuggle drugs on board Ease of drugs smuggled on board alerted the fact that bombs could also be smuggled on board with as much ease.
1980-1990: Aviation Policies Hijackings turned more deadly, and several more attacks on airports Flammable liquids became a popular attack method as terrorists would distribute around the plane and threaten to light it Air Marshal program reorganized under the FAA in 1985….. About the same time hijackings ended in the United States. Terrorists dressed up as security guards Bombs were left in public restrooms to kill random people Anne Marie Murphy: TLV on El Al – fiance was a Syrian Intel agent who lined her suitcase with explosives
Flt. 847: TWA attack by Shiite Muslim terrorists ATH-FCO Significant for lessons provided for years to come Mass media brought real-time to event Thousands of miles of airspace, several governments, operations at 3 major airports affected, death of U.S. serviceman, rise to Hezbollah, and a flight attendant saved the day! Lessons learned: Keep aircraft on the ground Crew training in emergency safety and security ops Crew training in crisis management/security incident Crews are effectively hostages – cannot be counted on to make decisions Crew decides whether SOP are followed or safer to deviate